Understanding Plant Physiology Papers
Plant physiology (Physis = natural, logos = knowledge) seeking particulars of the fairy plant life.
Plant physiology is a branch of biology that studies the metabolic processes that occur in the body that causes the growth of these plants can live. The rate processes This metabolism is influenced by factors in the microenvironment surrounding the plant.
By studying the physiology of plants, we will be better able to understand how the sunlight used by plants to produce carbon hydrates of inorganic materials such as water and carbon dioxide. Why do plants need plenty of water, how seeds germinate, how plants wilt when drought and various other symptoms displayed by plants.
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Basically the symptoms in putting out the light by plants can be based on the principles of chemistry and physics, some metabolic processes can be explained in detail about the principles of chemistry and physics involved where this description has to be accepted by the plant physiologist with tampa keraguaan .
B. Problem Formulation
Based on the above background, the formulation of the problem:

How does the process of transpiration in plants?
How does the effect of sunlight on plant growth direction?
How do I prove the process of respiration in plants that emit the CO2, the water indicator biomtimol lime and blue?

C. Destination

For the process of transpiration in plants
To determine the effect of sunlight on plant growth directions
To know how to prove the process of respiration in plants that emit the CO2, the water indicator biomtimol lime and blue.

While other purpose holding plant physiology lab is to add insight and knowledge of students in developing creative work and thoroughness in conducting research.

EVENT I Respiration
A. Implementation
Day / Date: Wednesday, April 22, 2009 Place: LAB Science Biology IAIN Mataram Objective: To determine transpiration in plants
B. Basis Theory
Transpiration is a plant living activities. In hakekatnnya, transpiration is the evaporation of water, but the term is not used for the evaporation of a living creature. Actually occurs throughout the body surface evaporation plant, but is most often calculated evaporation through the leaves, because the leaves are broad structure reckoned those other plants.
Transpiration can also be interpreted as the loss of water in the form of vapor from the plant tissue through stomata. Possible loss of water through the plant tissue tanamana else could happen, but the portion of the loss is very small compared to that lost through the stomata. Therefore, in calculating the amount of water lost from the plant tissue generally focused on water loss through stomata.
Plant transpiration process lasts for life. Researchers at Utah University managed to calculate some much amount of water lost through transpiration in plants from germinating corn until harvest. The amount of water lost through transpiration in maize is equivalent to a total of 450 mm of rainfall, or to produce 1 kg of dry weight of corn plants required 225 kg of water lost through transpiration.
The amount of water lost to the atmosphere through the plant to menghasilkan1 kg dry weight of plants, there are at least two reasons why this happens:

The materials contained in tanamana mostly carbon skeleton compounds where the carbon comes from the air in the form of diksida carbon dioxide (CO2). Plants absorb CO2 through the stomata. If the plant wants to absorb more CO2 banmyak the stomata must be opened wide. Consequently if the stomata are wide open, the more plant water loss, because both CO2 and water vapor through the stomata of the same moves.
During the day the plant receives solar radiation, most of the solar radiation will be absorbed by plants. If the uptake of solar energy is not dilambangi the effort to liberate the energy tersebutm, then the plant will increase the temperature. Excessive increase in temperature will greatly interfere with the metabolism of plants. Transpiration is a process that requires a lot of energy in the vapor phase of water molecules. Menguapkan1 grams of water needed for energy more than 580 calories.

There are 2 types of transpiration is

Cuticle transpiration, evaporation of water is the smallest directly through the cuticle of the epidermis, and
Stomatal transpiration, which in this case lasted water loss through stomata.

The leaf cuticle is relatively impermeable to water, and the types of plant transpiration jsebagian cuticle only 10% or less of the amount of water lost through the leaves. Therefore, most of the water loss occurs through the stomata.
C. Tools and materials

Aluminum volleyball
2 large-mouthed bottles of 150 ml capacity
2 pieces of cork / 2 sheet aluminum Joil enough to cover the mouth of the bottle
2 pieces of plant species exolapaludosa

D. Experimental Procedure

Taking an experimental plant species or the plant shoots were approximately 40 cm in length
Providing the bottles on top, fill with water as much as half
Incorporating plants or plant cuttings into a bottle that has been filled with water earlier through lubung cork bottle / aluminum cap foill which is the
Prevent the evaporation of water other than through the experimental plant
Considering again the bottles every 1 hour and noted a reduction in the severity of
After the final weighing, taking the plant and measure the total area of ​​leaves, of plants of each bottle experiment.
Quickly calculate levels of plant transpiration was conducted by the same two conditions.

E. Observations
Transpiration process is influenced by the width of the leaf, severe changes in glasses A and B occur due to the process of transpiration, the difference in the number of severe lack of glasses A and B is influenced by the width of the leaf. A leaf on glass larger than the leaves on the glass B.
F. Discussion
1. Definition of Transpiration
Transpiration can be interpreted as a form of process steam to water loss in the plant tissue through stomata. Possible loss of water from plant tissues through other parts of the plant may occur. But the portion of the loss is very small compared to that lost through the stomata.
2. Factors that affect the rate of transpiration is as follows:

Transpiration involves the diffusion of water vapor from the spaces between the cells into the air through the stomata. The rate of transpiration will depend on:

Prisoners track of where the molecules of water vapor that diffuses, and
Water vapor concentration difference between inside and outside leaves of the sharpness of the diffusion gradient.

Suhi affect the rate of transpiration as temperature have different effects on the vapor pressure outside and inside the leaf. The leaves tend to equalize the temperature with the temperature of the surrounding air, and because the air in the spaces between cells are usually maintained in a state of saturation at the prevailing temperature of the leaves, the increase in temperature will cause an increase in vapor pressure in the leaf.
The same effect on the temperature rise outside air vapor is negligible (except near ponds, lakes and so on). And because the water vapor pressure gradient inside and outside daunm connected by stomata is sharper, so that the rate increases transpirasipun.

Wind effect on the rate of transpiration is also partly dependent on the sharpness of the diffusion gradient. In saturated air forms around the leaf surface active bertranspirasi. If the overall air is not saturated, there is a concentration gradient of water vapor from saturated air layer is getting much more into the air which is not saturated.

The availability of water in the soil is another environmental factor that affects the rate of transpiration. When the soil water conditions such that supply water to the mesophyll cells inhibited, decreasing the rate of transpiration will soon appear on the lab we did in the lab

G. Knot
Based on the description above discussion it can be concluded that:

Transpiration is the evaporation of water but the term is not used by living beings
Transpiration is a plant life activity activity
Transpiration can also be interpreted as the loss of water in the form of vapor from the plant tissue through stomata
Factors affecting transpiration is

Wetness air
The state of water in the soil

A. Implementation
Day / Date: Wednesday, April 22, 2009 Place: LAB Science Biology IAIN Mataram Objective: To determine the direction of growing plants that are affected by sunlight
B. Basis Theory
Movement in plants called the reaction etinom motion motion caused by external stimuli. Unless the movement turgor, plants react to changes in the surrounding environment with growth. Growth responses can result in a faster growing parts of the plant than the other parts. This growth is able to produce a definite movement but relatively slow. Based on the relationship between the response to the original motion stimuli, etinom movement can be divided into:
1. Tropism
Tropism is the movement of plant parts affected by the direction of its motion direction of the stimulus. Dintinju stimuli of different sources, tropism can be divided into:

Phototropism is the movement of plant parts that are affected by light stimulus
Geotropisme motion is part of the plant due to the influence of Earth's gravity
Hidrotropisme motion is due to the stimulation of plant water
Kemotropisme motion is due to the stimulation of plant chemicals
Togmotrpisme motion is due to the stimulation of plant parts touch one side or intersection

2. Nasti
Plants whose direction of motion is not influenced by the direction of the stimulus, but is determined by the plant itself. Various motion dynasty:

Fotonasti dynasty motion is caused by light stimulation
Niktinasti dynasty motion is caused by a dark atmosphere, so that the motion also called sleep
Tigmonasti / seismonasti dynasty motion is caused by tactile stimulation or movement
Termonasti is movement caused by temperature stimuli.
Haptonasti dynasty is motion that occurs in insectivores tumbhan caused by insects touch
Nasti dynasty complex motion is caused by several factors at once, such as carbohydrates pH, temperature, and calcium levels

3. Taksis
Motion is the whole body or parts of the plant that moves and the direction of displacement is influenced stimuli.
C. Tools and materials
a. Polibek b. Media soil c. Water Media d. Seeds of Vigna Ungiculata
D. How it Works

Plant Vigna Ungiculata in polibek filled with soil media
Laid at the window is exposed to sunlight
Observing the direction of plant growth on the affected side is not exposed to light and the light and look for the difference
Flipping the affected part of the light back to the light direction

E. Observations

F. Discussion
Plants vigna ungiculata we observed is a plant of rapid growth even with simple maintenance. Seeds of vigna ungiculata plants grown in polibek, then given water and placed on a translucent window to the sun. In a very short period of time and be able to live a new plant. This we observed in plant vigna ungiculata is about growing or direction of movement direction. At first, the direction of this crop plant is facing towards the sun mengenainnya.
From these results we can conclude that while the way the plants grow or motion fortotropisme ie belonging to the movement of plant parts which direction to follow the sun. After settling for 2 days, we reverse the direction of the plant that was bent or direction facing the sun, then we reverse the direction to the sun, the same results have, always follow the direction of the sun. From here we also grew namely that these plants belong to the phototropism of plants, plant parts such as the direction of its growth will always follow the direction of the sunlight that shone.
G. Knot

Motion mum plants can be classified into three:


Plant is a plant vigna ungiculata plants belonging to the direction of motion of the majority of his body facing the sun so that the plant is a plant phototropism.

EVENT III Respiration in PLANTS
A. Implementation
Day / Date: Wednesday, April 22, 2009 Place: LAB Science Biology IAIN Mataram Objective: To prove that the CO2 released by respiration indicator lime and blue bromtimol
B. Basis Theory
Breathing is the process of gas exchange of O2 with CO2 as a result of normal metabolism and substances needed or required in the breathing itself.
Breathing is burning (metabolism or dissimilation) where the stored energy was restored again to restore the life processes of respiration is the process pembokaran or stored energy to be used in the processes of life.

Respiration or oxygen-glucose is a major energy source for most cells. At the time of glucose is broken down in a series of enzymatic reactions, some resulting energy in the form of high-energy phosphate bonds (ATP) and some is lost as heat.
The main process of respiration is the mobilization and oxidation of organic compounds compounds. These compounds to release energy in a controlled manner for the maintenance and development of plants. Reaction respiration (biological oxidation) a carbohydrate such as glucose takes place in four stages are:
1. Glycolysis
Is a series of reactions that decompose one molecule of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid, the reaction pathway is also called the Embden-Meyerhoff pathway-Parnas (EMP), is the basis of anaerobic respiration or fermentation.
2. Oxidative decarboxylation Pyruvate
The compounds produced the 2nd stage is decomposed into CO2 leaves called citric acid as the C6 compound that was first formed in the citric acid cycle is. This cycle is known as Krebs cycle. Another name of the chorus as well as acids with three carboxyl groups.
3. Oxidation of the terminal in the chain respiratoris
Hydrogen produced by the substrate to the stage-1 to 3rd eventually combine with oxygen to form water.
To be able to take place there is a hydrogen transport along a chain of redox system is through a system of transport / electron transport
C. Tools and materials
- Close cork / aluminim foil - 4 pieces of test tubes - Gauze - The rope or thread - Pipette measuring
- Distilled water - Sprouts - Lime water - Hidrilla - Solution bromtimol blue
D. How it Works

Setting up a test tube 4 pieces
Filling tube 1 and tube 2 to 5 ml of lime water
On the tube to 2, enter the sprouts that have been wrapped with gauze hanging position
Fill the tube 3 and tube 4 distilled water to taste
Add 3-5 drops of blue bromtimol on the tube 3 and tube 4
At 4 tube insert some Hydrilla leaves
Closes 4 test tubes tightly with alluminium foil
Observing the changes that occur in the 4th tube

E. Observations
Image Understanding Plant Physiology Papers
F. Discussion
Based on the above observations can be noted that:

Tube containing II (lime water and sprouts) more turbid than tbung to I, this occurs because the solution reacts with lime water sprouts that does respiration O2 is issued.

Lime water is a chemical compound that can react with carbon dioxide. Reaction results in the form of colored substances such as milk, which is then precipitated chalk particles.
Use of fresh sprouts due sprouts sprouts do breathing because it was still alive. The proof is seen in the change of the originally clear lime water becomes white. Actually lime is calcium can bind CO2.

The color changes are given bromtimol blume solution occurs on the tube to 4, because the tube is inserted into the solution -4 Hydrilla plants, and the color changes from green to yellowish green leaves, is due to the influence of Hydrilla klorifl it did respiration by releasing O2 .


Which test tube is lime water becomes cloudy?
What is the function of the lime water and lime water used why?
In the test tube in which the color changes are given bromtimol blue solution? Why?
Why use kuncul flowers that are blooming or sprouts?
Compare your observations on the 4th tube. How did it go?

Answer Discussion

In the second test tube of lime water becomes turbid because CO2 is mixed with lime water it becomes cloudy.
Lime water function to determine whether or not there is respiration and lime water functions as the indicator for the respiration process would happen if airnyar cloudy
Water discoloration occurred in the test tube 4th reason being the 4th test tube respiration process successfully
Because it is impossible to use root / stem on the plant because the process of respiration in plants the greatest place on the leaves is the leaf stomata.
Comparison of the 4 tubes

G. Knot
Based on observations and discussion above it can be concluded that prove carefully about the principles of the lime water reacts with CO2 and bromtimol blue which reacts with CO2 can be proven by the time we practice.
If the lime water reacts with CO2 then the water will turn into a cloudy and blue bromtimol liquid CO2 reacts with the water color will be dark green


A. Conclusion
Based on some event in the lab can be concluded that:

The process of transpiration in plants, transpiration process is influenced by leaf width, weight change in each experiment occurred because the process of transpiration, the lack of difference in the amount of body weight is influenced by the width of the leaf.
Directions to grow plants that belong to the movement of parts of the plant phototropism which direction to follow the direction of the sun.
The principles of the lime water reacts with CO2 and blue bromtimol that react with CO2 can be proven by the time we practice.

B. Suggestion
Based on practical experience we have done in the Biological Science Laboratory via a written report of this opportunity and we try to give some character to bring up in order to enter the lab in the future are more likely to building practices such as the quality of the results:
Co.Ass, in order to provide supplies to the existence of more and clearly that we do not get confused as practiced in giving a description and discussion of each event practice on the practice report and we expect that the facilities at the Laboratory reproduced again because we as a practice have not been too happy with the facilities we use for this

Lakitan, Benjamin, 2007. Fundamentals of Plant Physiology, PT. King Grafindo Persada, Jakarta
Loveless, A.R. , 1991. Plant Biology for Tropical Regions, PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama, Jakarta
Nurdina, SP. MP. , 2009. Practical Hints Plant Physiology IAIN Mataram, Mataram.
Seputro, Dwi, Prof., Dr.. , 1994. Introduction to Plant Physiology PT. Scholastic Press: New York
Hopefully you Assisted with writing this blog, this blog discusses plant physiology


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