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CONTOH LENGKAP KARYA ILMIAH BAHASA INGGRIS KESEHATAN

                                                          SCIENTIFIC WORKS OF HEALTH

                                                                           CHAPTER I

                                                                      INTRODUCTION
A. Background
Outbreaks of avian influenza caused by the H5N1 subtype A virus became known in 1997 in Hong Kong, with the source of infection and spread from poultry farmers. Further spread so quickly throughout the world to become a global problem. The development of bird flu in Indonesia is also very fast since the discovery of the virus in 2004, namely the birds and then spread quickly to humans. With the high number of deaths from bird flu, we need to be aware that this disease does not develop. For that we need to take some preventative measures individuals and the environment.
In Indonesia in January 2004 reported cases of poultry deaths were outstanding (especially in Bali, Botabek, East Java, Central Java, West Kalimantan and West Java). Initially the death was caused by a new virus castle, but the final confirmation by the Department of Agriculture is caused by the bird flu virus (Avian Influenza (AI)). The number of birds that died of bird flu outbreaks in 10 provinces in Indonesia is very large tail 3,842,275 (4.77%) and the highest number of death is the province of West Java (1,541,427 head). In July 2005, bird flu has claimed the lives of three people Tangerang Banten, It is based on the results of laboratory tests of Research and Development and the Ministry of Health Jakarta WHO reference laboratory in Hong Kong. Given this reality people should not panic in the presence of bird flu cases in Indonesia, but should remain vigilant, particularly for groups at risk because we can not deny that this virus in other countries have infected humans.
B. Purpose
The purpose of writing this paper are:
a. As an attachment in the scholarship application
b. The author would like to learn more about the theme of the subscription
c. To increase knowledge as well as extensive knowledge
d. Provide knowledge to the readers of Bird Flu
C. Benefits of Writing
Writing scientific papers is done to provide knowledge about what is Avian Flu to readers and anyone who reads this paper. So that they know what is Avian Flu from the definition, causes, distribution, symptoms, until the signatures. This will trigger them to be alert to bird flu outbreak.
CHAPTER II
DISCUSSION
DEFINITIONS A. BIRD FLU
Bird flu (H5N1) is a disease caused by type A influenza viruses that are transmitted by birds, in this case chickens, ducks, birds, geese, turkeys, or similar fowl.
Actually the bird flu is a disease in animals (zoonoses). However, in its development, the virus that causes this disease experience changes in their genetic structure (mutations) that result in the virus can be transmitted to humans. Bird flu can attack the entire nation or continent and cause a pandemic within 2-3 years. In poultry or pets, infection by avian influenza viruses cause two forms of the disease, namely the form of low pathogenicity or "less malignant" and the highly pathogenic form / "malignant".
B. CAUSE
Cause of bird flu is a type A influenza virus. Influenza viruses, including the family Orthomyxoviridae. Type A influenza viruses can change shape (Drift, Shift), and can cause epidemics and pandemics. Influenza type A virus consists of hemagglutinin (H) and Neuramidase (N), the second letter is used as an identification code of bird flu subtype that many kinds. In humans there are only types H1N1, H2N2, H3N3, H5N1, H9N2, H1N2, H7N7. While the animal H1-H5 and N1-N9. Highly virulent strains / malignant and cause avian influenza A subtype H5N1 was from. In influenza A virus can be a big change in the composition antigeniknya called antigenic shift or antigenic composition of small changes called antigenic drift. The changes that triggered the onset of the epidemic or even pandemic. Epidemic wave of influenza A virus due to take place periodically every 2-3 years, while the period for influenza B interepidemi is longer ie 3-6 years. In humans there is only influenza A viruses of subtype H1N1, H2N2, H3N3, H5N1, H9N2, H1N2, and H7N7, whereas in animals adalh subtypes H1 to H5 and N1 to N9. Of all the subtypes, only influenza A virus subtype H5 and H7 highly malignant. However not all influenza virus subtypes H5 and H7 are malignant and not all of them cause disease in poultry.
C. SYMPTOMS
Symptoms of bird flu in humans and animals are different:
a. Symptoms in birds.
o Combs and wattles blue
o foot ulcers
o Sudden Death
o Exit cairaan clear until thick of the oral cavity
o Diarrhea
o Haus excessive and soft eggshell
b. Symptoms in humans.
Fever (temperature above 38o C)
o headache, cough, runny nose and sore throat
o Inflammation of the upper respiratory tract
o Pneumonia
o Eye Infection
o Muscle pain
c. The incubation period
o In Poultry: 1 week
o In Humans: 1-3 days, Period 1 day prior to infection until 3-5 days after symptoms develop. In children up to 21 days.
D. THE DISTRIBUTION AND TRANSMISSION
The spread of avian influenza virus through migratory birds that were not yet fully dipahami.Hanya air alone, wild aquatic birds such as ducks and geese who are members of the order and ANSERIFORMES and gulls and sea birds of the order charadriiformes are carriers of influenza A virus subtype H5 and H7. The birds brought the virus is generally less virulent. This type of virus only causes a decrease in the production of eggs, feathers shrivel or broiler body weight did not ride-up. Once inside the body and circulates in poultry, influenza A will adapt and mutate into a form that is malignant, that is HPAIV within a few months.
Bird flu spread from poultry to poultry and from poultry to humans, the disease can be transmitted through contaminated air from the H5N1 virus dirt or secretary bird / avian bird flu. Transmission from poultry to humans may also occur if the man had been inhaling air containing the bird flu virus or direct contact with infected birds or bird flu objects contaminated by sick poultry manure containing the H5N1 virus. Until now, cases of bird flu in humans are more prevalent in rural areas / villages or in densely populated suburbs. In such areas, most of the birds that are kept just released or not included in the enclosure, sometimes even fused with the house. Many were cage housed where children used to play. With these conditions it is very possible transmission from birds to humans, because in a sick poultry manure contained a lot of the H5N1 virus.
E. PREVENTION
Prevention of the spread of avian influenza can be done by applying preventive measures / or prevention of avian and human itself.
A. In Poultry
1. Culling of poultry / birds infected with bird flu within a radius of three kilometers.
2. Vaccination of healthy birds
3. Improving biosecurity, an act of strict supervision and security to poultry infected with bird flu.
4. Increased public awareness
5. Charging back enclosure
6. Supervision cases of bird flu
7. Control traffic in and out of poultry and poultry products.
B. In Humans
1. High-risk groups (farm workers and merchants, or who come into contact with poultry products)
a. Wash hands with disinfectant and shower after work.
b. Avoid direct contact with chickens or poultry bird flu terinsfeksi.
c. Use of personal protective equipment. (Example: masks and work clothes).
d. Leaving work clothes workplace.
e. Cleaning bird droppings every day.
f. Immunization.
2. Public
For society in general needs to be done is to maintain personal hygiene and the environment, and are vaccinated.
a. Keeping the immune system by eating a nutritious diet and adequate rest.
b. Preparing poultry in the right way, namely:
- Choose healthy birds (there are no symptoms at
body)
- Cook chicken until the temperature of 800C for 1 min ±
and the temperature of the eggs up to ± 640C for 4.5 minutes.
F. TREATMENT
The management of treatment for bird flu patients are hospitalized in the hospital in isolation to obtain the appropriate treatment and care, because of the nature of the malignant disease.
Treatment is done by:
1. Oxygenation if there is shortness of breath.
2. Hydration with parenteral fluid administration (infusion).
3. Provision of anti-viral drug oseltamivir 75 mg single dose for 7 days.
4. Amantadine is given at the beginning of infection, as far as possible within the first 48 hours for 3-5 days at a dose of 5 mg / kg per day in 2 divided doses. When your weight is more than 45 kg were given 100 mg 2 times a day.
G. ACTION DEPKES
In order to overcome the impact of bird flu, the Health Ministry take some action, are as follows:
a. Investigates on workers, sellers and handlers of chicken products in several areas of bird flu outbreaks in chickens in Indonesia (to determine avian influenza infection in humans)
b. Strict monitoring of persons who had contact with suspected bird flu. up to twice the incubation period exceeded 14 days.
c. Setting up 44 hospitals across Indonesia to prepare the room observation of the patient is suspected of having Avian Influenza.
d. Enacting preparedness in areas that have a risk that is the province of West Java, Jakarta and Banten, and establish command post at DG & PL with a telephone number / fax: (021) 425 7125
e. Governor instructed the provincial government to increase awareness and preparedness against possible outbreak of bird flu in their respective territories
f. Improving public health education efforts and build
networking with various stakeholders to educate the public so that the public remain vigilant and do not panic
g. Improving coordination and cooperation with the department of agriculture and local government in the fight against bird flu
h. collect information that includes the environmental aspects and risk factors to look for possible sources of infection by the investigation team consisting of MOH, Ministry of Agriculture and the WHO.
CHAPTER III
CLOSING
A. CONCLUSION
Cause of bird flu in Indonesia is a type A influenza virus subtype H5N1. The mortality rate for bird flu patients tinggi.Perlu vigilance in high-risk groups (workers at a chicken farm, cutting chicken and other poultry products handlers), with the manner of prevention. Bird flu spread from poultry to poultry and from poultry to humans, the disease can be transmitted through contaminated air from the H5N1 virus dirt or secretary bird / avian bird flu. Transmission from poultry to humans may also occur if the man had been inhaling air containing the bird flu virus or direct contact with infected birds or bird flu objects contaminated by sick poultry manure containing the H5N1 virus.
B. ADVICE
Need for education / health promotion to the public about bird flu to people not to panic and be afraid to consume poultry products but must remain vigilant.
REFERENCES
Cucunawangsih.2006.Cara be alert and prevent flu burung.Jakarta.Gramedia
http://google-search_www.litbang.depkes.go.id/mask...fluburung1.htm

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