KUMPULAN ARTIKEL BAHASA INGGRIS LENGKAP DAN TERBARU



LISTENING

Dalam menyelesaikan soal listening ada beberapa hal yang harus diperhatikan, salah satunya memahami petunjuk pengerjaan soal yang biasanya selain diperdengarkan petunjuk tersebut tercetak di lembar soal. Macam-macam contoh petunjuk pengerjaan yang biasanya ada adalah sebagai berikut:

PART I  (Question – Response)
Question 1- 5
Directions :
In this part of the test, you will hear a dialogue or a question spoken in English,                   followed by five responses, also spoken in English. The dialogue or questions and the responses will be spoken just one time. They will not be printed in your test book, so you must listen carefully to understand what the speakers say. You have to choose the best response to each dialogue or question.

Pada bagian ini, kamu akan mendengar sebuah dialog atau pertanyaan dalam Bahasa Inggris yang diikuti 5 respon yang juga dalam Bahasa Inggris. Dialog/pertanyaan dan respon tersebut hanya akan diperdengarkan satu kali dan semua itu tidak tercetak dilembar soal jadi kamu harus mendengarkan baik-baik untuk memahaminya. Kamu harus memilih respon terbaik untuk setiap dialog/pertanyaan. Pilihan tersebut tercetak di lembar soal.
Contoh
1.      Menentukan respon yang tepat atas satu pernyataan lisan
Voice               : I’m very tired
Lembar soal     : a. You like your job
                          b. You’ll be promoted
                          c. You must work hard
                          d. You have a lot to do
                          e. You should take a rest
2.   Memilih jawaban yang tepat atas satu pertanyaan lisan
Voice               : Can you come to see me tomorrow?
Lembar soal     : a. Can
                          b. It is
                          c. I can
                          d. Yes, I can
                          e. I can come

PART II  (Short Conversation)
Question 6 - 10
Directions :
In this part of the test you will hear three conversations. After you hear a conversation and the question about it, read the five possible answers and decide which one would be the best answer to the question you have heard.

Pada bagian test ini kamu akan mendengar 3 (bisa lebih/kurang) percakapan. Setelah mendengar sebuah percakapan dan pertanyaan tentang percakapan tersebut, baca 5 kemungkinan jawaban (tercetak di lembar soal) dan tentukan yang mana yang merupakan jawaban yang paling tepat atas pertanyaan yang kamu dengar.
Contoh  :
(Voice)      Woman           : May I have this prescription filled here?
                                            I have a terrible headache.
                   Man                : Yes, but you’ll have a 15-minute wait.
(Narrator)  Where did this conversation most probably take place?
Lembar soal     : in a…
a.       mall
b.      shop
c.       hospital
d.      pharmacy
e.       supermarket

PART III  (Short Talk)
Question 11 - 15
Directions :
In this part of the test, you will hear three short texts. After you hear a text and the question about it, read the five possible answers and decide which one would be the best answer to the question you have heard.

Pada bagian tes ini, kamu akan mendengar 3 teks pendek (bisa kurang/lebih). Setelah mendengar satu teks dan pertanyaan tentang teks tersebut, baca 5 kemungkinan jawaban (tersetak) dan putuskan mana yang merupakan jawaban yang paling tepat atas pertanyaan yang kamu dengar.
Contoh  :
      Voice               : diperdengarkan sebuah teks berjudul “EGYPT”
      Narrator           : What is the text about?
      Lembar soal     :
a.       Egypt
b.      The river Nil
c.       The seasons in Egypt
d.      The climate in Egypt
e.       Cairo, the capital of Egypt


PART IV  (Picture)
Question 16 - 20
Directions :
For each question, you will see a picture in  your test book and you will hear a question followed by five statemnents. The questions and the statements will be spoken just one time. They will not be printed in your test book, so you must listen carefully to understand what the speaker says. When you hear the questions and five statements, look at the picture in your test book and choose the statement that best describes what you see in the picture. Then, on your answer sheet, find the number of the question and mark your answer.

Untuk setiap pertanyaan, kamu akan melihat sebuah gambar di lembar soal dan kamu akan mendengar pertanyaan diikuti dengan 5 pernyataan. Pertanyaan dan pernyataan tersebut akan diucapkan satu kali dan semua itu tidak tercetak di lembar soal jadi kamu harus mendengarkan baik-baik untuk memahaminya. Ketika kamu mendengarkan 5 pernyataan, lihat ke gambar di lembar soal kamu dan pilih pernyataan terbaik yang menggambarkan apa yang kamu lihat di gambar.
Contoh
Voice               : a. The window is open
                          b. There is a book near the vase
                          c. The vase is on the chest drawer
                          d. The cat is sleeping on the armchair
                          e. There is a picture on the wall near the
                               window
Lembar soal     :  sebuah gambar






READING

A.    Dibawah ini adalah macam-macam bentuk pertanyaan yang biasa ada dalam soal Reading:
1.      Menemukan gambaran umum/topic isi bacaan/teks.
Contoh pertanyaan : Which of the following is the most suitable title…?
                                 What is the suitable topic of the passage?
                                  The text mainly tells us about____.
2.      Menemukan informasi tertentu/khusus dari bacaan.
Contoh pertanyaan : When did she make her first solo flight? In…
3.      Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersurat dari bacaan teks/dialog.
Contoh : Which of the following requirements is not mentioned in the passage.
                They may be classefied in several different ways…” 
     The underlined
                  Word refers to ….
4.      Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersirat dari bacaan teks/dialog.
Contoh : Which statement is NOT TRUE according to the text
                The following are TRUE about Maria EXCEPT…
5.      Menentukan main idea yang tersurat/tersirat dari suatu paragrap.
Contoh :  What is the main idea of the passage?
                 The fourth paragraph tells us ____.                                                             
6.      Menentukan makna kata, frasa dan kalimat berdasarkan konteks.
Contoh : “Brownie is Chinese breed, it is small, fluffy. And cute.”
                The underlined word mean ____
7.      Menentukan type text yang digunakan penulis.
Contoh : What type text is used by the writer?
                The text above is in the form of _____.
8.      Menentukan communicative purpose/tujuan kominikativ sebuah teks
Contoh : The communicative putpose of the text above is ___.
               The purpose of the text is _____.
9.      Menyusun kalimat dengan baik.
Contoh : The best order of the sentences above is …
               The best arrangement of the sentences to make a good paragraph is …

B.  Apa yang dimaksud dengan:
1.      TEXT adalah segala bentuk tulisan yang ada pada sebuah buku, artikel dll yang mempunyai makna. Non-continuous text misalnya brosur, label, grafik, tabel, map, diagram dsb. Continuous text misalnya narrative, descriptive,exposition, spoof dsb.
2.      PARAGRAPH adalah bagian dari sebuah tulisan/teks dan mungkin saja terdiri dari sebuah kalimat atau sekumpulan kalimat yang merupakan pengembangan dari pokok pikiran/main topic/main idea.
3.      Kalimat yang menggambarkan main idea/pokok pikiran dari sebuah paragraph disebit TOPIC SENTENCE.
4.      Topic sentence biasanya ada pada awal/akhir/kadang di tengah sebuah paragrap.
5.      Gambaran umum tentang isi bacaan bisa merupakan MAIN TOPIC atau MAIN IDEA.
6.      TOPIC dari sebuah paragrap/teks adalah subjek dari tulisan, sedangkan MAIN IDEA adalah keterangan, penjelasan, uraian topic atau merupakan pendapat penulis tentang topic tulisannya.
7.      Oleh karena itu pertanyaan tentang topic dari sebuah paragraph/text bisa tentang inti isi tulisan yang juga bisa merupakan judul.
8.      Jika pertanyaan menanyakan ‘TOPIC’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam satu kata atau bentuk frasa, tetapi jika pertanyaan menanyakan tentang ‘MAIN IDEA’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam kalimat lengkap.
9.      Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tertentu/specific information’ adalah informasi yang tertera jelas dalam text, biasanya tentang nama, tempat, tanggal, tahun, dsb.
10.  Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tersirat’ adalah informasi yang tidak tertera jelas dalam text. Untuk dapat menjawab pertanyaan spt ini dibutuhkan keterampilan ‘reading between the lines’.
11.  Frasa adalah rangkaian kata yang mempunyai makna.

B.     JENIS-JENIS TEXT: CIRI & CONTOH
1.      Narrative (naratif, dongeng)
a.       Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose)
Menghibur pendengar/pembaca (To entertain reader/listener). Teks bertalian dengan pengalaman nyata, khayal/ peristiwa pelik yang mengarah ke suatu krisis, yang pada akhirnya menemukan penyelesaian.
b.      Struktur Teks (Text Structure)
§  Orientation (pengenalan tokoh, waktu, dan tempat)
§  Complication (pengembangan konflok)
§  Resolution (penyelesaian konflik)
c.       Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan:
    • Nouns (kata benda) tertentu sebagai kata ganti orang, hewan dan benda tertentu dalam cerita misalnya stepsister (saudara tiri), housework (pekerjaan rumah tangga), dsb.
    • Adjectives (kata sifat) yang membentuk noun phrase, misalnya long white hair, two red apple, dsb.
    • Time connectives dan conjunction untuk mengurutkan kejadian-kejadian, misalnya the next morning, then, before, that, soon, dsb.
    • Adverbs untuk menunjukan lokasi kejadian/peristiwa, misalnya here, happily ever after, dsb.
    • Action verbs dalam past tense seperti stayed, climed, saw dsb.
    • Saying verbs yang menandai ucapan seperti said, told, promised, dan thinking verbs yang menandai pikiran, persepsi atau perasaan tokoh dalam cerita, misalnya thought, understood, felt, dsb.
d.      Contoh teks narrative


Orientation


Complication 1


Resolution 1



Complication 2

Resolution 2
Snow White
Once upon a time, there lived a little girl named Snow White. She lived with her uncle and Aunt because her parents were dead.
One day, she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking about leaving her in the castle because they both wanted to go to America and they didn’t have enough money to take her.
Snow White didn’t want her Uncle and Aunt to do this so she decides it would be best if she ran away. The next morning she ran away from home when her Aunt and Uncle were having breackfast. She ran away into the woods.
Then, she saw this little cottage. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell sleep.
Meanwhile, the seven dwarfs were coming home from work. They went inside. There they found Snow White sleeping. Then, she woke up. She saw the dwarfs. The dwarf said, “What is your name?” She said, “My name is Snow White.”
Doc, one of the dwarfs, said, “If you wish, you may live here with us. She said, “Oh could I? Thank you.” Then she told the dwarfs the whole story, and she and the seven dwarfs lived happily ever after.

2.      News Item (Berita)
a.       Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose)
Memberitakan kepada pembaca, pendengar/penonton tentang peristiwa-peristiwa atau kejadian-kejadian yang dipandang penting atau layak diberitakan.
b.      Struktur Teks (Text Structure)
§  Kejadian inti
§  Latar belakang: elaborasi kejadian, orang yang terlibat, tempat kejadian, dsb.
§  Sumber informasi: komentar saksi kejadian, pendapat para ahli, dsb.
c.       Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan:
    • Informasi singkat tertuang dalam headline menggunakan action verbs, saying verbs, misal say, tell, dsb. Menggunakan kata keterangan, misalnya badly injured, the most beautiful bride in the worl, dsb.
d.      Contoh teks News Item


Kejadian inti






Latar belakang:
Elaborasi









Sumber Informasi
Town Contaminated
Moscow- A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another soviet nuclesr catastrophe, which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town.
Yelena Vazrshaskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the naval base of shkotova-22 near Vladivostock.
The accident, which occurred 13 months before the Chernobly disaster, spread radioactive fall-out over the base and nearby town, but was covered up by officials of the Soviet Union. Residents war told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refit had been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclear explosion. And  those involved in the clean up operation to remove more than 600 tones of contaminated material were sworn to secrery.
A board of investigation was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy.

3.      Procedure (prosedur)
a.       Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose)
Memberi petunjuk tentang cara melakukan sesuatu melalui serangkaian tindakan/langkah.
b.      Struktur Teks (Text Structure)
§  Tujuan Kegiatan
§  Bahan-bahan
§  Langkah-langkah
c.       Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan:
    • Pola kalimat imperative, misalnya Cut, Don’t mix, dsb.
    • Action verbs, misalnya turn, put, don’t mix, dsb.
    • Connectives untuk mengurutkan kegiatan, misalnya then, while, dsb.
    • Adverbials untuk menyatakan rinci waktu, tempat, cara yang akurat, misalnya for five minutes, 2 centimeters from the top, dsb.
d.      Contoh teks Procedure

Tujuan

Bahan




Langkah-langkah
How to Make a Cheese Omelet

Ingredients
1 egg, 50 g cheese. 1 cup milk, 3 table spoons cooking oil, a pinch of salt and pepper
Utensils
Frying pan, fork, spatula, cheese grater, bowl, plate
Method
1.      Crack an egg into a bowl.
2.      Whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth.
3.      Add milk and whisk well.
4.      Grate the cheese into the bowl and stir.
5.      Heat the oil in a frying pan.
6.      Pour the mixture into the frying pan
7.      Turn the omelet with a spatula when it browns
8.      Cook both sides
9.      Place on a plate; season with salt and pepper.
10.  Eat while warm.

4.       Report (Laporan Hasil Pengamatan)
Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose)
Menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu apa adanya, sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis atau analisis. Sesuatu yang dapat dideskripsikan dapat meliputi gejala alam, lingkungan benda buatan manusia, atau gejala-gejala sosial. Deskripsi sebuah teks report dapat berupa simpulan umum, misalnya ikan paus termasuk binatang mamalia karena ikan tersebut melahirkan anaknya. Untuk membuat laporan semacam ini, siswa perlu mengamati dan membandingkan ikan paus dengan binatang lainnya yang memiliki ciri-ciri yang sama. Siswa dapat mencoba membuat teks laporan tentang, misalnya rumah sangat sederhana, warung tegal, sekolah, rumah sakit, dsb.
a.       Struktur Teks (Text Structure)
§  Pernyataan umum yang menerangkan subjek laporan, keterangan dan klasifikasinyaTujuan Kegiatan
§  Deskripsi
b.      Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan:
    • General nouns, seperti Reptil in Comodo Island, dsb.
    • Relating verbs untuk menjelaskan ciri, misalnya reptile are scaly animal (ciri ini berlaku untuk semua reptilia),dsb.
    • Section verbs dalam menjelaskan perilaku, misal lizards cannot fly, dsb.
    • Present tense untuk menyatakan suatu yang umum, misalnya komodo dragon usually weigh more than 160 kg, dsb.
    • Istilah tekhnis, misalnya water contains oxygent and hydrogen, dsb.
    • Paragraf dengan topic sentences untuk menyusun sejumlah Informasi.
c.       Contoh teks Report


Pernyataan tentang       subjek laporan

Deskripsi



The Pelican Report

The white pelican is one of the most succesful fish eating birds.



The success is largely due to its command hunting behavior. A group, perhaps two dozen birds, will gather in a curved src some distance off shore. The bird then begin to move forward towards the shore, beating the water furiously with their wings, driving the fish before them
When the water is shallow enough for the bird to reach the fish, the formaion breaks up as each dips its bill into the water to scoops up its meal. As the bird lifts its head, the water drains from its bill leaving the fish which are then swallowed Pelicans are among the oldest group of birds. Fossils of this genus have been found dating back 40 million years.
           
5.      Descriptive
a.       Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose)
Mendeskripsikan (menggambarkan) ciri-ciri seseorang, benda atau tempat tertentu.
b.      Struktur Teks (Text Structure)
§  Pengenalan subjek
§  Ciri-ciri subjek, misalnya tampilan fisik, kualitas, prilaku umum, sifat-sifat.
c.       Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan:
    • Nouns tertentu misalnya teacher, house, my cat, dsb.
    • Simple present tense
    • Detiled noun phrase untuk memberikan informasi tentang subjek, misalnya It was a large open rowboat, a sweet young lady, dsb.
    • Adjectives, yang bersifat describing, numbering classifying, misalnya, two strong legs, sharp white fang, dsb.
    • Relating verbs untuk memberikan informasi tentang subjek, misalnya, My mum is realy cool, It has very tick fur, dsb.
    • Thinking verbs dan feeling verbs untuk mengungkapkan pandangan pribadi penulis tentang subjek, misalnya Police belive the suspect is armed, I think it is the clever animal, dsb.
    • Action verbs, misalnya Our new puppy bites our shoes, dsb.
    • Adverbials untuk memberikan informasi tambahan tentang perilaku tersebut, misal fast at the tree house,dsb.
    • Bahasa figurative, seperti simile, metafor. Misalnya John is white as chalk, sat tigh, dsb.
d.      Contoh Teks Descriptive



Subjek
                                                          
Deskripsi



MacQuarie University

MacQuarie is one of the largest unuversities in Australia. This year, in 2004, it celebrates its 40th anniversary.
The university is located at the North Ride Greenbelt, Sydney, where the New South Wales government sets aside 135 hectars for the institution. In 1964, MacQuarie area was a rural retreat on the city fringe, but today the campus and its surrondings have evolved beyond recognition.The white pelican is one of the most succesful fish eating birds. North Ride District has growen into a district of intensive occupatian anchored by a vibrant and growing university.
One of the highlights of the landsape is the Mars Creek zone. It comprises landscaped creek sides and valley floor, a gress amphitheatre,andartificial lake surounded by rock and pebbels, native plants and eucalypts.


6.      Anecdote (cerita lucu)
a.       Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose)
Menceritakan kejadian/peristiwa lucu berdasarkan khayalan atau peristiwa nyata yang bertujuan menghibur.
b.      Struktur Teks (Text Structure)
§  Abstrak
§  Pengenalan
§  Krisis
§  Tindakan
§  Koda (prubahan yang terjadi pada tokoh dan pelajaran yang dapat dipetik dari cerita)
c.       Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan:
    • Seruan/kata seru, pertanyaan retorik dan kata-kata seperti Listen to this! And do you know what? It’s awful, isn’t it? dsb
    • Action verbs, misalnya go, write, dsb.
    • Conjuctions yang berhubungan dengan waktu, seperti then, afterwards, dsb.


d.      Contoh Teks Anecdote

Abstract


Orientation

Crisis


Reaction/ tindakan



Coda/ koda
Soon after Dave left college, one of his uncles, who was rich died and left Dave a lot of money.

So he decided to set up his own real estate agency.

He had only been there for a few hours when he heard some onr coming towards the door of hos offoce.

“It’s my first customer!” he thought. He quickly p[icked up the telephone and pretended to be very busy answering an important call from someone in New York who wanted to buy a big and expensive house in the country.

The man knocked at the door while this was going on, came in and waited politely for the agent to finish his conversation. Then he said to me, “I’m from the telephone company, and I was sent here to connect your telephone.”

7.      Analytical Exposition (eksposisi analitia)
a.       Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose)
Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar/pembaca) bahwa ada masalah yang tentunya perlu mendapat perhatian.
b.      Struktur Teks (Text Structure)
§  Pernyataan pendapat/ Thesis statement (tujuan memperkenalkan topik)
§  Argumen terdiri dari point yang dikemukakan dan elaborasi
§  Penguatan pernyataan/conclusion
c.       Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan:
    • General nouns, misal car, pollution, leaded petrol car, dsb.
    • Abstrac nouns, misalnya policy, government , dsb.
    • Relating verbs, misalnya It is important, dsb.
    • Action verbs misalnya, She must save, dsb.
    • Thinking verbs, misalnya Many people believe, dsb.
    • Modal verbs, misalnya We must preserve, dsb.
    • Modal adverbs, misalnya certainly, dsb.
    • Connectives, misalnya firstly, secondly, dsb.
    • Bahas evaluatif, misalnya important, valuable, dsb.
    • Kalimat pasif (passive voice)
d.      Contoh Teks Analytical Exposition

Pernyataan pendapat



Argumentasi



Penguatan pernyataan (conclusion)
Air pollution is one of the harmful substances that causes demage to the environment, human healt, and quality of life. It makes people sick like having breathing problems and cancer.

Pollutants also come from other sources. For instance, decomposing garbage in landfills and solid waste disposal sites emits methane gas and many product give off VOCs

Unlike pollutants from human activity however, natural pollutanta tend to remain in the atmosphere for a short time and do not lead to permanent atmosphere change.
8.      Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory)
a.       Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose)
Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar/pembaca) bahwa seharusnya demikian atau tidak demikian .
b.      Struktur Teks (Text Structure)
§  Pernyataan isu yang dipersoalkan
§  Argumen : berupa alasan mengapa ada keprihatinan, dan mengarah ke rekomendasi
§  Recomendasi : pernyataan tentang bagaimana seharusnya atau tidak seharusnya
c.       Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan:
    • Abstrac nouns,misalnya policy,government dsb.
    • Technical verbs, misalnya species of animals,dsb.
    • Relating verbs, misalnya should be, doesn’t seem to have been , dsb.
    • Action verbs, misalnya, we must save, dsb.
    • Thinking verbs, misalnya I believe , dsb.
    • Modal verbs, misalnya We must preserve, dsb.
    • Modal adverbs, misalnya certainly,we, dsb.
    • Connectives, misalnya firstly, secondly, dsb.
    • Simple present tense
    • Bahas evaluatif, misalnya important, valuable, dsb.
    • Kalimat pasif (passive voice)
d.      Contoh Teks Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory)

Pernyataan isue yang dipersoalkan


Argumentasi









Rekomendasi




In all discussion over the removal of lead from petrol ( and the atmosphere), there doesn’t seem to have been any mention of the diffence between driving in the city and in the country.

While I realise my leaded petrol car is polluting the air wherever I drive, I feel that when you travel through the country,where you only see another car every five to ten minutes,the problem is not as severe as when traffic is concentrated on city roads.
Those who want to penalise older , leaded petrol vehicles and their owners donn’t seem to appreciate thet in the country there is no public transport to fall back upon and ones own vehicle is the only way to get about.

I feel that country people, who often have to travel huge distances to the nearest town and who already spend a great deal of money on petrol,should be treated differently to the people who live in the city



9.      Explanation ( Penjelasan )
a.       Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose)
Menerangkan proses-proses yang terjadi dalam pembentukan atau kegiatan yang terkait dengan fenomena dunia ilmiah, sosial-budaya, atau yang bertujuan menjelaskan.
b.      Struktur Teks (Text Structure)
§  Penjelasan umum
§  Penjelasan proses
§  Penutup
c.       Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan:
    • General dan abstrac nouns , misalnya word chopping, earthquakes;
    • Actions verbs;
    • Simple present tense;
    • Passive voice;
    • Conjunctions of time dan cause;
    • Nouns phrase, misalnya the large cloud;
    • Abstract nouns, misalnya the temperature;.
    • Adverbial phrases;
    • Complex sentences;
    • Bahasa teknis ;
    • Kalimat pasif (passive voice)
d.      Contoh dan Struktur Teks Explaination


Penjelasan umum




Penjelsan proses





Penutup
Making Paper from Woodchips
Woodchipping is a process used to obtain pulp and paper products form forest tree.
The woodchipping process begins when the trees are cut down in a selected area of the forest called a coupe.
Next the tops and and branches of the trees are cut out and then the logs are taken to the mill.
At the mill, the bark of the logs is removed and the logs are taken to a chipper wich cuts them into pieces called woodchips.
The woodchips are then screened to remove dirt and other impurities.at this stage they are either exported in this form or damaged into pulp by chemical and heat
The pulp then bleached and the water content is removed
Finally, the pulp is rolled out to make paper

10.  Review ( Ulasan atau tinjauan )
a.       Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose)
Melakukan kritik terhadap peristiwa atau karya seni untuk pembaca atau pendengar, khalayak ramai, misalnya film, pertunjukan, dan buku.
b.      Struktur Teks (Text Structure)
§  Pengenalan
§  Evaluasi 1
§  Evaluasi 2
§  Tafsiran
§  Evaluasi 3
§  Evaluasi 4, dan sebagainya.Jika ada
§  Rangkuman
c.       Ciri kebahasaan :
§  Terfokus pada partisipan tertentu
Menggunakan:
    • Adjective, menunjukan sikap, seperti bad,good;
    • Klausa panjang dan kompleks;
    • Metafor.
d.      Contoh dan Struktur Teks Review


Pengenalan/
Orientasi

Evaluasi 1


Evaluasi 2



Tafsiran











Rangkuman
Harry Pooter and the Order of the Phoenix
I absoluttely love the Harry Potter series,and all of the books will always hold a special place in my heart.

I have to say that off all of the books,however, this was not my favorite.

When the series began it was as much of a “feel good” experience as a huge mug of hot cocoa. The stories were bright, fast-paced, intriguing, and ultimately satisfying.

Order of the Phoenix is a different kind of book. In some instances this works… you feel a whole new level of intensity truly moved by the last page. Other time the book just has slightly a reary, depressing feel. The galloping pace of the other books has slowed to a trot here, and parts of it do seem long, as if we’re reading all about Harry “just hanging out” instead of having his usual adventures. Reading in detail about Herry cleaning up an old house, for example-housekeeping is still housekeeping, magical or not, and I’m not very interest in doing it or reading about other people doing it.

A few other changes in this book-the “real” would come much more in to ply rather than the fantasy universe of the previous book, and Harry has apparently been taken of his meds. I know that he had a lot to be grumpy in this book, especially with being a teenager and all, but the sudden change in his character seemed too drastic. He goes from being a warm-heart, considerated person to someone who will bite his best friend’s heads of over nothing. It just seemed like it didn’t fit his character, like he turned into a walking clich of the “angry teen” overnight.
11.  Commentary
a.       Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose)
Menjelaskan proses yang terjadi pada sebuah fenomena sosial sebagai sebuah penomena natural. Teks mengenai ilmu alam menggunakan genre/bentuk teks explaination dalam penyampaiannya.
b.      Struktur Teks (Text Structure)
§  Pernyataan umum
§  Penjelasan lanjutan
c.       Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan:
    • General nouns, misalnya evolution, teddy bear, dsb.
    • Past tense
    • conjunction
d.      Contoh Teks Commentary

Pernyataan umum


Where did bears come from? Bear as we know him has bot axisted on this earth for every long period of time, but his predecessor may go back many hundreds of years. Most authorities now believe that the handsome, two legged bear of today evolved from a single celled organism a speck of dust perhaps. Then gradually, through natural selection and survival of the speck, cotton wool balls developed. We do not know exactly when the frist soft furnishing appeared on earth, but they must have been very simple beings.

Penjelasan Lanjutan
In the beginning was the Cushion. Not a very ampressive object – simply a lump of padding material held together with some sort of covering – but from this induspicious start developed two reptilian forms that were the direct ancettors of modern bear.

Penjelasan lanjutan
One of the first evolutionary step occurred when a mutant, misshaped cushion was created. He must have appeared very strange to his fellow cushions, but he was the first bean bag frog. Filled with bean, rice or other non-toxic substance, he had two eyes and four legs. Bean Bag Frogs, however, were pretty on kind, being incredibly floppy, and in water they tended to sink.

Penjelasan Lanjutan
At about the same time as the time as the Bean Bag Frog was emerging, the Cushion was developing along different lines into the draught excluder. At first merely a long thin Cushion, it graduallyeveloped eyes, a forked tongue and an a patternbody, its tendency to lie along the bottom of draughty doors perhaps points to the lack of an efficient body cooling mechanism.

Penjelasan Lanjutan
From these rather basic creatures the first Toy Dog developed. Long and thin like a Drought Excluder, and with four leg like a Bean Bag Frog, he still had difficulty in muving about owing to his very short appendages.

Penjelasan lanjutan
Movement became easier with invension of wheel. Dog – on – Wheels was a very succesful species for many years but is now thereatened with extincion. A few remain in captivity but they appear to have difficulty in reproducing them selves under these circumstances.

Penjelasan lanjutan
When the first soft toy stood up and walked on two legs instead of four, modern bear was born.

12. Discussion (Pembahasan)
a.       Tujuan Komunikatif Teks
mengetengahkan suatu masalah (isu) yang ditinjau paling tidak dari 2 (dua) sudut pandang, sebelum sampai pada suatu kesimpulan atau rekomendasi.
b.      Struktur Teks
• Isu;
• pendapat yang mendukung;
-          Gagasan Pokok 1;
-          Elaborasi (uraian),
-          Gagasan Pokok 2;
-          Elaborasi (uraian).
• Pendapat yang menentang;
-          Gagasan Pokok;
-          Elaborasi (uraian).
• Kesimpulan.
c. Ciri Kebahasan:
Mengunakan :
§  general nouns untuk menyatakan kategori, misalnya uniforms, alcohol dsb.
§  relating verbs untuk memberi informasi tentang isu yang didiskusikan, misalnya smoking is harmful, dsb
§  thinking verbs untuk mengungkapkan pandangan pribadi penulis, misalnya feel, believe, hope, dsb.
§  action verbs, misalnya We must save, dsb
§  additives, contrastives dan causal connectives untuk menghubungkan argumen misalnya similatly, on the other hand, however, dsb.
§  detailed noun groups untuk memberikan informasi secara padu, misalnya the dumping of unwanted kittens, dsb.
§  modalities, seperti perhaps, must, should have been, could be, dsb.
§  adverbias of manner, misalnya deliberately. Hopefully, dsb.
d. Contoh dan Struktur Teks


Homework
Isu
I have been wondering if homework is necessary


Pendapat yang
I think we should have homework because it helps us to learn and revise our work. Homework helps
Mendukung
People who aren’t very smart to remember what they have learned. Homework is really good because it helps with our education.

Pendapat yang
But, many times, doing homework is not a great idea, I think we shouldn’t heve homework because I
Menentang
Like to go out after school to a restaurant or the movies. Sometimes homework is boring and not importany. I think homework is bad because I like to play and discuss things with my family.

12.  RECOUNT (retell/menceritakan kembali)
a.       Tujuan Komunikatif Teks
Melaporkan peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan dengan tujuan memberitakan/ menghibur.
b.      Struktur Teks
• Pendahuluan (orientation): yaitu memberikan informasi tentang apa, siapa,
  dimana dan kapan.
• Rentetan Peristiwa /events: kegiatan/peristiwa yang terjadi yangf disampaikan
   secara berurutan.
• Komentar pribadi dan/ungkapan penilaian (jika ada).
c.  Ciri Kebahasan:
Mengunakan :
§  Noun dan pronoun sebagai kata ganti orang, hewan/benda yang terlibat misalnya; Dono, the monkey, we dsb.
§  Action verbs atau kata kerja tindakan, misalnya go, sleep, run, dsb.
§  Past tense misalnya We went to the zoo. She was happy.
§  Conjunction dan time connectives yang mengurutkan peristiwa/kejadian/kegiatyan. Misalnya and, but, then, after that, dsb.
§  Adverbs dan adverb phrases untuk mengungkapkan tempat, waktu dan cara. Misalnya yesterday, at my house, slowly dsb.
d. Contoh dan Struktur Teks
EARTHQUAKE
Orientation
I was driving along the coast road when the car suddenly lurched to one side.

Event 1
At first I thought a tyre had gone but then I saw telegraph poles collapsing like matchsticks.

Event 2
The rocks came tumbling across the road and I had to abandon the car.

Event 3
When I got back to town, well, as I said, there wasn’t much left.
FUNCTIONAL SKILL

1.      Offering Help or Things (menawarkan bantuan / menawarkan sesuatu)
Untuk menawarkan bantuan, dapat digunakan ungkapan-ungkapan berikut:

- May I help you?
- Can I help you?
- Could I help you?    
- How can I be of assistance to you? 
- How can I be of help to you?
- What can I help you
- What can I do for you?
- How can I assist you?
- How can I help you?
- Let me help you?
- Do you want me to help you?
- Shall I …?

Cara memberi tawaran seperti menawarkan makanan atau minuman dalam bahasa Inggris lazimnya dengan menggunakan ungkapan Would you like…?, Would you care for …?, why don’t you have…?, How about having …? May I offer you …?

Contoh:
              Tawaran                                                                        Respon
- Would you like some bread?                                          Yes, please.
- Would you care for some coffee?                                  No, thanks. I don’t drink coffee.
- Why don’t you have some biscuit, please?                     Thanks, I’d love to.

Jawaban untuk menerima tawaran antara lain: Yes please, Sure, Why not, Ofcourse, Certainly, I’d love to, It’s a good idea, That’s great. Untuk menolak tawaran digunakan ungkapan seperti: No, thanks, Please don’t bother, I’d love to but…, That’s great but…




2.      Introducing  (memperkenalkan)

Memperkenalkan Dri
Memperkenalkan Orang Lain
- I’d like to introduce myself.
- My I introduce myself?
- Let me introduce myself!    
- I want to introduce myself
- I’d like you to meet … (nama)
- This is my friend/boss/etc…(nama)
- Have you met…(nama)?
- May I introduce you to …(nama/jabatan)
- Let me introduce you to ….
- I want to introduce you to ….

3.      Inviting (mengundang/mengajak)


Undangan/Ajakan
Menolak
Menerima
- let’s + V1     
- Why don’t we …?   
- How about…?
- I’d like to invite you to…
- Would you like to…?
- I wonder if you’d like to
- I’m sorry I can’t
- I’d like to but…
- I’m afraid I can’t
- No, let’s not.

- I’d love to
- I’d like very much
- I’d be happy/glad to
   accept
- Yes, I’d be delighted to.
- That’s good ide

4.      Expressing Thanks (terimakasih)

Ungkapan
Respon
Thank you
Thank you very much
Thanks.
Thank you very much for… (kata benda)
I’m grateful for…(kata benda/noun)
You are welcome.
That’s all right
Not at all
Don’t mention it
Thet’s all right
Any time

5.      Congratulations (ucapan selamat)

Ungkapan
Respon
Congratulations
Congratulations on …
I’d like to congratulate you.
I’d like to congratulate you on…
It was great to hear…
It was to hear about….
Happy birthday to you.
Happy new year.
Good luck!
Have a nice holiday
Thank you
Thank you and the same to you
Thank you. I need it.
Thank you very much.







6.      Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati)

Ungkapan-ungkapan perasaan simpati atas mala petaka/musibah yang dialami orang lain diantaranya:
·         I’m sorry to hear that
·         Oh, that’s too bad.
·         How awful!
·         How terrible!
·         Poor!

7.      Pleasure, Displeasure (senang & tidak senang)

Pleasure/senang
Displeasure/tidak senang
It’s really delightful/Iam delighted
I’m satisfied
That’s great
That’s wonderful
It’s really a great pleasure
I’m dissatisfied
We are fed up with…
I feel dosappointed
She is extremely displeased


8.      Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan, ketidakpuasan)
Ketika kita akan mengungkapkan kepuasan atas kerja seseorang, kita dapat gunakan ungkapan:
·         Well done!
·         Great! Good work
·         I am satisfied with your work
·         You did well
·         Your job is satisfactory
·         I am so happy about this
·         I’m glad to what you’ve done
·         It’s really satisfying
Katika kita akan mengungkapkan ketidakpuasan atas kerja seseorang, kita dapat gunakan:
·         I’m not satisfied with work
·         You haven’t done well enough
·         I am really dissappointed
·         Sorry, but your work is not satisfactory
·         Oh, no!
·         It’s not very nice
·         It’s really not good enough






9.      Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat)

Asking Opinion
Giving opinion
How was the trip?
How do you like your new house?
How do you think of Rina’s idea?
How do you feel about this dicition?
What is your opinions of the movie?
What are your feelings about it?
I think (that)….
In my opinion….
As I see, …
If you ask me, I feel…



10.  Agreement/approval, Disagreement/disapproval (setuju, tidak setuju)     
Ketika kita merasa sependapat dengan opini orang lain, kita bisa mengatakan:
·         So do I
·         Yes, I agree with you
·         It is certainly
·         Exactly
·         That’s what I want to say
·         I am with you
·         I am on your side
Ketika kita merasa tidak sependapat dengan opini orang lain, kita bisa mengatakan:
·         Well, I don’t think so
·         I don’t think that is true
·         I disagree with …
·         I wouldn’t say that
·         Exactly not
·         I can’t say so
·         On contrary
·         I don’t buy that idea

11.  Fear, Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan, kegelisahan)

Fear
Respon
I am afraid
I am feared
I am scared
I am terrified
The sound is horrifying
Don’t be afraid
There is nothing to be afraid of
It is nothing

Anciety
Respon
I am worried about…
I am anxious to know about…
I wondered if…
That made me worried
I have been thinking about ….
I am afraid if…
Take is easy
Calm down
I know you are worried but…
It is not a big deal
Don’t worry
Stay cool
12.  Pain, Relief (ungkapan kesakitan, kelegaan)

Pain
Relief
Ouch!
That was hurt
It is painful
It hurts me
I’ve got a backache/toothache/stomachache
I feel sore all over
My eyes hurt
I’m very relieved to hear…
Finally, it was over
I feel relieved
I feel much better
I’m glad it’s over
That’s a great relief
I’m extremely glad to hear…
Thank goodness for that
Marvellous
What a relief!

13.  Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci)

Like
Dislike
I love it
I like it
I am keen on it
I am crazy about it
We all enjoy
(benda/noun/gerund)…is my cup of tea
I don’t really like it
I dislike it
I am not really interested in…
I can’t enjoy…
(benda/noun/gerund)…is not my cup of tea
I can’t stand
I hate it

14.  Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu, kejengkelan)

Embarrassment
Annoyance
I am embarrassed
I feel ashamed
Oh my God
Shame on me
I don’t feel comfortable
I feel awkward
I am annoyed
I had enough with it
I can’t bear it any longer
You made me annoyed
You are such a pain in the neck
You made me sick

15.  Request (permintaan)

Request
Acceptance
Refusal
Would it be possible for                                                      you to
Would you be so kind as to
Would you…,please?
Would you mind …?
Any chance of…
Can you…?
I should be delighted to come
By all means
I have no objection
I’d be happy to
Sure
Yeah
OK
No problem
Mmm
I regret to say that we find ourselves unable to go
I’m afraid it’s not possible
I’m afraid not
Sorry
No, I won’t
Not likely
You must be joking

16.  Complaint, Blame (keluhan,menyalahkan)

Complaint
Blame
I’m not at all satisfied with the service
I really do/must objec to the service
I take great exception to…
I want to complain about…
This is crazy!
You’re the one to blame
It’s your fault!
It’s your mistake!
You’re wrong


17.  Regret, Apology (penyesalan, meminta maaf)

Regret
Apology
Much to my regret
Sadly, I ….
Unfortunately
I’m terribly sorry
I honestly regret that I …
Sorry, I …
Please accept my apologies for what I did
Please forgive me for what I did
I am extremely sorry
I really must apologies
May I offer you my sincerest apologies?

18.  Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan)

Menyatakan Kemungkinan
Menanyakan Kemungkinan
I think there is possibility to …
I sassume/believe…
In all probability,…
it is going to be possible for me to…
that will probably …
it’s quite possible …
Do you think he/it could…?
Would you say we’re capable of…?
Are you capable of…?
Are you able to…?
Do you have any experience of…?
Can you…?
Do you know how to…?
Do you think you can…?











 LANGUAGE USAGE

TENSES

TENSES
POLA
KET. WAKTU
Present Tense
(Menyatakan kebiasaan hingga sekarang masih dilakukan)
V= (+) S+V¹ (-s/es utk S he,she,it)
      (-)  S+Do/Does not + V¹
            Do utk S= I,you,they,we
            Does utk S= he,she,it
           She goes to school everyday
           She does not go to school everyday
N= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are) + adj/n/adv
           She is beautiful
Every…
Usyally
Always dll



Present Continuous
(Menyatakan aktivitas yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu bicara)

V= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are)+V-ing
      She is not going to school everyday
Now
At present
At this moment
To day
Present Perfect
(Menyatakan perbuatan/tindakan yang terjadi pada waktu yang tidak tertentu di masa lampau dan pada saat berbicara perbuatan/tindakan tsb telah selesai/baru aja selesai dilakukan)
V= (+) S + have/has + V3
            Have utk S= I,you,they,we
            Has utk S= he,she,it
       Father has gone to work for 12 hours
N= (+) S + have/has+Been + adj/n/adv
       Father has been at his office since 12
       hours ago.
Lately
Recently
For
Since
already
yet
lately
just

Past Tense
(Menyatakan kegiatan yang dilakukan pada waktu lampau)
V= (+) S + V2
      (-) S + did not + V¹
           Did utk semua Subjek
N= (+) S + Be (was/were) + adj/n/adv
            Was utk S= I,he,she,it
            Were utk S= you,they,we
Yesterday
Last…
…ago
Past Perfect Tense
(Menyatakan aktivitas yang telah selesai dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi pada waktu lampau)
V= (+) S + had + V3
            Had utk semua Sabjek (S)

N= (+) S + had been + adj/n/adv
Before/when + S + V2
Past Perfect Continuous
(Menyatakan aktivitas yang telah berlangsung selama periode waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu lampau, aktivitas tsb masih berlangsung)
V= (+) S + had been + V-ing
For + periode waktu + when/ before + S + V2
Future tense
(Menyatakan aktivitas yang akan dilakukan di waktu yang akan datang)


V= (+) S + will/shall + V¹
            Will utk semua Sabjek (S)
            Shall utk S = I,we
N= (+) S + will/shall +be + adj/n/adv

Tomorrow
Next…

Future Continuous
(Menyatakan aktivitas yang akan sedang berlangsung di waktu yang akan datang)

V= (+) S + will/shall + be + V-ing

At this time tomorrow
At ten tomorrow

Future Perfect
(Menyatakan aktivitas yang akan telah selesai dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu yang akan datang)


V= (+) S + will/shall + have + V3

N= (+) S + will/shall +have +been +adj/n/

By + ket.waktu
Future Perfect Continuous
(Menyatakan aktivitas yang akan telah sedang berlangsung selama waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi di waktu yang akan datang)


V= (+) S + will/shall +have+been + V-ing


By + ket.waktu
Past Future Tense
(Menyatakan perbuatan/keadaan yang akan datang dilakukan/terjadi diwaktu lampau. Perbuatan tsb sudah direncanakan tapi tidak terlaksana)

V= (+) S + would/should + V¹

N= (+) S + would/should + be + adj/n/adv

Yesterday
Last…
Just now
If + simple past

Past Future Perfect Tense
(menyatakan suatu pengandaian pada masa lampau, sesuatu seharusnya akan telah terjadi pada saat suatu syarat terpenuhi)

V= (+) S + would/should + have +V3

N= (+) S + would/should + have been + adj/n/adv

If + past perfect
Past Perfect Continuous
(Menyatakan perbuatan yang seharusnya sudah sedang berlangsung di suatu waktu di masa lampau tetapi kenyataanya gagal berlangsung)

V= (+) S + would/should + have been + V-ing



By + ket.waktu

Kita bisa mengenali setiap tensis dengan mengetahui ciri-ciri khusus yang dimiliki setiap tensis:

Simple Present
V¹/do,does/am,is,are
Simple past
V2/did/was,were
Perfect
have/has/had + V3/been
Future/modal (present)
Future/modal (past)
will/shall/may/can/must + V¹/be
would/sould/might/could/had to + V¹/be
Continuous
Tobe + v-ing
           
TO BE
Present
Past
Perfect
Future/modal
Am, is, are
Was, were
Been
be
 Contoh soal
1. Fred : Juda, the telephone rang twelve times. What were you doing?
    Juda:  I____ Javanese dancing, “Srimpi”.
    a. practised                      d. have been practising
    b. was parctising             e. will be practising
    c. have practised
            Jawaban : B (Past Continuous Tense)
2. Dian : The Public Health Centre ____ there for more than twenty years. The doctors and
               paramedis work hard to improve the people’s health especially children.
    Iwan : Yes, they are succesful. The infant/death rate has decreased remarkably.
    a. works                          d. has been working
    b. worked                        e. will have worked
    c. is working
            Jawaban : D (Present Perfect Continuous = peristiwa yang terjadi/dimulai pada waktu
            lampau dan sekarang masih berlangsung. Ada tanda waktu for yang bisa dijadikan ciri)
3.   Devi : So you have finished washing the dished. When did you do it?
Sri    :  I did while you ____ the yard.
a. clean                           d. were cleaning
b. cleaned                       e. have been cleaning
c. had cleaned
      Jawaban : D (Past Continuous tense = menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang sedang
    berlangsung ketika kegiatan lain terjadi di waktu lampau. Kata while bisa dijadikan ciri)
4.      Retno : Why don’t you reply my letter?
Hadi   : Oh sorry. I forget to tell you that I ___ in Bali since last year.
a. am living                      d. will have lived
b. was living                     e. have been living
c. have to live
      Jawaban : E (Present Perfect Continuous. Tanda waktu since dapat dijadikan ciri)
5.      Vina : When did you get the letter?
Fani  : Yesterday. My family ____ when the postman arrived.
a. have lunch                      d. will have had lunch
b. will have lunch               e. have been having lunch
c. were having lunch
      Jawaban : C (Past Continuous tense biasa juga dipakai untuk menyatakan kegiatan
                             yang sedang dilakukan ketika kegiatan lain terjadi pada waktu lampau.
                             When + simple past dapat dijadikan ciri)
Soal-Soal Latihan
1.      If we don”t hurry, the meeting ___ by the time we get there.
a. would have started                    d. will start
b. will have started                        e. starts
c. will be started
2.   The librarian suddenly heard a noise.
      Librarian : What was the noise?
      Student    : I dropped some books while I ____ them to the table.
      a. carry                                          d. am carrying
      b. carried                                       e. have carried
      c. was carrying
3.   Ann has been looking for a job for six month.
      This sentence means that Ann ___.
      a. has got a new job                      d. has stopped looking for a job
      b. has worked for six months        e. started to work 6 months a go
      c. is still looking for a job
4. When airport are located in the center of citied, they ___ noise pollution and distrub people’s life.
      a. caused                                       d. were causing
      b. causes                                        e. have caused
      c. will cause
5.   Agam : Where will we go next holiday?
      Joko   : What about Bali?
      Agam : That’s OK, but I ____ there many times.
      a. am                                              d. will be
      b. was                                            e. will have been
      c. have been
6.   My father is still in Bali. He ____ there for three weeks.
      a. is                                                d. has been
      b. was                                            e. have been
      c. had been

7.   Anto : I’m sorry Ary. I forget to bring your book.
      Ary   : What did he say Lina?
      Lina  : Anto said that he ___ to bring your book.
      a. has forgotten                             d. forgets
      b. had forgotten                            e. forgot
      c. would forget
8.   Teacher : I”ve heard that Benny is ill. Is it right?
      Student  : Yes, sir. He ____ ill for a week.
      a. was                                            d. would be
      b. has been                                                e. will have been
      c. had been
9.   Teacher : You will be ready for a test next week. Learn all these.
      Student  : All right, sir. I ____ them by then.
      a. learn                                           d. will be learning
      b. have learnt                                 e. will have learnt
      c. am learning
10. Reni goes to her university every morning. She studies business. You can’t meet her at her house at 10.00 tomorrow. She ___ the lectures.
      a. will be attending                       d. has attended
      b. has been attending                    e. attended
      c. would be attended

DIRECT - INDIRECT (Reported Speech)

Ketika kita merubah kalimat langsung menjadi kalimat tidak langsung, ada beberapa hal yang mengalami perubahan diantaranya perubahan tenses, struktur kalimat, pronoun (kata ganti orang), Possessive (kata ganti kepemilikan), keterangan waktu, dan tempat.
Perubahan pronoun dan possessive tergantung kepada sabjek dan objek yang dipakai di kalimat langsung/tidak langsung.
Jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat tanya maka ketika kalimat itu diulang (kalimat tidak langsung) tidak membentuk kata tanya lagi tetapi menjadi kalimat berita. Kata penghubungnya adalah if/whether dan what, why, where, when, who, how. Begitu pula jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat perintah maka di kalimat tidak langsung menjadi kalimat berita. Kata penghubungnya adalah (+) to infinitive/V1, (-) not to infinitive/V1

Contoh Kalimat

Kalimat langsung/direct
Kalimat tidak langsung/indirect
(+) He said, “ I have a present for you in my bag.”
(-)  He said, “I do not have a present for you in my bag”
(?) He asked, “Do I have a present for you in my bag?
(?) He asked me, “ Why do I have to have a present for you in my bag?
(!) He ordered/commanded me, “Bring my bag here now!”
(!) He ordered me, “Don’t bring your bag here!”
(+) He said that he had a present for me in his
       bag.
(-) He said that he did not have a present for me in his bag.
(?) He asked me if/whether he had a present for me in his bag.
(?) He asked me why he had to have a present for me in his bag.
(!) He ordered/commanded me to bring his bag there then.
(!) He ordered me not to bring my bag there.

Perubahan Tenses
Direct (kalimat langsung)
Indirect (kalimat tidak langsung)

Simple Present
Present Continuous
Present Future
Present Perfect
Present Perfect Continuous
Simple Past
Past Continuous

Simple Past
Past Continuous
Past Future
Past Perfect
Past Perfect Continuous
Past Perfect
Past Perfect Continuous

           
Lebih singkatnya perubahan tenses tersebut adalah:
Direct
Indirect
V1 (eat)
V2 (ate)
Am/is/are
Do/does
Do/does not
Did not
Was/were
Am/is/are + V-ing
Was/were +V-ing
Has/have + V3
Will/shall/can/may/must
Could/might/should/would  +  V1/be
V2  (ate)
Had + V3  (had eaten)
Was/were
Did
Did not
Had not + V3
Had been
Was/were + V-ing
Had been + V-ing
Had + V3
Would/should/could/might/had to
could/might/should/would + have+ V3/been


Perubahan Keterangan Waktu dan Tempat
Direct
Indirect
Now
Today
Tomorrow



Next…

Last…


…ago

Yesterday


The day before yesterday
Here
This
These
Then
That day
The next day
The day after
The following day
A day later
The… after
The following…
The…before
The previous …
The preceeding
…before
…earlier
The day before
The previous day
The preceeding day
Two day before
There
That
those

Contoh Soal
1.      Beckham : Did you know what Fingo said yesterday?
Raul         : Of course. He said ____ the previous day.
a. had gone to his country                         d. he went to his country
b. he has gone to his country                    e. he goes to his country
c. he will go to his country
            Jawaban : A ( kalau kalimat langsung/direct simple past, indirect/tdk langsung harus
                                   past perfect)
2.      Teacher : Why was Mary absent yesterday?
Jenifer   : What did the teacher want to know, Ferdy?
Ferdy     : he wanted to know ____
a. if Mary was absent                                d. that Mary had been absent
b. why Mary was absent                           e. why Mary had been absent
c. why was Mary absent
            Jawaban : E (direct berbentuk Wh-question bentuk past tense jadi indirec berbentuk
                                  past perfect)
3.      Mother   : Don’t be so noisy, Herman. The baby is sleeping.
Herman  : Okay, mom.
Rudy      : What did your mother just told you?
Herman  : She told me ___ because the baby was sleeping.
a. I wasn’t so noisy                                   d. I am very noisy
b. not to be so noisy                                  e. to be not so noisy
c. don’t be noisy
      Jawaban : B (direct: don’t + be maka indirect: not + to be)
4.   Doctor   : Open your mouth!
      Mother  : What did the doctor tell you?
      Son       : The doctor told me ___
      a. that I open his mouth                            d. to open my mouth
      b. if I opened my mouth                           e. opened my mouth
      c. to open my mouth
            Jawaban : D (direct: V1 + O maka direct: to V1 + O)
5.   Mother : Do you want meatballs or fried chicken?
Mother asked me ____
a. whether I wanted meatball or fried shicken
b. whether I want meatball or fried chicken
c. that I wanted meatball or fried chicken
d. that I want meatball or fried chicken
e. if I want meatball or fried chicken
      Jawaban: A (direct: do/does + S +V1 maka indirect: if/whether + S + V2)

Soal-Soal Latihan
1.      Head master  : Why didn”t you clean this room this morning?
Jani               :  I am sorry. I got a headache.
The headmaster asked her why ___ the room this morning.
a. I hadn’t cleaned                                                d. he headn’t cleaned
b. he does not clean                                  e. he would not clean
c. he hasn’t cleaned
2.   Anto  : I am sorry Lina. I forgot to bring your book.
Ari    : What did he say, Lina?
      Lina  : Anto said to me that he ___ to bring my book.
      a. has forgotten                                         d. forgets
      b. had forgotten                                        e. forgot
      c. would forget
3.   Mother asked Mira to close the windows because it was windy outside.
      Mother said, “ ___________”
      a. Mira closed the window. It is windy outside.
      b. Closed the window, Mira. It is windy outside.
      c. Mira closed the window. It was windy outside.
      d. Does Mira close the window. It was windy outside.
      e. To close the window Mira! It is windy outside.
4.   “What are you doing now?”, he asked.
      He asked me ____
      a. what are you were doing now               d. what I was doing then.
      b. what were you doing now.                   e. what I am doing now.
      c. what I was doing then
5.   “Is John coming to the party tonight?”
      “yes, he asked me ____”.
      a. If he could go with us                           d. going with us
      b. can he go with us                                  e. wether he goes with us
      c. he went with us
6.   My parents advised my sister ____ too much money on clothes.
      a. do not spend                                         d. not spending
      b. not to spend                                          e. not spend
      c. did not spend
7.   The secretary asked me ___ with Mr. Slamet.
      a. did I have an appointment                    d. when is my appointment
      b. how was my appointment                     e. that I had an appointment
      c. whether I had appointment
8.   “don’t make noise, children”, she said.
      a. She told the children don’t make noise                        d. She told the children not to make noise.
      b. She said the children didn’t make noise           e. She didn’t tell the children to make
      c. She didn’t say the children should noise              noise
9.   My friend said to me, “Can I find you a hotel?”. Mean____
      a. My friend asked me if I could help him find a hotel.
      b. I wondered if my friend could help me find a hotel.
      c. My friend said that I could help him find a hotel.
      d. My friend asked me to find a hotel for him.
      e. My friend asked me whether he could help me find a hotel.
10. Father said, “Finish your work!”
      The indirect form is: Father told me ____
      a. finish your work                                                d. to finish your work
      b. finished your work                                            e. to finish my work
      c. that I finish my work

PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif)

Kalimat passif adalah kalimat dimana subjek dikenai tindakan/pekerjaan, sedangkan kalimat aktif subjeklah yang melakukan tindakan/pekerjaan.
Hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam merubah aktif ke pasif adalah:
  • Yang dapat dijadikan kalimat passive adalah Verbal Sentence (kalimat yang predikatnya kata kerja/V)
  • Verbal sentence yang dapat dirubah ke Passive Voice (kalimat pasif) adalah kalimat yang memiliki objek penderita.
  • Perubahan aktif ke pasif atau sebaliknya tidak merubah makna kalimat. Perubahan iti terjadi hanya pada struktur kalimatnya saja.
  •  Ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice adalah  to be + V3  dan kata by (kata ini bukan merupakan syarat yang harus ada dalam kalimat pasif )

Contoh : (Aktive)   Bajuri loves Oneng
                                   S     P/V1      O
               (Passive)  Oneng is loved by Bajuri.
                                    S          P/V3
               (Active)    I bought a new motorcycle last week.
               (passive)   A new motorcycle was bought by me last week

Rumus Pola aktif-pasif untuk semua tenses
Tenses
Active
Passive
Simple Present
Simple Past
S + V1
S + V2
S + am/is/are + V3
S + was/were + V3
Present Continuous
Present perfect continuous
Past Continuous
Past Perfect Continuous
Future Continuous
Future Perfect Continuous
Past Futurre Continuous
Past Future Perfect Continu
S + am/is/are + V-ing
S + have/has + been + V-ing
S + was/were + V-ing
S + had + been + V-ing
S + will/shall + be + V-ing
S + will + have + V-ing
S + would + be + V-ing+
S +would +have+been+V-ing
S + am/is/are + being + V3
S + have/has +been + being  +V3
S + was/were + being + V3
S + had + been + being + V3
S + will/shall + be + being + V3
S + will +have+been+ being +V3
S + would + be + being + V3
S +would+have+been+ being+V3
Simple Perfect
Past Perfect
S + have/has + V3
S + had + V3
S + have/has + been + V3
S + had + been + V3
Simple Future
Past Future
Modal (present)
Modal (past)
S + will/shall + V1
S + would/should + V1
S + may/can/must + V1
S + might/could/had to + V1
S + will/shall + be + V3
S + would/should + be + V3
S + may/can/must + be + V3
S + might/could/had to + be + V3
           
Jadi lebih singkatnya ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice selain by + O adalah
Present
Past
Perfect
Continuous
Future/modal
am/is/are + V3
was/were + V3
been + V3
being + V3
be + V3

Contoh Soal
1.      A : Look! The girl is crying. What happened to her just now?
B : While playing with her brother, she ____
a. kicks                                          d. was kicking
b. kicked                                       e. was kicked
c. will kick
      Jawaban : E (simple past: S + was/were + V3)
2.      A : Do you know the result of the test?
B : Not yet. The announcement ____ twice.
a. was postponed                          d. has to be postponed
b. was being postponed                e. has been postponed
c. will be postponed
      Jawaban : A (konteks kalimat adalah simple past)
3.      Mela : Why do you prefer Surya Depstore to others?
Noni : Because the items ____ at a reasonable price.
a. is sold                                        d. were sold
b. are sold                                      e. had been sold
c. was sold
      Jawaban: B (konteks kalimat adalah simple present. Karena subjek items jamak maka
                           to be yang sesuai adalah are)
4.      X : There’s no longer a rule for the youth to enter military service in Britain.
Y : Really, when….?
a. was it abolishing                        d. was it to abolish
b. did it abolish                             e. to be abolished
c. was it abolished
      Jawaban: C (pola pasif introgative simple past: was/were + S + V3)
5.      Dita : When did the accident happen?
Dini : When the goods ____ from the truck.
a. have been unloaded                  d. will be unloaded
b. were being unloaded                 e. are unloaded
c. are being unloaded
      Jawabab: B (pola pasif past continuaou tense: S + was/were + being + V3)

Soal-Soal Latihan
1.      R.A. Kartini ____ in Jepara in 1879.
a. is born                                        d. would be born
b. was born                                    e. has been born
c. will be born
2.  The books in the library ___ in alphabetical order.
      a. is arranged                                 d. have arranged
      b. was arranged                             e. has arranged
      c. have been arranged
3.   A big dam ___ in this area next year.
      a. will build                                   d. has been built
      b. will be built                               e. is being built
      c. would be built
4.   We can’t swim in the swimming pool now because it ___.
      a. was being cleaned                     d. will clean
      b. is being cleaned                         e. cleaned
      c. has been cleaned
5.   They had just been living in the house for two years when it ___ by the fire.
      a. destroyed                                  d. will be destroyed
      b. had destroyed                           e. is being destroyed
      c. was destroyed
6.   She looks after the baby well.
      The passive form is ____
      a. the baby is well looked after                 d. the baby is being looked after well
      b. the baby was looked after well             e. the baby would be well looked after
      c. the baby will be well looked after
7.   Everybody knew that he had shown great loyalty to the company, therefore he ____ a big sum of money at the anniversary of the company.
      a. rewarded                                   d. is being rewarded
      b. was rewarded                            e. has been rewarded
      c. will be rewarded
8.   At the moment the old building ____ to make space dor a parking lot.
      a. demolishing                               d. had been demilishing
      b. is being demolished                  e. is demolishing
      c. was being demolishing
9.   Sita is waiting for her birthday party dress because she ____ a new one by her mother.
      a. has promised                             d. has been promising
      b. will be promised                        e. was being promised
      c. will be promised
10. As the victem was badly hurt in the car accident, he ____ to the nearest hospital.
      a. will be taken                              d. was taken
      b. is being taken                            e. took
      c. has been taken

DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan)
Terdiri dari 3 tingkatan, yaitu:
1.      Positive (tingkat biasa)
S + tobe + adjective/k.sifat
                    contoh:  Jojon is handsome
                                 Gogon is clever

2.      Comparative (tingkat perbandingan)       
S + tobe + more/-er + adjective + than
       contoh:  Jojon is more handsome than Aming
        Bajuri is cleverer than Oneng

3.      Superlative (tingkat palinga)        
S + tobe + the most/-est + noun phrase
                        Contoh:   Jojon is the most handsome
                Bajuri is the cleverest person
Catatan
    1. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata dua/lebih harus diawali kata  “more” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “the most” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative.
       Contoh:      beautiful        more beaitiful      the most beautiful
    1. Beberapa kata harus dibentuk dengan cara tidak beraturan pada comparative dan superlative.
        Contoh:       bad          worse         worst
                           good       better          best
                           much       more          most
    1. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata satu/dua  yang berakhir  dengan akhiran “-er/-r” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “-est/-st” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative adalah:
1.      Kata yang berakhir dengan 2 konsonan / 1 konsonan yang didahului dengan 2 vokal.
Contoh:    rich      richer       richest
                deep     deeper      deepest
2.      Kata yang berakhir dengan 1 konsonan yang dudahului oleh 1 vokal. Dalam perubahannya konsonan tersebut digandakan sebelum diberi akhiran –er dan –est.
Contoh:      big      bigger       biggest
3.      Kata  yang berakhir dengan –e dalam perubahannya hanya diberi akhiran –r dan –st.
Contoh:       large      larger      largest
4.      Kata yang berakhir dengan –y yang didahului konsonan dalam perubahannya huruf –y tersebut berubah menjadi –i. Tetapi jika –y tsb didahului vokal maka aturan tersebut di atas tidak berlaku.
Contoh:     easy         easier        easiest
                 coy           coyer         coyest
5.      Kata yang terdiri dari dua suku kata yang berakhiran –some, -ow, -le, -er.
Contoh:     clever        cleverer       cleverest
Contoh Soal
1.

QUESTION TAGS

Merupakan bentuk pertanyaan berekor yang fungsinya untuk mempertegas suatu pertanyaan.
Contoh : Pok Ati is a beautiful woman, isn’t she?
              My husband didn’t go to Bandung last week, did he?
a.       Jika statement adalah kalimat verbal maka question tag-nya dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat verbal yaitu ada kata kerja bantu/modal yang dipakai seperti: do/does, did, have/has, had, will, shall, can, may, dll. Begitu pula jika statement adalah kalimat nominal maka question tag-nya pun dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat nominal yaitu ada kata kerja to be yang dipakai seperti: am/is/are, was/were, dll.
b.      Jika statement (+) maka question tag (-) dan sebaliknya

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian)

ü  Conditional sentence terdiri dari anak kalimat (sub clause) dan induk kalimat (mean clause) dimana bentuk tenses yang di pakai pada keduanya berbada.
ü  Induk kalimat biasanya diawali dengan kata “if”. Jika anak kalimat mendahului induk kalimat maka setelah anak kalimat ada koma (,).
ü  Ada 3 tipe conditional sentence   :


1.      Future Conditional (type 1)
Kalimat yang diucapkan dan kenyataan yang sebenarnya tidak bertolak belakang. Apa yang diucapkan, itulah yang diharapkan. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah ada (bukan imajinasi) tapi kalau syarat terpenuhi.
Contoh: If I have much money, I will buy a new car.
            (jika saya punya uang, saya akan membeli mobil baru)
Pola :  If  +  simple present       +     simple future/modal
                 S + V1                            S + will/shall/can/must/may + V1
                 S + am/is/are                  S + will shall/can/must/may + be
2.   Present Conditional (type 2)
      Kalimat yang diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa sekarang. Kalau kalimatnya (+), maka makna/meaning-nya (-) dan sebaliknya. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja).
      Contoh :  (+) If I had time, I would go to the beach with you.
                     (Saya sebenarnya tidak punya waktu sekarang ini sehingga tidak bisa pergi)
      Pola:  If  +  simple past      +      past future/modal
                        V2                            would/should/could/had to/might + V1
                        Was/were                 would/should/could/had to/might + be
      Di tipe ini hanya were saja yang dipakai.
3.   Past Conditional (type 3)
Kalimat yang digunakan untuk menyatakan kewajiban/kegiatan yang dilakukan dimasa lampau, tetapi tidak dilakukan/ tidak terpenuhi. Kalimat ini diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa lalu. Kalau kalimatnya (+), maka makna/meaning yang disampaikan (-) dan sebaliknya.
Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja)
     Cnth : (+) If I had known you were there, I would have written you a letter.
                     ( Jika saya tahu waktu dulu kamu berada di sana, saya sudah mengirim surat
      padamu- ini bermakna saya tidak mengirim surat karena saya tidak tahu kamu berada di sana)
            Pola: If  +  past perfect        +      past future perfect/modal perfect
                             Had + V3                    would/should/could/had to/might + have + V3
                             Had been                     would/should/could/had to/might + have been

RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung)

Relative Pronoun adalah kata yang digunakan untuk mengantikan salah satu pokok kalimat/bagian kalimat lainnya yang menghubungkan dua buah kalimat menjadi satu kalimat majemuk (complex sentence). Kata-kata yang digunakan sebagai penghubung yaitu: who, whom, whose, which, of which.
Rumus Umum :

Jabatan dalam kalimat
orang
benda
Subjek
Objek
Kepunyaan (possesseve)
Who/that
Whom/that
whose
Which/that
Which/that
Of which
1.Who/that: “yang”
Digunakan utk pengganti orang sbg subjek
Contoh:           We know a lot of people.      They live in Jakarta
                           S                     O                     S       
                        We know a lot of people who live in Jakarta
                         (They = a lot ao people, jabatan dalam kalimat subjek,)
                       
      2. Whom/that: “yang”
            Digunakan untuk pengganti objek
            Contoh:           The girl feel in love with the man.      I  met him last week.
                                          S                                     O            S          O
                                    The girl feel in love with the man whom I met last week.
  (him = the man, jabatan sebagai objek)
                                   
      3. whose: “yang punya”
            Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan: my, your, our, his, their, its, her.
            Contoh:           We saw the people.       Their car has been stolen.
                                      S               O               possessive
                                     We saw the people whose car had been stolen.
 (their car = mobilnya orang-orang. Orang yang dimaksud = the people)
                                   
      4. which/that
            Digunakan untuk mengganti kata benda/binatang sebagai subjek
            Contoh:           I don’t like the stories.          They are printed in English.
                                                                                      S
                                      I don’t like the stories that/which are printed in English.
                                    (they = the stories/cerita adalah kata benda yg kedudukannya sebagai S)
                                                

 My mother loves a red car very much.       I bought it last year.
                                                                      O                                             O
                                     My mother loves a red car which/that I bought last year very much
      ( it = a red car, sebuah benda, jabatan sebagai objek)
                                   .
6.      Of which
Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan/possessive untuk benda/binatang.
            Contoh:    I sent the table back to the store.        Its  surface is not smooth.  
                                                                                            Possessive
                             I sent the table of which surface is not smooth back to the store.
                            (its surface/permukaannya meja. Meja yg dimaksud the table)

7.      Where
8.      When



SUBJUNCTIVE WISH
Subjunctive/angan-angan digunakan untuk menyatakan/mengungkapkan harapan yang tidak dapat terpenuhi.

-                Future
Rumus :  S¹ + wish + S² + could/would + V¹/be
                        Contoh : I wish you would stop saying that.
                                      (saya berharap kamu akan berhenti mengatakan itu)
                                       I wish she would come to my party to night
                                                  (saya berharap dia akan dapat datang ke pesta saya minggu ini)
-          Present
Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + V2/were
                        Contoh : I wish you were old enough to marry me.
                                       (saya berharap sekarang ini umurmu cukup tua untuk menikahi saya)
                                      They wish they didn’t have to go to school today.
                                       (mereka berharap sekarang ini mereka tidak harus pergi sekolah)
-          Past
Rumus : S¹ + wished + S² + had V3/could have V3
Contoh : She wished she had had more time last night.
              (saya berharap tadi malam dia punya banyak waktu)

CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET

Causative have dan get digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu pekerjaan yang dilakukan orang lain untuk si Subjek. Causative have berarti menyuruh/memerintahkan seseorang melakukan sesuatu, sedangkan causative get berarti meminta (dengan persuasif) seseorang melakukan sesuatu.  
                                   Rumus  Active
S + have/has/had + Object¹ + V1 + Object²
S + get/gets/got + Object¹ + to V1 + Object

            Contoh : (1).  She   has   the shoemaker   mend   her shoes
                                  S               Someone/O¹         V1      something/O²
                             (Dia menyuruh Pembuat sepatu  memperbaiki  sepatunya)
                                                                                          V1                  
                          (2).  I had mechanic repair my car.
                                  (saya menyuruh mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya

            Contoh : (1). She gets the shoemaker to mend her shoes.
                                (Dia meminta Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya)
                          (2). I got the mechanic to repair my car.
                                (saya meminta mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya)


                                Rumus Passive
S + have/has/had + O + V3
S + get/gets/got + O + V3
            Contoh
(1). The manager has the letter  typed.
                                                                 O          V3
                                (Menejer menyuruh surat itu ditik)
                         (2). The manager gets the letter typed.
                                (Menejer meminta surat itu ditik)

GERUND

Gerund adalah kata kerja yang dibendakan/ kata benda yang dibentuk dari kata kerja yang diberi akhiran –ing (V-ing). Gerund digunakan bila:
  1. Verb/kata kerja sebagai subjek.
Contoh: Swimming is a good sport.
Jogging makes us fresh.
  1. Verb sebagai complement/pelengkap.
Contoh : My hobby is cycling.
  1. Setelah kata depan/preposition seperti for, on, before dll.
Contoh : I am sorry for coming late.
             Before leaving, he said nothing.
  1. Setelah istilah khusus seperti no use, to be worth, to be busy, can’t help/can’t bear,to be used to, get used to.
Contoh : It is no use studying without practicing.
  1. Setelah possessive adjective (my,your, his,her,our,their,Amir’s, dll)
Contoh : His staring frigtens me.
  1. Kata kerja/V setelah kata kerja tertentu

Admit
Appreciate
Claim
Can’t help
Resume
Consider
Avoid
Delay
Deny
Risk
Enjoy
Finish
Quit
Resist
Siggest
Mind
Miss
Postpone
Practice
Advise
Recall
Regret
Report
Recent
resist
     
Contoh : We enjoy seeing them again after so many years.

PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan)

Menyukai A ketimbang B
  1.  
S + prefers + noun/V-ing + to + noun/V-ing
Contoh:
- Dona prefers dancing to singing.
  (Dona lebih menyukai menari ketiumbang menyanyi)
- Juned prefers combro to deblo.
  (Juned lebih menyukai combro ketimbang deblo)
  1.  
S + like + noun/V-ing + better than + noun/V-ing
Contoh:
- I like T.V better than radio.
- Kokom likes reading better than watching T.V.
  1.  
S + would rather + V1 + than + V1
Contoh:
- Dita would rather watch T.V . than plays a video game.
  (Dita lebih menyukai nonton T.V ketimbang main video game)
  1.  
S + would prefer + to V1 + rather than + V1
      Contoh:
- Ayu would prefer to phone me rather than send SMS.
  (Ayu lebih menyukai menelpon saya ketimbang mengirim SMS)

CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung)
Connectors digunakan untuk menggabungkan dua kalimat/lebih menjadi satu kalimat. Connectors dibagi menjadi 3, yaitu:
  1. Menunjukan waktu: before, after, as soon as, while, when.
    1. We went home after the rain stopped.
    2. I prepare my ticket and passport before I go on holiday to Paris.
    3. I started to look for an apartment as soon as I arrived in this city.
    4. While he was reading her novel, somebody knocked on the door.
    5. I was really sad when I saw a drama movie.
  2. Menunjukan sebab dan akibat: because/because of, since.
    1. I went to the hospital because I had a serious accident.
    2. I went to the hospital because of my serious accident.
    3. Since I have no money, I can’t treat you.
  3. Menunjukan tanda urutan: first, next, then, after that, finally.
    1. first, we must prepare the ingredients.
    2. Next, we cut the vegetables into small pieces.
    3. After that, we put them into frying pan.
    4. Finally, we put some sauce and salt.    


CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung)

Kata sambung adalah kata yang digunakan untuk menyambung dua kalimat/kata-kata.
  1. Kata sambung yang berdiri sendiri seperti: and, or, but, for, although/though, that, if, dll.
Contoh: - You can read this book if you like.
               (kamu dapat membaca buku ini jika kamu mau)
             - I went to your house but you weren’t at home.
               (saya pergi ke rumahmu tapi kamu tidak ada di rumah)
             - Amir and I go to school everyday.
               (Amir dan saya pergi ke sekolah setiap hari)
             - Although it was raining, he come on time.
               (walaupun hujan dia datang tepat waktu)
  1. Kata sambung yang berpasangan seperti:
both…and…               (…dan juga….)
not only…but also…  (…tidak hanya…tetapi juga…)
either…or…                (….maupun…)
neither…nor…            (…tidak…dan tidak…)

Contoh: - He is both wise and good.
               (dia bijaksana dan juga baik)
             - He is not only active but also clever.
               (dia tidak hanya aktif tetapi juga pintar)
             - Factory pollutions have polluted either land or water in our environment.
               (Polusi pabrik telah mencemari tanah maupun air di lingkungan kita)
             - The research is neither intersting nor accurate
               (Penelitian itu tidak menarik dan tidak akurat)
                      
ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION
Kalimat elip merupakan pemendekan dari dua kalimat/lebih dengan cara menghilagkan beberapa bagian kalimat yang memiliki kesamaan arti asalnya. Kalimat elip digunakan untuk menghindari adanya pengulangan kata yang sama dalam suatu kalimat.

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