PRIMARY TEACHER EDUCATION                                                 FACULTY Teacher Training and Education                                                       PGRI UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA
INTRODUCTIONPraise gratitude I always pray for the presence of the Lord God Almighty , who has given the opportunity and the ability to keep learning and learning to deepen one discipline . In this opportunity to complete the preparation of a paper entitled " Character Education in Elementary Schools " well .
In the process of preparing this paper, I got a lot of guidance and support from various parties . So say thank you to all those who participate in the preparation of this paper .Perfection is something I crave in this paper . What power , perfection does not belong to me as a human being . Many shortcomings that need my fix . Therefore , I extend an apology to readers because of this problem .
Suggestions and constructive criticism are always awaited for my spur better . Once again I say many thanks .
Yogyakarta, December 2012
TABLE OF CONTENTSTitle Page iIi PREFACEIii TABLE OF CONTENTSCHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1A. Background 1B. Problem Formulation 2C. Objective 2CHAPTER II CHARACTER EDUCATION IN PRIMARY SCHOOL 4A. Definition of Character Education 4B. Character Education in Elementary Schools 9C. The Importance of Character Education in Elementary School Age 10D. Principles of Character Education in Primary Schools 13E. Impact of Character Education in Primary Schools 15F. Role of Teachers in Character Development in Primary Schools 16CHAPTER III CLOSING 22A. Conclusions 22B. Suggestions 22REFERENCES 24CHAPTER IINTRODUCTION
A. Background IssuesA civilization will decline if there is demoralizing to the community. Many scholars , philosophers , and sages who say that the moral factor ( character ) is the main thing that should be built first in order to build a society that is orderly , safe and prosperous . One of the primary obligations to be performed by parents to our children . Moral values ​​to our children . Moral values ​​which will shape the character instilled ( noble character ), which is an important foundation for the establishment of a society that is civilized and prosperous .Indonesia is currently facing severe problems that must be passed , which is a multidimensional crisis is prolonged . This problem is actually rooted in the nation's declining moral quality membudayanya characterized by corruption , conflict ( ethnic , religious , politicians , youth , inter- RW , etc. ) rising crime , declining work ethic , and much more . These cultures is the main cause of our country it is difficult to rise from this crisis .Quality character needs to be formed and nurtured from an early age . Early childhood is a critical period for the formation of one's character . Many experts say that the failure of the planting character from an early age , will form his mature personal problem later . Additionally , instill morals to the younger generation is a strategic effort . Therefore moral cultivation as early as possible through character education to children is the key to building the nation .
B. Problem FormulationI 've compiled some of the issues that will be discussed in this paper as a limitation in the discussion . As for some of the issues to be discussed in this paper include:1 . What is the definition of character education ?2 . How character education in elementary school ?3 . What is the importance of character education in elementary school ?4 . What principles of character education in elementary school ?5 . What is the impact of character education in elementary school ?6 . What is the role of teachers in character education in elementary school ?
C. ObjectivesBased on the above problem formulation , the preparation of this paper aims to :1 . Their understanding of character education .2 . Explain how elementary school character education .3 . Explaining about the importance of character education .4 . Explaining the principles of character education in elementary schools .5 . Explaining the impact of character education in elementary schools .6 . Explaining the role of teachers in character education in elementary schools .
A. Definition of Character EducationEducation is a process of cultural internalization into one's self and society so as to make people and society so civilized . Education is not a means of knowledge transfer , but more broadly as a means of civilizing and the distribution of values ​​( enkulturisasi and socialization ) . Children should get a basic education that touches the human dimension . Human dimension that includes at least three of the most basic things , namely :1 . Affective reflected in the quality of faith , piety , noble character including noble character and superior personality and aesthetic competence .2 . Cognitive reflected on the power of thought and intellectual capacity to explore and develop and master of science and technology .3 . Psychomotor reflected in the ability to develop technical skills , practical skills , and competencies kinesthetic .
Understanding the character according to Ministry of National Language Center is a " congenital , heart , soul , personality , character , behavior , personality , traits, character , temperament , character " . The character is personality , behavior , character , temper , and character " . According Tadkiroatun Musfiroh ( UNY , 2008 ) , a character refers to a set of attitudes ( attitudes ) , behaviors ( behaviors ) , motivation ( motivations ) , and skills ( skills) . Character is derived from the Greek word meaning " to mark " or mark and focus on how to apply the value of kindness in the form of action or behavior , so people who are dishonest , cruel , greedy and ugly behavior of other people saying bad character . Conversely , people whose behavior in accordance with a moral code called noble character .
Character education is a system of cultivation of character values ​​to the school community , which includes knowledge , awareness or volition , and actions to implement these values ​​. In character education in schools , all components ( education stakeholders ) should be involved , including educational components themselves , ie the content of the curriculum , learning and assessment , treatment or management subjects , the school management , the implementation of the activities or co-curricular activities , empowerment infrastructure , financing , and work ethic throughout the school community / environment . In addition , character education is defined as a behavior that the school community in implementing character education should be .
Character education is a plus character education , namely that involves aspects of knowledge (cognitive ) , feeling ( feeling) , and action ( action ) . According to Thomas Lickona , without these three aspects , it will not be effective character education . With character education that is applied in a systematic and sustained , a child will be emotionally intelligent . Emotional intelligence is an important provision in preparing to meet the future , because someone will be more easily and successfully facing all kinds of life challenges , including challenges to succeed academically .
There are nine pillars of character that comes from universal noble values ​​, namely : first , the character of the love of God and all His creation , secondly , independence and responsibility ; Third , honesty / trustworthy , diplomatic ; fourth , respectful and polite ; fifth , generous , Like mutual help and mutual assistance / cooperation ; sixth , confident and hardworking ; seventh , leadership and justice ; eighth , kind and humble, and ; ninth , the character of tolerance , peace , and unity .The nine pillars of character , taught systematically in holistic education model using the method of knowing the good , feeling the good , and the good acting . Knowing the good can easily be taught because knowledge is cognitive . After knowing the good must be grown feeling loving the good , ie, how to feel and love of virtue into a machine that can make people always want to do something good. Thus a growing awareness that , people want to do behavioral virtues because he was in love with virtue behavior . Once accustomed to do good , the good acting then it turned into a habit .
Further explained that character education is everything the teacher , who is able to influence the character of students . Teachers help shape the character of the students . This includes the example of how the behavior of teachers , how teachers talk or presenting the material , how tolerant teacher , and various other related matters .According to Ramli T. ( 2003 ) , the essence and character education has the same meaning as moral education and moral education . The aim is to form personal child , to become a good human being , citizens , and good citizens . The criteria for good men, good citizens , and good citizens for a community or nation , in general is a certain social values ​​, which are influenced by culture and nation . Therefore , the nature of character education in the context of education in Indonesia is the value of the education , the education of the noble values ​​sourced from Indonesian culture itself , in order to develop the personality of the younger generation .
Character education rests on the basic character of human beings , which is sourced from the universal moral values ​​( absolute ) derived from religion which is also referred to as the golden rule . Character education can have a definite purpose , if grounded on the values ​​of the basic character . According to psychologists , some of the basic character values ​​are : love of God and His ciptaann ( natural content) , responsibility , honesty, respect and courtesy , compassion , caring , and cooperation , self-confident , creative , hard working , and unyielding , fairness and leadership ; kind and humble , tolerance , love peace , unity and love . But others argue that the basic human character consists of : trustworthiness, respect and attention , caring , honest , responsibility ; citizenship , honesty , courage , diligence , discipline , visionary , fair , and have integrity . Implementation of character education in schools should be grounded to the basic character values ​​, which subsequently developed into values ​​more or higher ( which is not an absolute or relative ) in accordance with the needs , conditions , and school environment itself.
Today many parties demanding an increase in the intensity and quality of the implementation of character education in formal educational institutions . The claim is based on a growing social phenomenon , namely the increase of juvenile delinquency in the community , such as a mass brawl and a variety of other cases of moral decadence . Even in certain large cities , these symptoms have been to the extent that very disturbing . Therefore , formal educational institutions as the official coaching youth container is expected to increase its role in shaping the personality of students through increased intensity and quality of character education .
Educational experts generally agree on the importance of character education improvement efforts in formal education . However, there are differences of opinion among them about the approach and mode of education . Associated with the approach , some experts suggest the use of moral education approaches developed in western countries , such as : approach of cognitive moral development , value analysis approach , and values ​​clarification approach . Some others suggested the use of traditional approaches , namely through the planting of certain social values ​​in a self-learners .
Park Ki Hajar Dewantara of students in Yogyakarta in October 1949 once said that "Life should be directed to progress , civilization , culture , and unity " . Meanwhile, according to Prof . Wuryadi , essentially both human individuals and groups , have what is a determinant of character and that is the basic character and teaching . basis can be seen as a so-called capital of the biological ( genetic ) or the result of experience already possessed ( the theory of constructivism ) , while teaching is the conditions that are obtained from a series of education or changes planned or programmed .
B. Character Education in Elementary SchoolsKelurga factor plays an important role in shaping the character of children . But social emotional maturity is further strongly influenced by the school environment at an early age through adolescence . In fact according to Daniel Goleman , many parents fail to educate children , maturity , social emotional child can be corrected by providing character education training to children in schools , especially at an early age .
School is a strategic place for character education for children from all walks of life will be studied in schools . Besides the children spend most of their time in school , so what is acquired in school will affect the formation of character .
Indonesia does not have an effective character education to make the character of Indonesia ( reflected in his behavior ) . Though there are some subjects yangberisikan about moral messages , such as religious studies , citizenship , and Pancasila . But the learning process is performed with the memorization approach ( cognitive ) . The students are expected to master the material success is measured only by the child's ability to answer exam questions ( especially with multiple-choice ) . Because orientation is just simply to get good grades , then how subjects can affect behavior change , was never considered . So what happens is the gap between moral knowledge ( cognition ) and behavior ( action ) . Everyone must know that lying and corruption is wrong and violates the terms of religion , but many people are still doing it . The ultimate goal of character education is how humans can behave according to moral principles .
According to Berman , the school climate that is conducive and the involvement of the principal and the teachers are the determinants of the size of interference success of character education in schools . Suggestions and support school infrastructure , relationships between pupils , as well as the level of awareness of principals and teachers have also contributed to the success of this character education , in addition to the ability of self ( through motivation , creativity and leadership ) are able to convey the concept of character in their students well .
C. The Importance of Character Education in Elementary School AgeCharacter education at primary school age children , adults are needed because the current nation of Indonesia is experiencing a crisis of character within the nation . The character here is character , character , character , or personality are formed from the internalization of various virtues are believed and used as the basis for perspective , nearly think , behave , and act . Virtue is a number of moral values ​​, and norms , such as honest , courageous act , trustworthy , respect for others , discipline , self-sufficient , hard working , creative .
Various problems that plagued the nation ¬ la ¬ be considered over the last because we are away from the character . National identity as the real uprooted . Se ¬ to ¬ ter karak education a hot topic in talking about lately. According to Prof . Suyanto , Ph.D , " character is a way of thinking and behaving that characterizes each individual to live and work together , both within the family , community , state and nation . " Individuals are individuals of good character who can make decisions and set mem each accounted accountabil ¬ ¬ a result of decisions he made .Meru character formation ¬ one national education goals . Article I of the National Education Act of 2003 states that among the goals of national education is to develop the potential of learners to have intelligence , personality and noble character . Mandate of the Education Law of 2003 intended that education does not only establish an intelligent Indonesian people , but also personality or character , so that later generations will be born nation that grow with the characters that breathe the noble values ​​of the nation and religion .
Characters in the value of education is very important to start in early childhood education because the character is the educational process aimed at developing values ​​, attitudes , and behaviors that emit noble character or noble character . Positive values ​​and that should be owned by a person under the teachings of noble character is good deeds , trust , anticipatory , well thought , work hard , civilized , dare to do right , dare to bear the risk , disciplined , be airy , soft-hearted , faithful and devoted , initiative , strong-willed , personality , thinking far ahead , earthy , passionate , constructive , grateful , responsible , considerate , thoughtful , intelligent , careful , democratic , dynamic , efficient , empathetic , persistent , frugal , sincere , honest , knight , commitment , cooperation , cosmopolitan (worldwide ) , creative , steadfast heart , straightforward , self-contained , human , introspective , love science , respect other people's work , appreciate health , respect the opinions of others , appreciate the time , patriotic , forgiving , generous , devotion , self berpengendalian , productive , industrious , friendly , wonderful flavor , compassion , sense of belonging , a sense of shame , a sense of belonging , self-confidence , self-sacrificing , humble, patient , spirit , loyal , ready mentally , fairness , respectful attitude , the attitude of reason , orderly attitude , courtesy , sportsmanship , decency , compliance , fear of guilt , tough , resignation , brave , resolute , determined, precise appointments , open , resilient , and the like .
Indeed this character education is very important to start early . Because the philosophy of planting now reap tomorrow is a process that must be performed in order to establish the character of the nation . At the age of childhood or commonly referred to psychologists as the golden age ( golden age) proved to be very kicked ¬ mine the child's ability to develop its potential . The results showed that about fifty percent of the variability of adult intelligence already occurred when the child was four years old . The increase in the next thirty percent occur at the age of eight years ( SD ) , and the remaining twenty percent by the middle or end of the second decade ( SMP ) .
From here , it is fitting character education begins in the family , which is the first environment for pertum harbor ¬ character of children . Once out ¬ ga , in the character education must become compulsory since primary school teachings .
Children are the generation that will determine the fate of the nation in the future . The character of the kids that are formed from now will largely determine the character of the nation in the future . Children's character will be formed properly , if the growth process they get enough space to express themselves freely .
D. Principles of Character Education in Elementary SchoolsThe final step is to consider the application of the principles of character education . Character Education Quality Standards merekomendaikan eleven principles of effective character education realize , as follows :1 . Promote basic ethical values ​​as the basis of character .2 . Identifying characters in a comprehensive manner that includes thoughts , feelings and behaviors .3 . Mengguanakan sharp approach , proactive and effective way to build character .4 . Creating school communities that care .5 . Provide an opportunity for students to demonstrate good behavior .6 . The scope of the meaningful and challenging curriculum that respects all students , build their character , and helps them to succeed .7 . Ensuring the growth of self-motivated students .8 . Proper functioning of the entire staff of the school as a moral community that shares responsibility for character education that is faithful to the same basic values ​​.9 . The division of moral leadership and broad support in building character education initiative .10 . Enabling families and community members as partners in an effort to build character .11 . Evaluating the character of the school , school staff function as teachers of character , and the manifestation of positive character in the lives of students .
E. Impact of Character Education in Elementary Schools
Several studies have sprung from some important discoveries on this subject published by a newsletter , Character Educator , published by the Character Education Partnership .In the bulletin explained that the results of the study Dr . Marvin Berkowitz of the University of Missouri - St . Louis, showed increased motivation of school students in academic achievement in schools implementing character education . The classes are comprehensively involved in character education showed a drastic decrease in negative behaviors that can impede student academic success .
A book titled Emotional Intelligence and School Success ( Joseph Zins , , 2001) compiled the results of various studies on the positive effect of emotional intelligence to the success of children in school . It is said that there are a series of risk factors causing the failure of children in school . Risk factors mentioned was not located on intelligence , but on the character , which is self-confidence , ability to work together , social skills , ability to concentrate , empathy , and communication skills .
This is in accordance with the opinion of Daniel Goleman on the success of a person in the community , 80 percent turned out to be influenced by emotional intelligence , and only 20 percent is determined by intelligence ( IQ ) . Children who have problems in their emotional intelligence , would have difficulty learning , mingle and can not control his emotions . Troubled children can already be seen since preschool age , and if left untreated will carry over to adulthood . Instead the character teens will avoid the common problems faced by teenagers such as delinquency , fighting , drugs, alcohol , sex behavior , and so on .
Several countries have implemented character education from basic education among them are: United States , Japan , China , and Korea . The results of research in these countries stated that the implementation of character education systematically arranged a positive impact on academic achievement .
As the socialization of educational relevance of this character , hopefully in the near future , each school can immediately apply it , so that later generations born intelligent nation besides also characterized according noble values ​​of the nation and religion .
F. Role of Teachers in Character Development in Primary SchoolsCompetency Based Curriculum ( CBC ) , which is then implemented into the Education Unit Level Curriculum ( SBC ) , a curriculum designed to provide the broadest possible opportunity for schools and educators to conduct educational practices in order to develop the potential of all learners , either through a learning process in the classroom or through self-development programs ( extracurricular ) . Development potential learners are intended to establish self-awareness about the capabilities or life skills , especially the ability of personal (personal skills) has. Included in this is the development of students' potentials associated with the character himself .
In developing the character of students in the school , teachers have a strategic position as the major perpetrators . The teacher is a figure that can be replicated or become an idol for learners . Teachers can be a source of inspiration and motivation learners . The attitude and behavior of a teacher is very an impression on the students , so that speech , character and personality of the teacher becomes the student makeup . Thus teachers have a great responsibility in producing character generation , cultured , and moral. Human tasks it is transpormasi , identification , and sense of self , which must be implemented together in an organic unity , harmony , and dynamic .There are several strategies that can provide opportunities and opportunities for teachers to play an optimal role in developing students of character education in schools , as follows :1 . Optimizing the role of the teacher in the learning process . Teachers are not supposed to put yourself as an actor is seen and heard by the learner , but the teacher should act as a director directing , guiding , facilitating the learning process , so that learners can do and find yourself learning outcomes .2 . Integration of character education materials to the subjects . Teachers are required to care , willing and able to link the concepts of character education on learning materials in subjects diampunya . In conjunction with this , every teacher is required to continue to broaden the knowledge related to character education , which can be integrated in the learning process .3 . Optimize the sound development of habituation themselves manners and noble character . The teachers ( coaches program ) through the program emphasizes self habituation or stress to development activities manners and noble character that is contextual , activities that lead to the development of affective and psychomotor abilities .4 . The creation of a school environment that is conducive to growth and development of the character of the students . Environment proved to be very instrumental in the formation of the human person ( the learner ) , both physical and spiritual environment environment . For that schools and teachers need to prepare facilities and carry out various types of activities that support the development of character education learners .5 . Formed a partnership with parents and the community of learners in developing character education . Forms of cooperation that can be done is to put parents and students and the community as a resource facilitator in development activities implemented character education in schools .6 . Being an exemplary figure for learners . Admission of students to the learning material provided by a teacher , a little will not depend on the personal receipt of the news release personal student teacher. It's a very human thing , where someone will always try to emulate , imitate what is desirable in the model / the pigurnya . Moments like this is actually an opportunity for a teacher , either directly or indirectly instill character values ​​in the individual learners . In the process of learning , integration of character values ​​not only be integrated into the substance or subject matter , but also on the process .
In the above description illustrates the role of teachers in the development of character education in schools that serves as a catalyst or a role model , an inspiration , a motivator , dynamic factor , and evaluators . In acting as a catalyst , then the exemplary teacher is an essential factor in the development of character education is effective learners , due to its position as a figure or idol copied by learners . Role as inspiration means a teacher should be able to evoke the spirit of the advanced learners to develop their potential . Role as a motivator , meaning that every teacher should be able to raise the spirit , work ethic , and tremendous potential to self-learners . Role as a dynamic factor , meaning every teacher has the ability to push students toward achievement of goals with great wisdom , patience , deft , intelligent and uphold spirituality . While the role of the teacher as an evaluator , meaning each teacher is required to and always evaluate yourself attitude or behavior , and learning methods used in the development of character education learners , so as to know the level of effectiveness , efficiency , and productivity programs.Thus based on the above explanation , it can be concluded that in the context of education in the school system to develop a character education learners , teachers must be positioned or position themselves on the real substance , ie as a teacher and educator , which means that in addition to knowledge transfer , as well as educating and develop the personality of students through intraksi doing in class and outside of class .Teachers should be given full rights ( inalienable rights ) in the assessment ( evaluation ) the learning process , because of the problems of personality or character of students , teachers are the most knowledgeable about the condition and its development .Teachers should develop an evaluation system that is more focused on affective aspects , using assessment tools and forms of essays and interviews with learners . Aalat and shape of such assessments , more can measure the characteristics of each learner , and able to measure the attitude of honesty , independence , communication skills , logical structure , and others that are part of the process of formation of a positive character . It will work better again if supported by the government as policy makers .
CHAPTER IIICLOSINGA. ConclusionEducation is defined as a system of cultivation of character values ​​to the school community , which includes knowledge , awareness or volition , and actions to implement these values ​​, either against Almighty God ( Almighty) , ourselves, others , the environment , and national so that the perfect man to be human .In character education in schools , all components ( stakeholders ) should be involved , including educational components themselves , ie the content of the curriculum , learning and assessment , the quality of relationships , handling or management subjects , the school management , the implementation of the activities or co-curricular activities , empowerment infrastructure , financing , and working ethos of the whole school community and environment .
B. AdviceIt is expected that with the implementation of character education in elementary school may establish a private student who excels in act and have a personality that is in accordance with Pancasila morals and religion . For the implementation of character education in elementary school is necessary, so that we can be moral people REFERENCES
Megawangi , Rachael. , 2004. Character Education . Jakarta : Indonesian Heritage Foundation . accessed on December 27, 2012 ) . ( accessed on December 27, 2012 ) .
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