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KUMPULAN ARTIKEL BAHASA INGGRIS PENDIDIKAN The potential of Information and Communication Technology

The potential of Information and Communication Technology
Supporting Implementation of the Distance Education in Indonesia



In this article the author will conduct an inventory of communication and information technologies that can be used to support distance education in Indonesia as well as outlining the form of utilization. This article will begin with a look back at the sense of distance education so that utilization review communications and information technology infrastructure can be more clearly followed.

Definition of Distance Education
Has many experts who discussed the definition and characteristics of distance education including Keegan (1984), Holmberg (1977), and Moore (1973). Although somewhat difficult to get a definition accepted by all experts of distance education, but the characteristics of distance education proposed by Keegan (1984) can be used as a basic reference for the discussion in this article. The following are characteristics of distance education proposed by Keegan.

No separation between the near-permanent teaching staff (teachers or lecturers) of the participants teaching (students or students) for educational programs
No separation between a near-permanent teaching participants (students or students) from other participants during the teaching education program
there is an institution that manages the education programs
utilization of both mechanical and electronic communications to deliver teaching materials
the provision of two-way communication so that the participants can take the initiative instructional dialogue and take the benefits.

So from the description of the characteristics of distance education can be concluded that the separation of teaching activities and learning activities is a typical characteristic of distance education. Identification hallmark far as education is in line with what is stated Moore (1973) that distance education is a set of methods of teaching where teaching activities carried out separately from the learning activities. Separator both of these activities can be a physical distance, such as teaching participants residing far from the location of educational institutions. Separator can also be non-physical distance in the form of emergency situation where someone who lived near the location of educational institutions but can not be participating in learning activities at the institution. Such a situation occurs, for example because the work can not be left out.

Distance as a separator like the above to be addressed through the utilization of distance education instructional design and interaction design of learning activities that are designed to sugguh really can be achieved. The theory developed as a result of an effort to overcome the distance in this activity is known as the theory of transactional distance (Moore, MG & Kearsley, G, 1996)

Since the separation distance is a trademark both in the physical sense and non-physical as proposed in front of the face-to-face learning activities can be said to occur in a low frequency. Learning content is delivered through various types of media in a while of communication / interaction between student and instructor personnel or performed by using a means of communication. Thus the educational program can be followed on from anywhere and at any time during the study of media and two-way communication means available in order to teach participants and teaching staff can interact to discuss the content of learning.

Education held by the system as broadly described above will certainly open up learning opportunities for those who can not follow the conventional education programs. Those who are married, work usually does not have enough time to attend a course organized by the schedule and can only follow from a particular place.

From the above description can be identified roles that can be played by information and communications technology and infrastructure in distance education. The role includes the presentation of the material or the content of learning and the provision of means of communication or interaction between distance education institution with the education program participants.

Three of the five media / technology that can be used in the implementation of distance education has been identified Moore and Kearsley (1996) with regard to information and communication technology. All three media / technology is a radio and television, teleconferencing, and computer-assisted learning. Two media were not terkaitan with communication and information technology is a print and audio / video tapes.

Prior to the discussion of how each media / technology can be used to support the implementation of distance education in Indonesia, there are some aspects of the media to consider in looking at media / technology. Framework that will be used in scrutinizing the media refers to media and technology selection criteria proposed by Bates (1995). These criteria were introduced in an acronym ACTIONS which helps to remember that aspect of accessibility, Cost (expense), Teaching-Learning Functions (effectiveness of the learning function), Interactivity (interactivity), Organization, Novelty, and Speed​​. Here is the meaning of the first four aspects (which the authors consider very important) of these aspects.

Accessibility refers to the proportion of target programs that have access to the media / technology to be used in a learning activity. Aspects of this access is not limited to physical access but merely afford aspect or even comfort in using the media. The greater proportion of targets that have access to the media, the greater the chances of success of the media that will be used.

Costs include the costs to be incurred by the institution and by teaching participants. The cost of the institutions include fixed costs (initial investment) which costs to be incurred at the time of developing the media and the additional cost for each additional number of participants (operational).

The effectiveness of the learning function refers to the appropriateness of media for delivering learning content. When learning content requires the presentation of material in various formats, such as text, sound, images, animation, movies live, the valid question is whether the media support for this.

Interactivity refers to two things: the first is to be selected media capable of engaging students in learning, namely individual interaction between student with the material he taught. The second concerns whether the interactivity of media that will be used is capable of supporting the interaction between student and resource persons who will assist participants in understanding instructional teaching materials and instructional interaction among participants.

Up to this point has been reviewed regarding the definition and characteristics of distance education, where the side information and communication technology can play a role, as well as aspects that need diiperhatikan in applying media / technology. Thus it is sufficient framework necessary to review the role of information and communication technologies in the implementation of distance education in Indonesia in an attempt to overcome the constraints of space and time in delivering educational programs / learning.


Communication and Information Technologies: Infrastructure and service access point

Communications and information technology infrastructure and services has been greatly developed point quite well in Indonesia. Starting from a simple and inexpensive technology, for example by utilizing audio teleconferencing telephone service through GEM or meeting via your phone (Telkom), correspondence by fax, radio and television, the internet and to sophisticated video teleconferencing services, for example by utilizing satellite Vidoe Link PT Indosat.

Radio and Television
In Indonesia there are many television and radio stations are either owned by the government and private sector can be used to support the implementation of distance education to broadcast educational programs. In the case of radio there is only one institution that has a range of national, Radio Republik Indonesia. A range of private radio stations in general use on the FM wave frequencies 88-108 MHz over a radius of 100 km (Radio Netherlands, 2001). Also from the rules, there are restrictions on a range of radio stations are realized in categories ranging from broadcast stations transmitting international, national to the local broadcast. (Law No. 4, 1997)

To overcome the limitations of the range, there are several private radio network with members in different cities, for example Trijaya Network consists of a radio station Trijaya Jakarta, SCFM Surabaya, Medan and prapanca, Mercurius FM Top Makassar and Jayapura FM Voice of Papua (Trijaya, 2002 ). In a radio network is also underway remotely informal education by raising topics of concern to the general public from health problems, social and political. Information on the programs of the radio network can be obtained through the website www.trijaya-fm.com.

In terms of television, in Indonesia there is a state-owned broadcasting station (TVRI) and eight private television stations. TVRI is a national program that broadcasts can be received in almost every corners of the country, although there are still areas that can not receive the broadcast. Judging from the proportion of the area, TVRI broadcasts reach only 37% of the territory of Indonesia, however, has reached 68% of the Indonesian population (Padmo, 2000). Private television stations vary in a range of broadcast, but almost every major city in Indonesia can receive broadcasts of private television.

From the aspect of accessibility, radio has a high level of accessibility. The level of radio ownership in nine urban areas with penetration rate of 40% (Katili-Niode, 2002). Obtained from the same source that had a television accessibility is slightly lower with 31% penetration. In terms of target participants clear that the accessibility of radio and television is not low. But in reality television and the radio is not a big role in distance education in Indonesia. Some studies can be used as a reference to the explanation above.

Studies conducted Nurul Huda et al (2000) showed that the radio has limited power to extend the reach and power required term cooperation with relay stations or local radio. The study further states that the willingness of local radio broadcasts to allocate time for education in general (53% of respondents) a maximum of 60 minutes per week. While that is willing to allocate time between 20-60 minutes per day only 20% of the total radio stations sampled. Constraints allocating more time to broadcast educational programs are broadcast in which the unit cost cost per hour radio broadcasts per participant for a number of 500 participants was approximately 6 USD or 1.5 EUR for 1250 participants (Bates, 1995). This has become an obstacle for broadcasting educational broadcasts, which specifically refers to certain subjects.

In the Indonesian context is rather difficult for a local private radio stations to get 1250 listeners for each broadcast education. This issue may not be relevant to learning in schools where students are at the same rate and level of learning the same program. Unlike the case with higher education which applies semester credit system. In this system decision-course variations can be very diverse, especially for open and distance education that has the characteristics of flexibility in the learning process.

Education through television broadcasts have consequences greater financing. Based on the results of research for more than eight years, the unit cost for broadcasting educational programs per participant per hour broadcast to 500 participants still larger than 25 USD. In fact for the number in 1250 mahasiswapun unit cost is still greater than 10 USD (Bates, 1995).

Another obstacle for the use of radio and television is the medium was once aired at a time when the views of the participants did not witness then they lose (Huda et al, 2000). To replace a lost, then there must be a re-broadcast the same broadcasting costs. In addition, the broadcast media is basically a one-way medium. The material has been recorded broadcast most of the interaction in the media generally does not exist. So the media is able to overcome the space constraints in the delivery of education programs remotely with relatively high cost but still bound by time constraints.

teleconferencing,

Teleconferencing is a direct exchange of information between two or more people who are on two or more different locations by using a telecommunications system. Teleconferencing is basically a two-way means of communication in distance education that serves to facilitate communication between student resource, especially in the provision of learning support services.

There are two types of teleconferencing, namely audio teleconferencing and video teleconferencing. In audio teleconferencing, information that is exchanged in the form of sound while in video teleconferencing information exchanged in the form of sound and picture in sync with the sound of life. It is therefore necessary in video teleconferencing communications bands (bandwidth) is larger than audio teleconferencing.

There are several means of telecommunication that can be used to support audio teleconferencing, namely: telephone, satellite, and the Internet. Operation of audio teleconferencing to utilize the phone can be done by utilizing the services GEMS (Meeting Through Your Phone) from PT Telkom. The service has been available in many gem big cities like Jakarta, Bandung, Surabaya, Makassar, Manado and Medan (Telkom, 2002). With GEM services, as many as 30 numbers can be connected so that the connection occurs conference. Participation in the GEM can be done from the phone in the home, office, school, or even from a pay phone. Although only able to link 30 simultaneous telephone connection does not mean that the conference can only be attended by 30 participants. Participants who lived adjacent to jointly use the speaker phone is equipped with a microphone so everyone can hear the conversation and be able to participate in teleconferences.

The cost structure is only one component of your telephone during the teleconference. Utilization of GEM for organizing teleconferences in order of distance learning is in terms of the cost is not too burdensome for participants who live in the city where the organizing teleconferences because they do not have to pay long-distance rates. For participants who have to pay long distance toll costs of course this is burdensome for most participants because of the expensive long distance rates in Indonesia.

Although residential telephone penetration is only 2.5% (Titan, 1997), but in the upper middle-income telephone penetration by 70% (Marketing Intelligence Corporation, 2000). Yet access to the phone for the very weak economy lifted by the presence of the kiosk which amounts to no less than 180,000 pieces (Tjokrosudarmo, 2001) that are scattered throughout the country. Wartel provides telephone service to the general public. Means this phone has a high accessibility because in addition to the number of kiosks that very much, tarifnyapun cheaper than phone rates for housing. Unfortunately the GEM service is still limited to six cities on a large scale so that utilization will be difficult because there will be those who have to bear the cost of long distance.

Video teleconferencing allows the implementation of the course in distance mode where the teacher can see the activities of the participants taught elsewhere and otherwise participants can see the activity of teaching faculty and teaching participants elsewhere. In each room there is a video teleconferencing implementation of at least one television set to show activity in other locations, and a video camera function to take a picture of the life of the activity space and transmit to another room and the equipment that is used to send the image to another activity activities and receive images from other locations. Video teleconferencing equipment investment to approximately $ 20,000 or approximately USD 200 million more per location (Moore & Kearsley, 1996)

In addition to expensive equipment investment costs, operating costs of video teleconferencing is also expensive because it requires more communication tape width. This is because in addition to transmit information in the form of sound also transmit information in the form of moving images. Usually required communication channels via satellite noncommercial rates reached 100 USD / hour to 112 Kbps speed and 150 USD to 336 Kbps (LVC, 2002). In Indonesia, the implementation rate of video conferencing through Indosat Video Link governed by distances that are classified into seven zones. Rates zone I (the cheapest) is USD 705 600 to 128 Kbps speed and Rp 2.1168 million for a speed of 384 Kbps. These costs include the cost of new telecommunication and do not include the cost of renting space in a building owned by Indosat which at least 80 USD per hour for room berkapasistas 12 people. (Indosat 2002).

One-way delivery of video data that is good for the size of 15 frames per second 248 x 200 pixels requires requires a bandwidth of 167 kbps (Sorenson, 2002). Because video teleconferencing is a two-way communication, it would require a bandwidth of 167 kbps twice or 334 kbps. Bandwidth of less than 300 kbps will cause motion video image does not look smooth but disjointed and not pleasing to the eye.

Moreover, because of high investment and operating costs, video teleconferencing facility is not a lot that have. As a result, video teleconferencing participants should arrive at a certain place at a certain hour to attend classes remotely. This will obviously decrease the level of flexibility of the implementation of distance education programs.

Computer Assisted Learning

In general, computer-based learning can be put into two categories: standalone computer (standalone) and computers in the network. The main difference between them lies in the aspect of interactivity. In a self-learning through the computer, teaching participants interactivity is limited to interaction with teaching materials are in the learning program.

On learning with computers in the network, interactivity teach participants become more alternatives. On learning with computers in a network are two types of computer functions, namely computer servers and client computers. The interaction between student and faculty carried through to the two types of computers.
Institutions providing distance education providers to serve the interaction of computer servers via a website server, the e-mail server, mailing list server, chat server, while teaching participants and faculty wearing a client computer that has a browser (eg, Netscape or Internet Explorer), e-mail client (eg Eudora), and a chat client. The browser is a computer program that is used to read the contents of the website. Today, many browsers are equipped with e-mail client

In addition to interacting with learning programs, teaching participants can also interact with resource persons and participants teach others who can be contacted through the network by using e-mail or mailinglis, and they can access relevant learning programs from other sources by accessing websites that offer learning programs free.

The aspect that makes a problem for the application of computer-aided learning in Indonesia is the problem of accessibility, both in terms of physical access, and the ability to use computers for learning activities by teachers and teaching participants. In terms of physical access, computer penetration in Indonesia in 2001 of 0.56% or one computer for 176 users. (Santiago, 2001). Obtained from other sources while Internet penetration in Indonesia is only about 1% (Arbi, 2001)

Although the penetration figures mentioned above will lead to pessimism utilizing the computer as a medium of learning, but the presence of warposnet, cafe, and WARINTEK 9000, raises may reduce pessimism or even give rise to a new optimism.

Warposnet and cafe
Warposnet is access to the Internet services provided by PT Pos Indonesia for the general public who do not have a connection to the Internet, either at home or in the office. Now this warposnet present in 116 cities across Indonesia. Figuring service is also access to the Internet but organized by a private company. Now the number of Internet cafes in Indonesia no less than 2500 pieces (Widodo, 2002). From the same source, in this cafe in 2500 there were approximately 250,000 internet users. Rates cafe and internet access through this highly competitive warposnet ranging between Rp 5,000 to Rp 6,000 per hour (Reuters, 2001). However the many kiosks that calculates the cost of usage per minute or per fifteen minutes, making it much less expensive to make use of the cost.

Through warposnet and the cafe, people can find information on the Internet, including the learning programs provided by institutions of distance education. Besides, they also can create a free email address that is available in a variety of servers, for example boleh.mail.com yahoo.com or hotmail.com. With the electronic mail they can do correspondence with the delivery of distance education institutions either for general information on educational programs, administrative or academic services for assistance.

WARINTEK 9000
Warintek is information technology shop has been operating since 1998 is a program office of the State Minister for Research and Technology, Republic of Indonesia, in cooperation with Myoh.com. The figure above shows the 9000 target number of Warintek in 2004 where there was a chill warintek in every district in Indonesia, which amounts to approximately 8000 and 1000 the rest is planned to be opened in densely populated areas (Warintek, 2002). In September 2001, the number had reached 100 pieces Warintek (Natnit, 2001). One of the services of Warintek 9000 is access to the Internet. Thus, what can be done by the customer in the cafe and warposnet can be done also in Warintek.

Other services of Warintek access local information or database off-line both bibliographic and full text of which is packaged in a CD-ROM. At this point in the data base already available in the field of environment, appropriate technology in aquaculture farms, food processing, processing equipment, water and sanitation management, research and development institutions in Indonesia, the parent catalog cooperation networks eleven library, a library of training materials for digitization, even available collection of Indonesian recipes. The general public can come to Warintek to access all the databases mentioned above, print it and bring it home to be studied further. From this it can be interpreted that Warintek in this regard has implemented a computer-aided learning independently. Given Warintek also cooperates with various institutions, one of which is the Open University (UT), then there is a possibility someday UT teaching materials can be accessed off-line community through Warintek spread across the districts in Indonesia. Thus the accessibility of learning through computers either independently or in the network will increase. Although distance education participants should go to the cafe, warposnet, or Warintek, as available to the district level then the reduction in the flexibility of the access point is not too significant in general. However, because of the information and learning program is always available, unless there is damage to the network or server computer learning program providers and the information, it did not decrease the level of flexibility of time. This is very different from the case of both audio and video teleconferencing, radio broadcasts and television.

Seeing the development of the accessibility of computers and computer networks above, then one conclusion ITU case studies conducted about the prospects of e-ASEAN, namely "digital divide is not an infrastructure problem but an affordability and awareness of the problem" (ITU, 2001). Digital divide is the disparity of access to digital information which is caused by the presence of two groups in which members of the public who have access to a network of digital information being the other group did not. This gap has a serious impact because people who do not have access to the information network will be missed.

conclusion

From the above review it can be concluded that each technology has its utilization constraints in order to support distance learning. Constraints arising from the cost aspect of accessibility and flexibility thereby reducing space and time are "selling points" for the implementation of distance education. There is the ability to overcome technological depth of space in the administration of distance education can not function optimally, because one reason is due to the limitations of the coverage must comply with the legislation in force, such as radio broadcasts. There are technologies that have constraints that are difficult to address costs, such as video teleconferencing and broadcast television. From the side of the receiver, broadcast television is not problematic, but the broadcast program providers face obstacles broadcast program production costs and the cost of broadcasting. There are also technologies that have accessibility and cost constraints can be overcome (eg learning with computers) because of the proliferation of Internet cafes, warposnet, and Warintek and competitive "read low" rates for their services.

Perhaps it was fitting what was said by Sir John Daniel, namely 'distance education has evolved as a function of time, place and technology' (Daniel, 1996, p.47) or the means of distance education has evolved as a function of time, place and technology . A form of distance education is different from one place to another, from the first time to the current time, and differ because of alternative technologies available more diverse. Thus distance education in Indonesia is not necessarily equal to the distance education in the United States, or distance education in Indonesia is now not necessarily the same as the face of distance education Indonesia 30 years ago that a very limited alternative technology. Indonesian distance education should now be able to utilize alternative technologies available without leaving the attention to four important aspects of the technology which has been identified above, namely accessibility, cost, effectiveness of the learning function, as well as the ability of technology to support interactivity between student and faculty considered very important in education.




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