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KUMPULAN ARTIKEL BAHASA INGGRIS TENTANG BIOLOGI BARU

                                                                     symbiotic fungus
Symbiosis Fungi - Fungi can be symbiotic with other living beings , such as green algae . Symbiosis is usually called lichens . In addition to lichens , symbiotic fungus can also produce Mycorrhizae .symbiotic fungus1 . Moss crust ( Lichenes )
Lichen is a symbiosis between fungi and algae . Lichens live as epiphytes on trees . This moss is growing on the land , especially the area around the Arctic tundra . In addition , lichens can live at all heights on the rock , on the beach , up in the high mountains . Lichens may play a role in soil formation and destroy rocks moss rock so this type is also called pioneer plants .
symbiotic fungus
a. Characteristics of Mosses Crust
Lichens are living organisms that are resistant to drought in a long time . At the time of dryness and sunburn continuously , it will dry moss , but not dead . At the time of rain , lichens grow back . Another feature of this moss is talusnya slow growth . In one year , the growth of less than 1 cm talusnya .
Lichens composed of moss and algae . Mutualism with symbiotic algae called gonidium moss . There are single-celled and colonizing there . Generally , this is gonidium blue algae ( Cyanophyta ) , as Chroococcus and Nostoc , but there is also a symbiosis with green algae ( Chlorophyta ) , as Cystococcus and Trentepohlia . Of this symbiosis , fungi obtain food from algae because the algae are photosynthetic autotrophs . Meanwhile , the heterotrophic fungi can provide water , mineral , and gas exchange as well as to protect the algae . In addition , lichens can also fix nitrogen air .
b . Reproduction Moss crust
Asexual reproduction lichens do with fragmentation . The release of lichens pieces in a suitable place to grow into a new plant lichens . Furthermore , asexual reproduction can be done by the fall of soredia ( algae cells and hyphae wrapped in white) in the appropriate place then the cell will grow into new lichens .
reproduction Lumut.jpg
Sexual reproduction lichens done by every living thing . Fungi and algae perform sexual reproduction alone . If mold spores fall upon algae , symbiosis is likely to happen again and will grow new lichens .
c . Role of moss crust for Human Life
Lichens can be used by humans as raw material for medicine , flavor and aroma enhancer , an indicator of air pollution , the pigment can be used as a litmus paper or pH indicator dye , and in the rocks can be melapukkan rock lichens as initial soil formation .
2 . mycorrhizal
Mycorrhizae is a term used to describe fungal symbiosis with plant roots . Several members of the fungal Zygomycota , Ascomycota , and Basidiomycota there is a member of Mycorrhizae . Symbiosis between fungi and plant roots is a symbiotic mutualism . Mushrooms benefit as it gets organic matter , while the plants get water and nutrients . Two are interdependent . If one dies , the other can not live . Mycorrhizal divided into two groups , namely endomikoriza and ectomycorrhizal . Endomikoriza is Mycorrhizae fungus hyphae penetrate the root cortex to enter the network , for example , a fungus that lives on the roots of vegetables . Mycorrhizae are hifanya ectomycorrhizal are just living in root surface area , namely the epidermal tissue , for example , the root bark of pine .Keywords :
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