KUMPULAN KARYA ILMIAH BAHASA INGGRIS TENTANG JARINGAN KOMPUTER TERBARU

KUMPULAN KARYA ILMIAH BAHASA INGGRIS TENTANG JARINGAN KOMPUTER   TERBARU


                                                             SCIENTIFIC WORKS TASK                                                       COMPUTER NETWORK SECURITY                                                                  Hard Drive Protection Server                                                                                     With                                                                      System Fault Tolerance


CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
Rear 1.1Latar In the world of cyberspace or in the internet network possibilities are enormous damage such as: viruses, hacking, SQL injection, even crypto analisys. These things happen as a result of the handshake process as well as the ease of access together via the Internet so that it is necessary for a security in the network, not just on the internet that the local network is very dangerous hazard considering his access a lot of data over a local network (LAN). therefore this paper will discuss how to secure the data by using a system fault tolerance (fault tolerance) means is that the system tolerate damage or adverse conditions in the network to provide data protection in other forms so that in the event of damage will not stop the process in the network system. Damages data is usually caused by several factors, namely factors (hardware), the use of factor data, and external factors. The first factor is the factor of data or damage to hardware (hardware) occurs due to the instability condition of the software such as hard disk condition and the condition of the electrical stability or stabilizer which can even cause damage to the computer (PC). Second factor is the factor the use of data which may occur due to inadvertent users to protect data such as forgetting to save in a folder on the hard drive or when the user opens the data directly disconnecting the network without closing the first open data, resulting in the data being disabled and not lengkap.Sedangkan to the third factor, namely external factors which is very very difficult to overcome the danger even where external factors caused by hackers and virus attacks. So it can be concluded that the very need for data handling system that can ensure the protection of data which needs to be known that the more data usage will be even greater damage to the data within the Internet or local network. For it is in this paper will be discussed in detail the system fault tolerance in the network.
1.2 Objectives of Research The purpose of this study was to explains fault tolerance facility on a computer network system and know the importance of data management systems in a local network and external network (the Internet) as well as to provide data and information handling system backup The purpose of this study is also to provide ease of access to the data together in a network or data sharing and ubtuk also protect against the occurrence of the undesirable things that can cause data to become corrupted (crash), as well as divulging information about the complete fault tolerance system. 1.3 Research Methods The method used in the preparation of this paper is to study the book - a book that concerns about the system fault tolerance and also learn from the Internet that the website and the forum - a forum that discusses the use of fault tolerance in the network, which includes the system fault tolerance of disk mirroring , disk duplexing and discuss about RAID (Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks) or combining several hard drives to maximize the performance of the hard drive in the computer and on the network. For fault tolerance that will be discussed in this paper. In the scientific work is also dibahaa on how to improve the system disk mirroring and also the process of data backup systems in which material is learned from a website on the internet and books supporting computer network security system.







CHAPTER II THEORY
With the ability to use various software unytuk especially the data, then the possibility of computer users to use other computer devices to access the data contained on a computer when it is used other people's computers, so people do not have to work on one computer. For data security that is necessary in order to be protected so that the data does not become corrupted as a result of the data that is used by many people in the local network and Internet network derta avoid accessing by unauthorized people. Network operating systems are generally equipped with a security facility with a term dikenak data fault tolerance that can be loosely defined as the tolerance to errors. It should also diktahui that with the growing importance of the meaning of a data handling system it is necessary also that the better (Andrew, 2001: 158). System fault tolerance system is divided into two mirroring and duplexing system which means it is penduplikatan Mirroring disk. The point is that in a raid group mirroring that in the settings there is a hard drive that will copy the whole hard drive into his partner at the same time (www.OprekPC.com, Fault tolerance, accessed 29 May 2008). Meanwhile, disk duplexing is used as a hard disk that is in control by the controller itself. Not only the system disk mirroring and disk duplexing but sekaranga up a mirroring system which has been developed that is RAID (Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks) or the term peering For some cheap hard disks that get maximum performance (http://www.OprekPC.com, jigujigu, accessed 29 May 2008). The advantages of the use of system fault tolerance is to prevent data damage or defect of data, so that in the event of damage will not stop the process in the network system.


CHAPTER III Discussion 3.1 System Fault Tolerance Fault tolerance or tolerance to errors is that fault tolerance of computer hardware and tolerate the adverse conditions in the system network by providing data protection, so that in the event of damage will not pause the process in the network system. Damages how parahpun will still remain in protected so it will not make the data be lost or damaged in other words the system fault tolerance will keep aa the data on the hard disk so that the data remains the original data, not disabled, and has not changed. Almost all network operating system provides fault tolerance facility to maintain the security and availability of data in the form of storage media (hard disk). There are two main systems are almost always available on the network operating system, namely: - Disk Mirroring - Disk Duplexing 3.2 Disk Mirroring Facilities * with the use of fault tolerance of disk mirroring is a data security system uses two partitions on two hard disks to store data sama.Satu hard disk that serves as the main storage medium while the hard disk to another hard disk to function as a shadow or a mirror disk which has a capacity equal to or greater than the main disk. By using the system disk mirroring, while the process of writing the data will dialkukan writing to two hard disk but the operating system will consider it as a hard disk. The system has the advantage of disk mirroring in the event of damage to the data on one hard disk, the hard disk to another can take over and the data will remain safe so the process remains labor occurred as no damage occurs. Likewise if one of the hard disk stops due to physical damage, then the existing data on the hard drive can still be accessed or opened on another hard disk. In general, the process of reading and writing the hard disk drive using a disk mirroring system is very different from the process of reading and writing on a hard disk drive. Processes that occur in the system disk mirroring is done simultaneously in the process of writing to the two hard disk drives while in the process of reading the system disk mirroring will be done sequentially reading process into the hard disk drive, this happens because the reading process would require an increase in speed reading data from the disk. Examples of disk mirroring on the server computer:
                                             
The image above shows how the form of disk mirroring on a computer server which works like windows operating system and Novell network operating system is a network of facilities that have fault tolerance. 3.3 System Disk Duplexing Basically the same as the system disk duplexing system disk mirroring, ie fault tolerance facility by applying the system of writing data on hard disk drives, where one disk acts as the primary disk and the hard disk to another to act as disk mirroring. Its difference lies in which the controlling system disk mirroring, the second hard disk that is used is controlled by the controller, while the disk duplexing systems respectively - each hard disk in control by the controller itself.

                                                    
In the picture above shows the shape of the disk duplexing system which is basically a disk duplexing system has advantages similar to disk mirroring system. Even the writing system and the process of reading data from the disk using the same logic that the Windows server operating system is considered to be both the same. The advantage of the system disk duplexing uses disk mirroring disk contoller is used to separate the two hard disks in other words the possibility of interruption of the system due to damage to the disk controller to be very small, while on the system disk mirroring, if a disk controller is corrupt, the second hard disk there be not working.
3.4 System Configuration Disk Mirroring Configuring the system to perform fault tolerance necessary in consideration of the use perngkat adakanya - devices sitem strongly support fault tolerance. To use disk mirroring sstem to consider the use of SCSI (Small Computer System Interface). Not only SCSI disks that could be used, disk IDE (Integrated Device Electronics) can also be used for disk mirroring basically supports any type of disk controller. Here is an example of a system installation disk mirroring on windows server operating system. As a first step dis mirroring preparation is as follows:
- Provide two hard disk drive, a hard disk as the primary disk containing the partition with FAT or NTFS file system that will be created mirrors and a hard disk as a mirrored disks with an empty condition (without partitions) and a capacity equal to or greater than the disk main. - Once all the supporting components available and installed as planned, now do disk mirroring poses stage with steps - these steps: o Open the Disk Administrator utility memalului Start menu, then Programs and then select Admninistrative Boutique Locator tool. Then select the Disk Administrator, o From the Disk Administrator utility, select the partition to be in the mirror (for memlih miraculous partition, you can select by pressing the Ctrl key) and make sure that the partition has Partis-in format. o Selanjutan on the hard disks used as mirror disks select an empty location to create a disk mirror with the terms of this empty location size must be equal to or greater than the size of the partitions to be created mirrors. o Next select the Fault Tolerance menu then select estabilish Mirror. If you want to create a mirror of the boot partition or partition to boot, it would require a bootable disk required to boot from the mirror disk hereinafter select OK o Select the Partition menu and then select Commit Change Now to save the changes that you have made partition above and then click OK o Furthermore, the computer will restart to initiate the process of mirroring and then will do the copying of data from primary disk to the mirror disk.

   
In the above step process of creating mirrored disks has been completed and can be used directly. But the whole process of making the disk mirroring, disk administrator utility has the risk of damage and even loss of data. To avoid the risk of occurrence of damage to the data that must be considered is doing correctly and carefully, if the fear of the occurrence of errors, make sure to never commit or update the configuration storage partition. After having set the hard disks along with its mirrored disks then the next step can configure the computer to boot from the hard disk mirror if the primary hard disk is damaged. This can be done by setting the BIOS boot sequence so that the computer can boot from a second hard disk or a hard disk that is mirrored by the choice of how to set the boot sequence of the primary hard disk and if not finding the boot device, select boot from secondary hard disk. If the computer's BIOS does not support or does not have this facility, prepare a bootable disk that can be used to boot up when the primary disk is having problems. For other network operating systems usually use the stages of the same process at the time of cancellation of disk mirroring. For example, Novell Netware operating system also through the stages of preparation of the same. In netware operating system, mirroring the partition size adjustment will do so between the primary disk with the disk mirror has the same partition size. 3.5 Fix the Damage On Disk Mirroring Despite the damage to the media server's hard disk, but the system will still keep running that is by using the data backup in mirrored disks. To be able to repair or replace the hard disk has been damaged. Step - step to repair disk mirroring to replace the damaged hard disk is as follows: 1. Run the Disk Administrator utility by using the Start menu, select Programs and then select Administrative tools and disk administrator 2. From the Disk Administrator utility, select the Fault Tolerance menu and then select Break Mirror Set. The move is intended to cut or stop the process that is currently running disk mirroring and disk usage shift from primary disk to the mirror disk (if the damage is the primary disk). 3. Furthermore, shutdown and power off the computer for later off a damaged hard disk and replace it with a new hard drive with a capacity equal to or greater than the size of an existing mirror. 4. Restart the computer and run the Disk Administrator utility kembaili. At the time of the run untilitas windows will tell you that there is a new hard disk. Then click OK 5. Press Ctrl and select an empty location on the new hard disk to create a mirror 6. Select the Fault Tolerance - Establish Mirror. If a new hard disk that you attach will be used for boot, make sure that the hard disk has a partition that is set active to boot. 7. When finished exit Disk Administrator utility and restarted your computer.

3.6 Forms - Other Forms of Fault Tolerance
There are several forms of other forms of fault tolerance systems that are used to complete the facilities on the Windows server system contained tersebut.Pada Stripe Sets facility which is one standard in RAID system. This system is made on the same partition with ukuranyang on a different hard disk with system disk mirroring, the system sets the data stripe is written between two different partitions on the disk. The major advantage with the use of this stripe sets with the advantage that the data written to two different hard disks separately the reading and writing process becomes much faster than the system disk mirroring should melakukkan writing twice, because the speed can cause weakness. So, if a file is stored separately in the two different partitions on the disk is one of its disk is damaged then the entire file will not be read at all. But on windows server can be overcome by using a system Stripe sets with parity, ie by using sebasgian capacity hard disk to store parity information that is out of the files that have been saved. Parity is also biased to use to reorder files damaged due to damage to one of the disks in the stripe sets. So, if there is a file stored separately damaged by a disk is damaged, then by using the parity information, files proficiency level can be rearranged and placed on disks which are still running normally. This will reduce tejadinya even prevent data loss due to physical damage to the hard disk. Another form of system fault tolerance is the Replication Server. This system is supported by the system opersai windows server. Fault tolerance system is capable of storing data on the hard disk is not only different but also on a different server computer. This system is considered as a Directory Replication Services, because this system is able to store data files and directories on different servers. This system has limitations as berkut pengcopyan file: - System replication is not biased to copy files that are open, such as files that are being used. - This system only works for files and menkopi not compare between the two versions of the server and also sync version of these files - The system is only able to replicate the directory in the current one.
 
Replication server systems also provide data security and operational security network is higher than the tolerance faut system hard disk. system that is nearly equal to this system is the system clustering. This clustering system allows to work with using bebarapa servers at once to work on one system or bias application using multiple servers simultaneously, as if using a single server. The system is also biased working applications more quickly and can save system resources of the application separately.
     
  
Clustering system has some shortage such as: - System clustering is only capable of supporting two Nuah nodes. - System applications that can be used is limited, can only use the system that things indeed compiled application server clustering for the system. - If one node to crash the network relationship aka disconnected and the user must reconnect to another node.
 
In subsequent developments have designed a system hardware disk mirroring system that became known as RAID (Redundant Array of Inexpensive Devices) is a hardware disk mirroring which has been designed to improve disk mirroring databases must address satisfying without being dependent on the control of software such as disk mirroring and disk duplexing .



3.7 RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks, or pengabungan some cheap hard drive to get maximum performance. Hence, in the process of reading and writing hard disk hard disk performance becomes faster. At the same RAID mirror - the same should provide additional hard disk so that it becomes two hard disks, and it already including the fault tolerance. 4 It is important to remember in a RAID configuration 1.Striping Striping means of data storage that is spread throughout the disk in the Raid kolempok. For example: in a raid group to raid 5 configuration having 3 as a data disk and one as parity. If there is a process in data storage volumes into the raid 5 then the data will be distributed / stripe into 3 hard drive that serves as the data. 2.Mirroring Mirroring means penduplikatan disk. The point is that in a raid group mirroring that in the settings there is a hard drive that will copy the whole hard drive into his partner at the same time. 3.Parity disk Parity means the disk is a hard drive in a raid group that serves to collect blocks of data from disk data in a raid group. This hard drive will work combines parity blocks of data from any other data to the hard drive can reconstruct lost data if one hard drive was damaged in the raid group. 4.Spare Hard Drive Spare hard drive is not the same as the parity. If parity blocks the information collect data from any hard drive in a raid group while the Spare Disk backup for each hard drive is damaged or faulty hard drive so it does not function normally within a subsystem. Examples of cases. in raid 5 consisting of 3 records, 1 parity and 1 sparedisk (hdd 00, 01, 02 as the data and parity hdd and hdd 03 as 04 as sparedisk). In the case of hard drive damage occurs to the hard drive 00, when viewed in a regular computer, or PC that is often used, so if a drive has failed automated systems and the data can not be accessed right? to the parity as information gatherers of data blocks to make himself as a conduit of information about existing data on hdd 00, so the raid group can still function, although his group performance declined raid but still able to function. Then manually follow the procedures of the manufacturer's own storage we can move the contents of a damaged hdd 00 hdd into sebaga sparedisk 04 that functions with the help of information from hdd 03 which serves to provide information on the hdd 00. after 00 hdd hdd was replaced by 04, then we can remove the hdd 00 of the subsystem (storage) without turning off the engine or often called the replacement hard drive online. hdd 00 has been damaged can be replaced with a new hdd. description: - Raid = redundant array of inexpensive disks or use multiple hard drives or hard drives to form a lot of volume - = Writing data stripe spread in 1 raid group - Subsystem = storage engine - = Storage media data storage / hard drive How to create a RAID 1.First - all plug SATA hard disks on the controller on the mobo with a sequence that sama.misal controllers 1 and 2. 2.After it prepare a floppy disk sata driver who became the default mobo. 3.Mulai perform installation sata hard disk on each controller - each, and Rebot with winxp installation cd, after a long press F6 and insert the floppy disk sata drivers earlier. 4.Lanjutkan installation as usual. 5.The process all the installation is completed then at the start of the first boot directly determine how much of the file to the hard disk alocation table plus, what would your raid configuration, whether "0" or "1". Need diketahu well before the data is inserted into the hard disk, try to check if the default server is already included its RAID controller. How the check can be done with computer mengrestart appear during the initial BIOS controller will look when it is installed. For the problem of the effectiveness of the data during the process of writing danpembacaan, just activate RAID 1, or mirroring where all data is distributed to all of the hard disk is installed, but if only for normal use we recommend using RAID 0. As an example of the advantages of RAID is if a server's hard disk capacity of 80 GB in RAID 0 will then form the 160 GB and the hard disk RAID 1 mirroring will still be 80 Gb. By using the OS (Operation System) anything like windows XP, and Linux can also be made with the RAID partition or home computer has two hard disks have. How to Create a RAID 1 (mirrored disks) In Software - First of all click on computer management so that the image will appear as follows:

 
- On the disk in question in the right-click and choose "convert to dynamic disk" as shown.
 
Keep in mind also will be better if RAID is configured at the time before booting into windows so during the POST, the RAID controller will definitely be there this happens because RAID 1 Fault tolerance if one hard disk error occurred. Mirror also be made before the data is inserted into the hard disk, this means that currently there is only one hard disk may not diconfigure its RAID (RAID0) or do not use the RAID controller.
3.8 Data Backup System System fault tolerance is supported by many network operating systems. All these systems have one purpose, namely the security and integrity of data in the network. However, there is a data handling system capable of giving assurance of data integrity, and is a system that is supported by all operating systems even on a single user system, ie to create a copy or backup of data is called data backup. Data backup is done to recover the data, if there is damage to your data or keruakan media (hard disk) to mengcovernya enough to restore or copying data from an existing backup. To perform data backup can be done choosing - choosing the data that really should be in the backup. This is done in order to keep costs as low as possible data backup. In order for the backup process easy, user-friendly In the network can store data in a directory on the server computer, by putting on a directory and sub-divided into sub-directories, so that the backup process is done from the directory as well as the data restore process may dilakukan.Berikut these things need to be considered in choosing a data backup utility: - Supports the backup process by way of a full backup or incremental backup. A full backup is a backup system in a way to backup all data or selected files to create new backups. This system will overwrite the old backup if the media used existing backup file. While incremental backup is a backup with how to connect or add new backup data to a previous backup data. This system allows backing up only files that have new or changed while the old files unchanged. - Provide facilities or scheduled backups periodically in order to perform the automatic control of the process so that the possibility of a data backup ketelmabatan backup process can be reduced as a result of negligence. - Ability to make backups of open files that can be opened in performing backups on a network that has a pretty solid schedule access to it is no longer the need for termination of work processes that are taking place in the network. - Support database application system that is used so that the utility is able to backup data from a database system is perfect. - The process that is both archival backuyp means of data compression facility. This facility will make the backup process may be slow but it will increase the capacity of the memory usage efficiency of the backup media.
 
CHAPTER IV CONCLUSION
Conclusion Based on the results of the discussion in Chapter III it can be concluded that - Damage how parahpun will still remain protected so it will not make the data be lost or damaged in other words the system fault tolerance will keep aa the data on the hard disk so that the data remains the original data, not disabled, and has not changed. - The process that occurs in the system's disk mirroring is done simultaneously in the process of writing to the two hard disk drives while in the process of reading the system disk mirroring will be done sequentially reading process into the hard disk drive, this happens because the reading process will require increased speed of data reading from the disk. - Difference Disk mirroring and disk duplexing which lies in the controlling system disk mirroring, the second hard disk that is used is controlled by the controller, while the disk duplexing systems respectively - each hard disk in control by the controller itself. - At the same RAID mirror - the same should provide additional hard disk to hard disk into two and that's including the fault tolerance. - This clustering system allows to work with using bebarapa servers at once to work on one system or bias application using multiple servers simultaneously, as if using a single server. - When a file is stored separately in the two different partitions on the disk is one of its disk is damaged then the entire file will not be read at all. But on windows server can be overcome by using a system Stripe sets with parity, ie by using sebasgian capacity hard disk to store parity information that is out of the files that have been saved.
              
- How to create a RAID 1.First - all plug SATA hard disks on the controller on the mobo with a sequence that sama.misal controllers 1 and 2. 2.After it prepare a floppy disk sata driver who became the default mobo. 3.Mulai perform installation sata hard disk on each controller - each, and Rebot with winxp installation cd, after a long press F6 and insert the floppy disk sata drivers earlier. 4.Lanjutkan installation as usual. 5.The process all the installation is completed then at the start of the first boot directly determine how much of the file to the hard disk alocation table plus, what would your raid configuration, whether "0" or "1". -. Data backup is done to recover the data, if there is damage to your data or  media (hard disk) to  enough to restore or copying data from an existing backup. - Full backup is a backup system in a way to backup all data or selected files to create a new backup, while incremental backups are backups by connecting or adding a new backup data to a previous backup data.

REFERENCES

 
Andi, 2001 Komputers Network Management, (London: Forum for the computer). http://www.ilmukomputer.com, Network security, accessed 29 May 2008 http://www.OprekPC.com, jigujigu, accessed 29 May 2008

0 Response to "KUMPULAN KARYA ILMIAH BAHASA INGGRIS TENTANG JARINGAN KOMPUTER TERBARU"

Post a Comment