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ARTIKEL BAHASA INGGRIS TENTANG BENCANA ALAM DISASTER IMPACT OF CLIMATE

ECOLOGICAL DISASTER IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE AS A GLOBAL DISASTER RISK AND EFFORT damping



               
Global warming is a major issue in the world, is a challenge that must be faced by the world in the 21st century, this results in an increase in Earth's temperature, which resulted in the loss of balance in the cycle of the earth, the surface temperature rise and seasonal changes can not be predicted. Climate change impacts on natural disasters everywhere ranging from hurricanes, tropical cyclones, floods, endemic, drought, El Nino, famine, tsunamis and other disasters resulting in loss of ecosystem functions that have an impact on the ecological disaster. Disasters are the result of the threat factors (hazard) in the form of a natural phenomenon of global warming and the presence of vulnerabilities (vulnerability) in a community in receiving disaster risk, for which necessary measures for disaster risk reduction (disaster risk reduction) which is a disaster management activities to reduce the risk of catastrophic impacts of global climate change from before the disaster occurred (mitigation and
siagaa), in the event of a disaster (emergency response) and after a disaster (recovery and strategic plan).Keywords: Global warming, climate change, disaster risk, threat, vulnerability, disaster management.

I. INTRODUCTION
               
Global warming has been going on since the 20th century, ranging from the early revolosi industry in European countries, global warming has an impact on global climate change as a result of the greenhouse effect and fulfillment of CO2 emissions in the air that can lead to changes in conditions and temperature affect golobal meteorological and geological cycles, which  natural disaster and disaster conditions linked to global warming and sea level rise due to the addition of future sea water due to melting ice at the poles caused each year, the occurrence of El Nino, flooding due to weather factors uncertain and often also coincided with landslides, tropical storms and cyclones. Disaster risks can inflict a loss society, victims, loss of material, physical damage and environmental damage. In the past two decades there has been a growth in the world population is growing, the need for the fulfillment of his life that increase the supply of gas emissions and the greenhouse effect on Earth is out of balance with the carrying capacity of the region, this condition will occur from year to year is becoming a serious problem for world as a result of climate change. Ecological disaster will occur if the balance between living beings and place of residence are not met, it becomes a threat (hazard) that can lead to catastrophic risk if there is vulnerability (vulnerability) in a community environment in receiving threats. It also occurs as a result of global warming activities on a large scale exploitation of the natural resources that are part of the natural balance of the cycle.

                
In an international conference on global warming in Japan has resulted in the Kyoto Protocol tahun2005 which form the basis and framework for all countries in the world to reduce the rate of global warming and climate change. Lately disasters often occur everywhere ranging from tsunamis, earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, landslides, volcanic eruptions, droughts and others, this should be a common thought in addressing and resolving these issues. Disaster always happens after another without knowing the time and region, unbalanced natural conditions and climate change tedak cycle corresponding result can not be predicted disaster for sure, loss of balance due to damage to the natural environment is not stable to something that must be addressed by all parties there. Disasters are becoming increasingly widespread everywhere so important actions konprehensif done to reduce disaster risk and climate change risks by implementing disaster management and disaster risk reduction action plan, among others, (1) mitigation; (2) management preparedness and crisis management; (3) emergency (emergency response); and (4) recovery and action plans.

II. DISCUSSION1. Climate Change and Ecological Disaster
               
Global climate change caused by increased concentration of CO2 in Earth's atmosphere as the greenhouse effect (greenhouse), industrial activities, resource use petroleum and coal, as well as forest fires as a contributor of CO2 emissions in the world's biggest lead to changes in environmental and land use ( landuse), due to an imbalance between energy received by the energy that is released into the air and a change order to the atmosphere that can affect the cycle becomes unbalanced in nature, resulting in a very significant temperature changes in the atmosphere. Global warming impact on climate change in the world becomes unstable, if global warming has continued to grow each year can cause a huge impact on the acceleration threats such as tropical cyclones, tidal and flooding, extreme temperatures rise, tsunamis, droughts and El Nino can cause catastrophic risk to ecological systems.

               
Ecological disaster is a natural phenomenon that occurs due to changes in ecological structure disturbance experienced over several factors interplay among humans, living beings and natural conditions. Nature as a place to live and everything that provides a balance of environmental, ecological disasters often occur due to the accumulation of ecological crisis caused by injustice and failure that resulted in the collapse of the maintenance of the natural order of human life, this condition is also accelerated by the impact made by human activities in managing the environment so that influence of global warming on the earth that led to the occurrence of disasters everywhere, pengaruhuh of global warming on the occurrence of a disaster is the change in air temperature increasing resulting unbalanced seasonal changes and trigger the acceleration of geological and meteorological cycles.

          
Rising temperatures over time on average per year reach 1.4 to 5.8 degrees Celsius by 2100 that could affect sea level rise reaches 88 meters, global warming in the air to impact energy balance in a region to drought, declining agricultural productivity, ecosystems and order the destruction of a human life in the long run. Tropical cyclone is a storm phenomenon that occurs due to low air pressure system in the tropics are becoming a threat (hazard) that can lead to disaster, can be devastating tropical cyclone that passed the area has a diameter of between 20-150 miles, and can lead to flooding due to rising time at sea and on inland water carried by the wind with high strength. The last few years of flooding is a common phenomenon in many countries there is caused by the destruction of the forest functions as a regulator of the water cycle, land governance is not good, morphological conditions and the presence of the ocean tide, which knows no boundaries and time, it is influenced also with the unpredictable weather conditions where the rainy season is no longer in the cycle, the hydrological cycle becomes unbalanced between evaporation, prefipitasi, and the infiltration capacity of the soil to the surface of the water, season unstable conditions caused by the global climate change on the earth so it is difficult to The predicted with certainty. The number of population is very high into the determinants of disaster, keep in mind that sustu threat (hazard) would be disastrous if the impact is very large and broad, affecting the lives and livelihood of the people and assets that exist include human life, physical (infrastructure), economic, social, cultural and natural resources.

               
Biggest impact as a result of climate change in the world disasters of El Nino, a drought that occurred were caused by the increasing temperature of the average normal temperature resulting in a very significant change in the season, it's impact on the state and affect the productivity of agricultural land to produce can have an impact on the destruction of the ecosystem,   human life and ecological damage. Moreover, it can affect the availability of water resources whether on the surface or in the subsurface, a social phenomenon as droughts, reduced durability of food and the loss of land Ecological disaster caused by the accumulation of a whole series of processes that causes global warming in the world.

2. Suppression Efforts for Disaster
               
Disaster (disaster) is a phenomenon that occurs as a result of the above components collectivity threat (hazard) that various issues of global warming affecting nature and environmental conditions, as well as how the degree of vulnerability (vulnerability) of a community has a very high value so that there is a relationship between three factors above to be a disaster (Paripurno, 2000). In a world conference on disaster reduction in Japan (World Confrence on Disaster Reduction, Kobe, Japan 2005), with reference to the United Framework Convention on Climate Changes (UNFCCC) and the catastrophic climate change becomes a major issue because the relationship exists at the occurrence of the various disasters in the world and produce an action plan Hyogo (Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-20015), the results of this conference, to implement disaster risk reduction to the level of the community in which each country is encouraged to have an action plan for disaster risk reduction as an attempt. Besides efforts for disaster risk reduction has been carried out in the presence of the Kyoto Protocol in 2005, as a framework for any countries in dunian conduct climate change mitigation action plans and environmental management to reduce the world from global warming can lead to ecological disaster.

               
Ecological disaster a threat to every country so the need for preventive action in reducing disaster risks that will result, climate change in a very long time is not limited to those aspects of the climate and the environment, reduction of CO2 emissions in the air to be something important to do subtraction the impact of global warming in the world. Prevention and environmental management should start early to assess the risks and natural conditions are not stable against the threat of ecological disaster.

               
Disaster risk reduction includes stages before disaster, during disaster and after the disaster, on stage before the disaster risk management can be done through the efforts of prevention or mitigation, a concerted effort was made to minimize the risk of disasters, mitigation can be done denganpenilaian based on an analysis of disaster risk threat (hazard) as a result of global climate change, recognize the threat to determine the factors that influence the occurrence of disasters, particularly the ecological disaster, from the factors above and then do an assessment of the vulnerability (vulnerability) in a community to accept the impact of threats in order to know levels of disaster risk. Mitigation can be done by performing du approach include structural approach which refers to the infrastructure that supports the reduction of the effects of global warming and catastrophic risks, as well as non-structural approaches to approach people as designers and planners a disaster mitigation measures. The threat is something that can mengkibatkan either natural disasters (natural disaster) or as a result of human activity itself (man-made disaster). Top of disaster risk assessment can be used as a benchmark in establishing a strategic plan preparedness in the community to deal with disaster risk, early warning systems should be owned as a sign that can provide information regarding the threat of disaster risk. Disaster risk is the relationship between the components of threat (hazard), vulnerability (vulnerability) and the ability (capacity) to manage the threat. If seen do disaster risk can be formulated
RI = Hazard x Vulnerability / CapacityWhere: RI = Disaster Risk
                    
H = Hazard
                    
V = Vulnerability
                    
C = CapacityThe higher the value of threats and vulnerabilities value the higher the risk of disaster, disaster risk reduction needs to make improvements to the value of vulnerability (vulnerability) to capacity (capacity) by strengthening the capacity in the community in managing the environment, recognize threats, knowing the impact that can be caused by the factors that resulted in environmental disasters (disaster ecology).

               
Preparedness efforts can be done by performing an action plan that is implemented in an activity aimed at disaster risk reduction. The action plan should include efforts are being made to reduce the rate of climate change in each country, covering three issues that need to be noticed: (1) disaster risk reduction; (2) global climate change, and (3) sustainable development, which became an integral and interconnected in managing the threat of natural disasters (natural disaster). When disasters in a region needs to be done fast handling (emergency response) to guarantee the safety, health and basic rights to all components without exception knocked, rapid recovery in times of crisis on the lives and livelihoods of the people should be well planned and integrated so that can be dealt with quickly. Recovery process (recovery) become part of the disaster risk reduction efforts in planning a program in which the recovery should have the elements to disaster risk reduction, useful for sustainability and sustainable development safe from the risk of disaster.
III. CONCLUSION
               
Climate change caused by global warming in the world has an impact on the occurrence of natural disasters is an ecological disaster, where there is a loss of ecological balance as tropical cyclones, tidal and flooding, extreme temperatures rise, endemic, tsunamis, droughts and El Nino. This has an impact on their environment. Disaster is an accumulation of natural factors that have experienced a balance disorder in which there is a vulnerability (vulnerability) on the affected area so that the decrease in the deterrent power of society to accept the risk of disaster, disaster often happens after another in the same time (the twin disasters ). Disaster risk reduction can be done through the stages of disaster management that includes prevention and mitigation; preparedness; emergency management, recovery and action plans that can have implications on disaster risk reduction.

              
Disaster risk reduction efforts are integrated and planned efforts undertaken in disaster management so that it can be implemented into the environment  based disaster risk reduction, by reducing the effects of global warming are interconnected between disaster risk reduction, the reduction of global warming and sustainable development (sustainable development)

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