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CONTOH MAKALAH BAHASA INGGRIS TERBARU TENTANG POLUSI, AIR,UDARA DAN TANAH

                                                                  Kind of - kind Pollution 
 
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Background The background of this paper is made to perform tasks IPA (Natural Sciences) about the types of pollution, we already know that pollutants harmful to human health if inhaled, could interfere with various types of respiratory illness therefore made this paper so that readers can find out more in about the types of pollution that are dangerous to health.
v Formulation of the problem § How is that a way of handling the pollution § How research on air pollution § What is the impact on human health § What can be done to tackle pollution
v The method Research methods that I use in the manufacture of this paper is by using the indirect method is by way of the internet looking for material to both the words and images
v The purpose of the study § Readers can find out about more pollution in § To reader to be careful with the polluting § Readers can find out about how to combating pollution
v Systematic research § Preface § Table of Contents § Chapter I Introduction - Background - Formulation of the problem - Methods of research - The purpose of the study - Systematics 
§ CHAPTER II Discussion - Air pollution - Pollution of land - Noise pollution - Radioactive contamination - Water pollution
CHAPTER III § Closure - Bibliography
CHAPTER II DISCUSSION 1. The air pollution A. Definition of air pollution Pollution means pollution. Pollution is the inclusion of living things, matter, energy, or other components in the environment causing environmental changes in order by human activities. Pollution means the entry of contaminants (pollutants) as a result manisia activities or natural processes found in place, the time, and the amount improperly. Pollution can be encountered, such as in soil, water, air, sound bahkam noise from the motor, engine etc.. Air pollution is the presence of one or more physical substance, chemical, or biological atmospheric quantities that could endanger human health, animals, and plants, interfere with the aesthetics and comfort, or property damage (wikipedia). Whereas by another expert, Air pollution is a compilation of air quality through the that interfere with life because of the entry of pollutants into the air in the room or dump a lot of dirt / germs that cause pollution. Urban areas that have a high level of pollution is Boston, The Bronx, Chicago, Dallas, New York City, Seattle, and Tucson. After two years of research continue to monitor regularly and see asthma symptoms that arise, such as the ability breathing, absence from school, the measurement of air condition. Air quality is measured using EPA Aerometric Information Retrieval System. Air quality worsened in Semarang. Control Agency survey Environmental Impact (Environmental Impact) of Semarang at the end of 2003 showed decline in the quality. Air quality is already experiencing mixed environment a decrease of approximately 28 percent. Increased air pollution due to urban growth as well as the use of petroleum-fueled transportation modes invited concern. Elements of the public concerned about environmental issues did not want to stay silent. They remind all road users and visitors to the mall carrying Air Movement Anti Gross. Semarang became one of the 10 major cities in Indonesia the conditions of transportation and air quality is most alarming. It is due to the more ideally no comparison between the total population by the number of existing motor vehicle. The result of years of research by the Department of Transportation 2005 showed, transport chaos and air pollution in the city of Semarang only lost by Surabaya, Bandung, Bogor and Medan. After successive Semarang also occupied Yogyakarta, Denpasar, Makassar, Palembang, and Malang. B. Causes of air pollution Air pollution can be divided into primary pollutants and secondary pollutants. The primary pollutant is a pollutant substances arising directly from the source air pollution. Carbon monoxide is an example of primary air pollutants because it is the result of combustion. Secondary pollutant is a substance pollutant that is formed from the reaction of primary pollutants in the atmosphere. The formation of ozone in photochemical smog is an example of air pollution secondary. The atmosphere is a complex system, dynamic, and fragile. The recent growth of emissions concerns about the effects of air pollution in global context and its relation to global warming, climate change and depletion ozone in the stratosphere. Some human activities that can cause air pollution are: Transport, Industrial, power generation, combustion (fireplaces, stoves, furnaces, incinerators with various types of fuel), exhaust gas plants that produce harmful gases such as (CFC). Natural sources such as volcanoes, marshes, forest fires, Nitrification and biological denitrification. Other sources such as: transportation, tank leaks, Generation of methane from land uruk / waste disposal and solvent vapor organic. 1. Various kinds of pollutants a. Sulfur compounds from the combustion of coal b. Derived from the combustion of particulate asbestos fibers, iron ore, and asbestos were destroyed usually in the form of smoke c. Carbon dioxide comes from burning fuels and forests as well as fumes motor. d. Klorofuosokarbon (CFC) gas leak coming from the refrigerator, the solvent and developer of plastic foam. e. Nitrogen oxides originate from the combustion process and the formation of smog Phy chemistry. f. Hydrogen and carbon from the engine comes from the vacuum udara.Pengoksida nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons from car, example is the oxidizing reagent asetit nitrate. 2. Component causes of air pollution: a .. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Carbon dioxide comes from the combustion of hydrocarbons in it, including petroleum and natural gas. For example, the burning of octane, which is one one component of gasoline with 16 reaction as CO2 (g) + 18 H2O (g). Actually ◊ following: 2 C8H18 (l) + 25 O2 (g) of carbon dioxide gas is not harmful to humans. However, increased levels of CO2 in the air has resulted in an increase in temperature the earth's surface. This phenomenon is called the greenhouse effect (green house effect). The greenhouse effect is an event in nature where sunlight can penetrate the glass roof, but the reflected infrared rays can not penetrate it. Sunlight is not could get out was still trapped inside the greenhouse and cause the temperature inside increased greenhouse. Likewise udaraa carbon dioxide, it can be bypassed ray ultraviolet and visible light, but hold the reflected infrared rays from the earth. As a result, the surface temperature of the earth rose if rising CO2 levels in the air. The temperature rise Global lid can melt polar ice. The next result is an increase sea ​​level so it can flood coastal cities around the world including our beloved city. b. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Carbon monoxide gas comes from incomplete combustion of fuel in motor vehicle. Result of gasoline combustion flue gases from motor vehicles containing 10,000 to 40,000 ppm CO. This gas is colorless and odorless, therefore, its presence is not immediately known. The gas is toxic, can cause pain in the eyes, respiratory tract, and lungs. When entering into blood through breathing, CO reacts with hemoglobin in the blood ◊ forming COHb (carboxyhemoglobin) with the following reaction: CO + Hb COHb As we know, this hemoglobin reacts with oxygen should be O2Hb (oxyhemoglobin) and carry the necessary oxygen to the cells of the body tissues with the following reaction: O2 O2Hb. CO bonds with hemoglobin more strongly than O2 ◊ with Hb + Hb Hb hindering vital function is to carry oxygen to the body, resulting in a lack of oxygen the body, causing pain head and respiratory disorders and even death c. Sulfur oxides (SO2 and SO3) Sulfur compounds which act as contaminants that are harmful gases SO2 and SO3-gasa. SO2 gas in the atmosphere mostly from the results burning oil and coal that contains sulfur, in addition there are also derived from the oxidation of sulphide ores in the industry. Air mengadung SO2 in high enough levels can cause inflammation of the lungs and throat in humans and khlorosis (pallor) in the leaves. Oxidation of SO2 will cause the formation of SO3. If SO3 reacts with water vapor will cause acid rain (acid rain). pH of rainwater containing sulfur oxides will drop be 3-4. Consequently arise metals corrosion, damage buildings made marble and waning paints in painting. SO2 when inhaled by respiratory, will react with the water in the respiratory tract and form acid sulfite which will damage the tissue and cause pain. If SO3 is sucked, then formed sulfuric acid, and the acid is more dangerous. d. Nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2) In recent decades, an increasing number of motor vehicles has cause a type of air pollution that were never experienced by civilization previously. The pollution caused by nitrogen oxides. The main source of oxide nitrogen is fuel combustion in industry and motor vehicles. 2. Pollution Soil
A. Definition Soil pollution basically is about contaminating the land surface of the Earth through dumping urban litter problem, the disposal of industrial waste, mineral exploitation, and misusing the soil by harmful agricultural practices. Soil pollution includes visible litter and waste along with the soil itself is contaminated. Land will be contaminated by chemicals in pesticides and herbicides used for agricultural purposes along with garbage strewn problem in urban areas such as roads, parks, and streets.
B. Soil Pollution consists of: Solid Waste and Soil Pollution
1. The Solid Waste: semisolid or solid materials made by man or animal activity, and are discarded because they are harmful or useless are known as solid waste. Most of the solid waste, such as paper, plastic containers, bottles, cans, and even used cars and electronic goods are not biodegradable, which means they do not get broken down through inorganic or organic processes. So, when they accumulate they pose a threat to human health, plus, decaying wastes also attract household pests and result in urban areas becoming unhealthy, dirty spots and unsightly to live in. In addition, it also causes damage to terrestrial organisms, while also reducing the use of land for other more useful purposes.
Some sources of solid waste that cause land pollution are:
Waste of Agriculture: This consists of the problem of waste generated by the plant, animal dung, and agricultural residues.
Wastes from Mining: Piles of garbage and piles of coal slag.
Waste of Industry: Industrial waste matter that can cause land pollution can include paints, chemicals, and so on.
Solids from Sewage Treatment: Wastes that remains after sewage has been treated, biomass sludge, and settled solids.
Abu: This residue that remains after solid fuels burned.
Garbage: The garbage problem consists of foods that break down and decompose waste material such as glass, metal, fabric, plastic, wood, paper, and so on.
2. Pollution Soil: soil pollution is mainly caused by chemicals in pesticides, such as poisons used to kill agricultural pests like insects and herbicides that are used to get rid of weeds. Therefore, the results of soil pollution: · Healthy soil management methods. · Harmful practices of irrigation methods. Soil pollution caused by farms because they allow to collect dirt, which dissolves into the nearby land area. Chemicals used for purposes like sheep dipping also cause serious land pollution as do diesel oil spill.
C. What Consequences of Land Pollution?
Soil pollution can affect wildlife, plants, and humans in a number of ways, such as: · Cause problems in the respiratory system · Causes skin problems · Causes birth defects · The cause various types of cancer Toxic materials that pollute the soil can get into the human body directly by: · Coming into contact with the skin · Washed into water sources such as reservoirs and rivers · Eat fruits and vegetables that have been grown in contaminated soil · Breathing in polluted dust or particles D. How can Land Pollution Be Prevented? · People should be educated and made aware about the harmful effects of junk · Items that are used for domestic purposes should be reused or recycled · Personal Litter should be disposed of properly · The problem of organic waste to be dumped in a remote area of ​​residence · Inorganic materials such as paper, plastic cups, and metal must be reclaimed and then recycled 3. Pollution Voice
A. Definition of noise pollution Noise pollution is a type of pollution that is rarely observed by people. But it turns out pollution is included in the most dangerous pollutants. The noise pollution caused by most plant machinery, motor vehicles, until the sound of music concerts aircraft. This pollution is very dangerous and can interfere with a person's health if experienced in a high-level or long-term and sustainable. The side effects usually are sleep disorders, hearing loss, stress, auditory damage, and so forth. Therefore, one must keep the noise level within reasonable limits.
4. Radioactive Contamination A. Radioactive Contamination and Radiation Exposure Radioactive contamination and radiation exposure could occur if radioactive materials are exposed to the environment due to accidents, acts of nature, or acts of terrorism. Exposure can about the people and pollute the surrounding environment as well as their belongings.
B. Radioactive Contamination Radioactive contamination occurs when radioactive material exposed on or in an object or a person. Radioactive materials are released into the environment can cause air, water, surfaces, soil, plants, buildings, people, or animals become contaminated. A person who has been contaminated would contain radioactive material on or in their bodies. 1. External Contamination? External contamination occurs when radioactive material, in the form of dust, powder, or liquid, in contact with a person's skin, hair, or clothing. In other words, contact with the outside of a person's body. People who are externally contaminated can become internally contaminated if radioactive material goes into their bodies. 2. Contamination Internal? Internal contamination occurs when a person ingesting or inhaling radioactive materials, or when radioactive material enters the body through an open wound or are absorbed through the skin. Some types of radioactive materials stay in the body and settles in different body organs. There are other types discharged from the body through the blood, sweat, urine, and feces. C. Exposure to Radiation Radioactive materials issued a form of energy that moves in waves or particles. This energy is called radiation. When a person is exposed to radiation, the energy can penetrate the body. As a simple example is when someone in the radiograph (x-ray), meaning he was exposed to radiation. D. Differences Contamination by Exposure A person affected by exposure to radiation or contaminated with radioactive material does not necessarily mean that his body and has passed or penetrated by waves or radioactive particles, such as when we are in the X-ray. A person is said to be contaminated if radioactive material has to be on or within the body. People who are exposed to radiation released contaminated by radioactive material on or inside the body. People who are not exposed to the contaminated could be too close to radioactive material or people, places, objects that have been contaminated. E. The occurrence of exposure or contamination Radioactive materials could be released into the environment in the following ways:

    
A nuclear power plant accident or due to natural disasters, as happened in Fukushima, Japan today.
    
An atomic bomb explosion.
    
Crash of a medical device or industry.
    
Testing of nuclear weapons.
    
An intentional release of radioactive material as an act of terrorism.
F. Deployment of Radio Active Contamination People who are externally contaminated with radioactive material can contaminate other people or objects that they touch. For example, people who have radioactive dust on their clothing may spread the radioactive dust when they sit in chairs or hug other people. People who are internally contaminated can infect people close to them from the radioactive material inside their bodies. Body fluids (blood, sweat, urine) of internally contaminated person can contain radioactive materials. Make contact with the body fluids can result in contamination and / or exposure.

5. Pollution Water A. Definition of water pollution Ater pollution occurs when water bodies are affected due to the addition of large amounts of materials to the water. Sources of water pollution are categorized as point source or non-point source pollution. Point source pollution occurs when pollutants are emitted directly into the waterway. A pipe spewing toxic chemicals directly into the river is an example. A non-point source pollutants occurs when there is runoff into waterways, for example, when fertilizer from a field is brought into the river by surface runoff. B. Types of Water Pollution 1. The Toxic Substances - A toxic substance is a chemical pollutant that is not a natural substance in aquatic ecosystems. The largest contributor of toxic pollution that herbicides, pesticides and industrial compounds. 2. Substance Organic - Organic pollution occurs when excess organic matter, such as manure or sewage, into the water. When the organic material in the pond increases, the number of decomposers will increase. These decomposers grow rapidly and use a lot of oxygen during their growth. This causes oxygen depletion as decomposition occurs. Lack of oxygen can kill aquatic organisms. As aquatic organisms die, they are broken down by decomposers which led to further depletion of oxygen levels. A type of organic pollution can occur when inorganic pollutants such as nitrogen and phosphate accumulate in aquatic ecosystems. High levels of these nutrients cause excessive growth of plants and algae. As the plants and algae die, they become organic matter in the water. Large decay of plant material, in turn, lowers the level of oxygen. The process of rapid plant growth followed by increased activity of decomposers and depletion of oxygen levels is called eutrophication. C. Specific Sources of Water Pollution 1. Agriculture:

    
Farms often use large amounts of herbicides and pesticides, both of which are toxic pollutants. These substances are very dangerous for life in streams, rivers and lakes, where toxic substances can build up over a period of time.

    
Livestock also often use large amounts of chemical fertilizers are washed into waterways and damage the water supply and the life in it. Fertilizer can increase the amount of nitrates and phosphates in the water, which can cause eutrophication process.

    
Allowing cattle to graze near water sources often produce organic waste washed into waterways. This sudden introduction of organic matter increaces amount of nitrogen in the water, and also can lead to eutrophication.

    
Four hundred million tons of soil carried by the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico each year. This is because a lot of sediment runoff from exposed soil agriculture. Excessive amounts of sediment in the water can block sunlight, preventing aquatic plants from photosynthesizing, and can strangle the fish by clogging their gills.

2. Business

    
Clearing of land can cause soil erosion into streams.

    
And waste generated by the industry can get into the water supply, introducing large organic pollutants into the ecosystem.

    
Industrial plants and power of many uses of rivers, streams and lakes to despose waste heat. The resulting hot water can cause thermal pollution. Thermal pollution can have adverse effects on aquatic life in an ecosystem as temperature increaces decreace amount of oxygen in the water, thus reducing the number of animals that can survive there.

    
Water can be contaminated with toxic or radioactive materials from industrial, mine and abandoned hazardous waste sites.

    
Acid precipitation occurs when the burning of fossil fuels emits sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere. Sulfur dioxide reacts with water in the atmosphere, creating rain containing sulfuric acid. As acid precipitation falls into lakes, rivers and ponds can lower the overall pH of the water channel, killing vital plant life, thus affecting the whole food chain. It can also be dissolved heavy metals from the soil into the water, killing fish and other aquatic organisms. Therefore, air pollution potentially one of the most threatening forms of pollution on aquatic ecosystems.
3. Houses

    
Waste generated by the houses or runoff from septic tanks into nearby waterways, introduce organic pollutants which can cause eutrophication.

    
Fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides used for lawn care can runoff and contaminate waterways. As with agriculteral fertilizer, the fertilizer can cause eutrophication of lakes and rivers.

    
Improper disposal of hazardous chemicals into drains toxic materials to itroduce ecosystems, contaminating water supplies in ways that can harm aquatic organisms.

    
Leakage of oil and antifreeze from a car on the road can be cleaned by rain into nearby waterways, polluting it.
CLOSING
Similarly, we can describe the material that became the subject of this paper, of course, there are still many shortcomings and weaknesses, because they lack the knowledge and the lack of reference or reference that has to do with the title of this paper. Many authors hope dear readers Dusi provide constructive criticism and suggestions to the author of this paper and for the sake of perfect and writing papers on the occasion - the next opportunity. Hopefully this paper is useful for writers in particular also dear readers in general.
REFERENCES http://blogbintang.com/contoh- http://www.scribd.com/doc/19464893/Makala http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/ http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/POLUSI hadesfromhell.blogspot.com / ... / in-my-school-in-Labschool-if-udah.html www.google.co.id

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