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KUMPULAN ARTIKEL BAHASA INGGRIS TENTANG POLITIK TERBARU LENGKAP 2014

                                                       UNDERSTANDING POLITICS
Political science study a particular aspect of public life comes to power. Study of political science is the foundation of a variety of activities in a process of political system (state) related to the process of determining the goals of the system and carry out these goals (Miriam Budiharjo, 1992). The system according to Noer (1983) covers the system of power, prestige, influence, interests, values, beliefs and religion, ownership, status and ideological systems.
According Syarbani (2002:13), the study of political science is the foundation of efforts to gain power, to retain power, the use of power, and how to discourage the use of power. Thus viewed from the aspect of state, political science study countries, destination countries, and state agencies, as well as power relations both fellow citizens, relations with the countries citizens, and relations between countries. When viewed from the aspect of power political science study of power in society, namely the nature, essence, basic, process, scope, and results of that power. An examination of the behavior, political science study of political behavior in the political system that includes political culture, power, interests, and policies.
See explanation above, the study of political science include: (1) political science theory, (2) political institutions (constitution, national government, local government, economic and social functions of government and comparative political institutions), (3) political parties, and (4) international relations.
At least six things that is central to political science, namely power, state, government, politics facts, political activities, community organizations. While the object of political science consists of two things, namely, (1) material (the tangible object in acquiring and maintaining power struggle with the object state, power, government, political facts, political activities, and community organizations). and (2) formal (knowledge, the center of attention). Thus, there are five Syarbaini conclude about the concept of political science, namely (1) the efforts taken by citizens to discuss and realize the common good, (2) all matters relating to the implementation of state and government, (3) any activity directed to seek and maintain power, (4) activities related to the formulation and implementation of public policy, and (5) as the conflict in order to seek and maintain resources that are considered important.
Meanwhile, according to Maran (1999) is a political-specific studies on how humans can solve the problems together with other human beings. In other words, politics is a variety of activities within a political system or state that involves the process of determining and implementing goals. To implement the objectives necessary to determine the general policies and arrangements concerning the distribution or allocation of resources and the various sources of Dava vang there. It required strength {power) and authority {aiitliorlty). used well to foster cooperation rnaupun to resolve conflicts that may arise in the process. Power that can be used can also be coercive persuasion (coercion) is more modest but solid definition can be seen from Surbakti opinion (1999) that the concept of political  between the government and society in order to process and binding decision on the common good of society living in an area Political sense recorded from various references political science concluded that there are three explanations. First,  categories that make up political activity. In this case Paul Conn regarded as the essence of political conflict. Second, construct a formula that can encapsulate anything that can be categorized as political. Politics can be defined as "who gets what, when and how". Third, prepare a list of questions that must be answered to understand politics. Through the list of questions is expected to give an answer to the exact picture of the politics (Surbakti, 1992). politics will be linked to the power, the state and collective living arrangements in order to achieve the good of society.
In addition, it is known that the basic concepts are studied political science is the state {state), power (power), the policy-making (decision making), wisdom (policy, beleiri), and division (di'-tribution), or allocation (allocation).
In short, political science in addition to learning about the interaction between the government and the public to discuss and realize the common good, which is related to the implementation of state and government through the formulation and implementation of public policy, also talked about the various efforts to seek and maintain power struggles.
According to Weber, sociology should be value-free (value free), unbiased personal interests or moral beliefs. Personal biases should be avoided for scientific research. This is intended to ensure the objectivity of truth sociology.
From a sociological conceptualization donated by the leaders of social science, then used as the basis for formulating the scope of political sociology. In operasionalnva, the material scope of political sociology manifested in several ways: (1) political socialization; (2) political participation; (3) political recruitment; (4) political communication.
1. Political Socialization
Political socialization is a process that any individual or group can recognize the political system and determine the nature of the politics perceptions-perceptions and reactions to political phenomena.
Political socialization of work includes examination of the cultural environment, the political environment and the social environment of individuals and groups. Thus, political socialization is the foundation of political sociology in addition to the most important and also the first major role for any political action.
2. Participation Folitik
Political participation is the involvement of individuals or groups on the lowest to the highest level in the political system. This means that political participation is a concrete form of political activity that can validate a person to participate in the political system.
Thus, any individual or group with the other one will have differences in political participation; because participation involves concrete political role in which a person will be different role, structure and the will of the political system that followed.
3. Recruitment Politics
Political recruitment is a process that puts a person in political office after vang concerned recognized credibility and lovalitasnya. Political recruitment is a logical consequence in meeting sustainability adanva political system and a political system that is alive and growing.
In operation, the political recruitment can be reached through two paths. First, the formal recruitment when someone is political positions openly recruited through the provisions of a general nature and provisions were enacted together. Recruitment is done through selection or through elections. Second, the formal recruitment effort that a person without an open process so that someone is getting a chance or maybe approached others to be given certain positions.
4. Political Communication
Political communication is a process of delivering political information on each individual member of a political system or piece of information from one political system to another part, and received mutual information between social systems with political systems.
Such information is continuous, is an exchange between individuals, groups and individuals to the group to which the impact can be felt by all levels of society. That information could be in the form of expectations, criticism, reakasi-public reaction to the political system and political officials. Or a hope, invitation, promise and suggestions of political officials to the people who have an impact on changes or nwmperteguh political measures to be implemented stau not implemented.
Foundations above is that the political processes there should be up and running within a political system and political institutions when embaga-will, and certainly, dealing with SOCIETY AND POLITICS
A. Public Relations and Politics
Within the framework of the social dimensions of society, will be 1! always associated with politics. Political dimension in society, according to Franz Magnis Suseno (1991) covers circlesinstitutional and state laws and value systems and ideologies that give legitimacy "to him.
"At first glance, the above statement giving reasons if the impossibility to separate political communities. Politics and "the public, or otherwise, are the two sides of a coin; different from each other although he stressed the point but he can not be separated "in social reality, both short-term and long-term to 1, both in the scope of an individual or group.
According to Noer there is a public relations with the political aspects of power. He asserted that the prerequisite "; absence of power in the community except for the people who controlled on the one hand and the existence of "society controlled by the other party. An influence or "someone who mastered the authority was formed and given by the people under their control.
The opinions above represent the first public relations with the political aspects of power. He asserted that the prerequisites of the powers in the community except for: people who master on one side and a society that is controlled by the other party. An influence or authority of a person who controls established and administered by, the people under their control.
The definition above does not refer solely to the modern society, but also to show that there has been a traditional society for generations in the history of human life. That relationship would also be the smallest unit, as we know in Islam that if there are three people traveling then let one of them be appointed leader. The Islamic doctrinal reflection reflect the so-called leader of the family, neighborhood association leaders, and so on until we meet heads of state.
Public relations and political views of have meaning setting. As mentioned by Franz Magnis Suseno (1991: 20), a relationship that has two fundamental sessions. First, human beings are creatures that know and want. Second, a creature that has always wanted to take action. In an effort to desire setting (know, want and act) that required an agency arrangement with a diverse kind: there is the so-called empire, states, tribes, and so forth.
What Suseno confirmed that characterize a society and political relations in the form, in a nutshell is the state. "With the state showed allegiance to the applicable rules, regulations generally or specifically. Tax laws, the income, the law on the organization of political and social organizations; law prohibition against the establishment of the communist party; and so are the rules state that emerged from the womb (made by the government) to create a political order among the people of the lowest layer of the low-to-high setingi layer.
Descriptive Soemarsaid Moertono (1985) described the role of the state in society, as ber'kut.
"There is no room for adjustment at will and reciprocal or a peace / harmony and fun match; on the contrary, the universe is governed by the provisions of the hard and firm without mercy. Deviation from it will cause a series of reactions that might come to harm things. And here once for a short distance've come to believe in fate enactment. That's why people would assume Java is not the state has fulfilled its obligations if it does not push an inner  (tentrem, peace and resolution) and embodies the formal rules as the rules state. "
The quotation above shows, that the political (state) always  with the community in understanding the very complex and  He does not just relate toa profane (visible), even persoiilan tranquility and inner peaceentirely a state responsibility. Although exemplified in the above quote is the Java community, but countries where more traditional and less modern will have the same relationship; that such state relations (political) community.
In other words, every member of society can not escape from the bonds of the regulations held by the state. In general it can be said that  obviously can not avoid living state. Because, let alone still alive, when he died he kept in touch with the state, ie, with permission  This is the country that shows the importance of the relationship can sometimes be greater than the role of organizations such as sports clubs  or political organizations (parties) and community organizations.
Close relationship between society and politics, as well illustrated by Stevan Lukes (in Miller & Seidcntof, ed, 1986) as' follows.
"Why does someone have to form a bond to the administrative apparatus that monopolizes the legitimate authority in a particular area? Symbols as will be united in life only when they become state symbols; it is not the government machinery but that person must have a sense of shared political destiny with other people, a desire to unite with them politically in a country and readiness to be bound by collective political action. "Illustration is clear that the political and public relations are very significant to the presence of a unified society and that society has a self-identity that encourages a sense of belonging to it with her identity (nationalism) In a simple relationship can be specified as follows:
1. As a symbol of togetherness
2. As a form of collective identity
3. Tumbuhnva As a vehicle of feelings and kinship
4. Act as a vehicle for the bond.
So politics, in terms of both small and large will direct the functions of relationships between members of the community so that every one of the people always get the chance, the opportunity, the container actuality, setting and publishing. Bahwii extreme, through masvarakat and political relations can give rise to a relationship of hostility and war if it is released from the value frameworks that apply in the middle World war I and world War II, followed by cold (tension relationship between the strength of the liberal and communist) is actually a reflection of public relations (world) politics. But politics has been tarnished by the loss of moral ties and had separated from the political substance to the orderly function 
However, as revealed by Carlto • J.H. Hayes (1950: 128), to avoid a clash of values ​​in the relationship, then the relationship of society and politics can be formulated as a force to foster sympathy among the members of society such as shared service, repair and renewal as well as a sense of defense to the region, the culture and the richness of the natural world.


The same thing occurs in the political recruitment. With the recruitment of the political system will be stronger, get support and get motion regions. With the recruitment of people into the political process, then the public will find legitimacy and authority in determiningplays the role of himself without feeling that the community was perceived and

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