The Errors Of Unity And Coherence In Writing English Paragraph Made By The Sixth Semester Students Of D-3 English Study Program Of Usu : A Case Study
Background of the Analysis
Communication is a process of sending and receiving of messages that happens at any time when creatures (humans, animals, and plants) want to be acquainted and in contact with each other. As the most intellectual creature, human is the only one that can develop language as a tool of communication. By using language, the process of communication happens through three forms, they are, visual, oral and writing. This process can persist very well if each of humans wants to learn and to master four language skills, i.e. listening skill, speaking skill, reading skill, and writing skill as Nida and Harris’s statement in Tarigan’s book (1994 : 1).
Writing skill is one of language skills that plays a vital role in making a process of communication. For example, written communication in a nation or a country can determine whether that nation or country has progressed or not in communication aspect. This progress can be valued and accounted of the quality and the quantity of printing and publishing products done by that nation or country, such as, newspapers, magazines, books, etc that carry all regional, national, and international aspects.
In this modern life, each people needs to have writing skill. It is no exaggeration to say that writing skill is a characteristic of an educated people or an educated nation, in accordance with Morsey in Tarigan’s (1994 : 4) remarks below :
“Writing is used by educated people(s) to record, to convince, to report, or to inform, and to influence in which these aims and purposes can be reached well by peoples who are able to arrange their thoughts and explain it clearly. This clearness depends on their way for thinking, organizing, using words, and structuring sentences.”
It is often found that in learning and language acquisition process, error is often made by the learners. There is a realization that doing errors is a part of learning that can not be avoided.Error is disabled side of utterance or writing of the learner that based on Tarigan and Tarigan’s remark (1995:141). Such errors can be classified as transpositions or substitutions, or additions of a speech sound or morpheme, word, or complete phrase, or some sort of blend of these (based on Corder’s idea in Sembiring and Harefa’s book (2006:122) ).
According to Richards et.al.(1985 : 95) in Longman Dictionary of Applied Linguistics errors are classified tend to vocabulary (lexical error), pronunciation (phonological error), grammar and sentence (syntactical error), misunderstanding of a speaker’s intention or meaning (interpretive error), and production of the wrong communicative effect through the faulty use of a speech act or one of the rules of speaking (pragmatic error) that make the term ’error analysis’ exist in language learning process so that we can find out how well people(s) knows a language. A difference between an error and mistake is error results from incomplete knowledge, whereas a mistake made by a learner when writing or speaking and which is caused by lack of attention, fatigue, carelessness, or some other aspect of performance.
A learner’s sentences may be deviant, ill-formed, incorrect or erroneous only in the sense that they are not fully describable in the terms of the grammar of his mother tongue or the target language. These can exist in writing study.
Academic writing as the kind of writing in university, it differs from other kinds of writing such as personal, literary, journalistic, or business writing. Its differences can be explained in part by its special audience, tone, and purpose. As Corder also remarks (in Sembiring and Harefa, 2006:122) :
“We should be aware that different types of writen material may produce a different distribution of error or a different set of error types. The distinction here is between the learner selecting his own messages and processing already given mesages. In the latter case there is also the problem of comprehension of the messages of the original texts.”
Errors that appear in form of writing are dominantly categorizedas syntactical errors. Syntactical error is the error in the use of a major element of sentence structure which makes a sentence or utterance difficult or impossible to understand. For example :
the error of verb phrase
the omission of main verb He [ fell ?] in the water.
the omission of to be He in the water
b. the omission of there Is one bird
Based on the definiton of syntax as Richards and his friends say in Longman Dictionary of Applied Linguistic (1985 : 284 & 285) : “ it is the study of how words combine to form sentences and the rules which govern the formation of sentences”, I can assume that writing which has the syntatic activity for moving our thoughts or our assumptions in mind to written form in a paper such as in a sentence or some sentences is not easy, particularly until making a correct paragraph which has unity and coherence.
Accoding to Oshima’s and Hague’s (1999 : 17), a paragraph is a basic unit of organization in writing in which a group of related sentences develops one main idea. The paragraph should be long enough to develop the main idea clearly.
It is supported by Bram’s theory (1995). He said the word ‘unity’ is synonymous with ‘oneness’. All sentences in a paragraph should focus on the one thung expressed in the topic sentecne. The problem stated in the sentences has to be settled. Unity can be achieved as long as the paragraph has good and clear topic sentence.
In addition to make a paragraph well, coherence plays a crucial role. Every coherent paragraph contains smoothly connected ideas or consists of interrelated sentences which move in such a way that they smooth the way. Each sentence moves on naturally. To achieve coherence, we needs to use the transition signal, such as, however, although, finally, nevertheless, and so on.
It is an example of paragraph contains the elements of good unity and coherent :
Gold, a precious metal, is prized for two important characteristics. First of all, gold has a lustrous beauty that is resistant to corrosion. Therefore, it is suitable for jewelry, coins, and ornamental purposes. Gold never needs to be be polished and will remain beautiful forever. For example, a Macedonian coin remains as untarnished today as the day it was minted twenty – three centuries ago. Another important characteristics of gold is its usefulness to industry and science. For many years, it has been used in hundreds of industrial applications. The most recent use of gold is in astronauts’ suits. Astronauts wear gold – plated heat shields for protection outside spaceships. In conclusion, gold is treasured not only for its beauty but also for its utility.
From this paragraph, its topic sentence discuss only two important characteristics of gold. Its topic sentence does not discuss any other ideas, such as the price of gold or gold mining. For its coherence, its supporting sentences are in some kind of logical order and its idea are connected by the use of appropriate transition signals. So, this paragraph is easy to read and understand. In the paragraph about gold, there are supporting ideas : Gold is beautiful, and gold is useful. Each of these supporting ideas is discussed, one afther the other, and an
example is given for each one. This is kind of logical order. Furthermore, the relationship between the ideas is clearly shown by using appropriate transition words and phrases such as first of all, for example, another important characteristics, and in conclusion.
As the comparison, it is an example of paragraph without contains the elements of unity and coherene :
Gold, a precious metal, is prized for two important characteristics. It has a lustrous beauty that is resistant to corrosion. It is suitable for jewelry, coins, and ornamental purposes. It never needs to be be polished and will remain beautiful forever. A Macedonian coin remains as untarnished today as the day it was minted twenty – three centuries ago. Another of its important characteristics is its usefulness to industry and science. It has been used in hundreds of industrial applications. Its most recent use is in astronauts’ suits. Astronauts wear heat shields made from it for protection outside spaceships. In conclusion, it is treasured not only for its beauty but also for its utility.
The model paragraph about gold above is a paragraph without coherence because throuhout the the whole of the paragraph, the word gold has been replaced by pronouns, making the paragraph much less coherent. Besides that, there are no use of transition signal such as first of all, therefore, for example,for many years, and in conclusion, that have significance to make this paragraph more chronological.
Writing and learning for our studies are so integrally related that they cannot be separated from each other. When we learn to write in a particular way for a particular subject we are learning how to make sense of that subject. Some difficulties will be faced at the early stage. We may be asking how we can bridge the gap between what is in our head and a complete piece of writing. Most of us, find getting started on an assignment difficult at some points. We may have spent a long time reading and thinking and felt that we cannot transform this into a manageable form for an assignment.
I choose the title that related to the writing because I found that there is reality that the errors still appear in students’s writing, including the students that study at English course. I choose the sixth semester students of D-3 English Department of Faculty of Letters of USU because they are students who has a lecture about how write a good paragraph and an essay at their curriculum that given by their faculty. They also have learnt the writing subject for five semester and the way of writing a paragraph they have got at the fifthe semester. So, with English grammar and many aspects of English have been their strong basic to develop their knowledge and skill in writing English paragraph. Based on their wiriting, I can conclude whether they minimalize such kinds of errors in writing a good and correct paragraph which should consists of unity, coherence, and logical orders.
1.2 Scope of the Analysis
The analysis is limited on the use of unity and coherence that can be categorized as the syntactical erros in writing English paragraph made by D-3 English students who have been given the strong basic of English grammar at the university in order to be able to use English well. The analysis is on students’ data in combining and constructing words and sentences to arrange a paragraph based on Oshima’s and Hague’s (1999) theory of writing good paragraph and essay.
1.3 Problems of the Analysis
The problems of this thesis that I research are :
What type of errors of unity and coherence made by the D-3 students in writing a paragraph ?
What are big type of uniy and coherence that found in the D-3 students writing ?
c. What are difficulties the students face in writing a good paragraph ?
d. How well the students apply Oshima’s and Hague’s theory of writing English paragraph ?
1.4 Objectives of the Analysis
The objectives of the analysis that includes some found results after doing this researh and some answers linked with poblems of the analyis are :
to find out the type of errors of unity and coherence made by the D-3 students in writing a paragraph
to find out the what the big type of uniy and coherence that found in the D3 students writing is
3. to describe difficulties the students face in writing a good paragraph
4. to figure out how well the students apply Oshima’s and Hague’s theory of writing English paragraph
Significances of the Analysis
Through doing the analysis, I wish this thesis can be an useful information theoretically and practically. Therefore, the significances of my thesis are stated as follow :
Theoretically, the significances of my thesis are :
to eliminate the students’ errors in using English especially in the study of writing so that they know how to use the right one
to know some information about writing aspect or important writing things for the students especially the English students
Practically, th e significance of my thesis is :
This thesis is expected to be an useful input for the students, the researchers, and the lecturers in learning English written and error analysis of second / foreign language
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