CONTOH MAKALAH BAHASA INGGRIS TENTANG MATEMATIKA



INFLUENCE OF PHYSICAL FITNESS FOR ACHIEVEMENT
IPS LEARNING AND STATE PRIMARY SCHOOL STUDENTS Mathematics 3, 4 AND 7 BANJAR JAVA SINGARAJA

1. Preliminary
Basically according Djamil physical education (1995:1) is a part of the overall education that promotes physical activity and healthy living guidance for the growth and development of physical, mental, social, and emotional harmony, harmony and balance. The expected outcome of physical education is in addition to mastering basic movement skills are also degrees of physical condition or good health, so that the resulting level of physical fitness excellence.
Function of physical education according to Purnomo (Bulletin Kesjas II/1995 2/th Edition: 8), namely: (1) improve the growth and development of the body which includes physical fitness and health, (2) improve dexterity and skills, (3) improving the knowledge and intelligence, (4) adding a creative social life and recreation. Level of physical fitness excellence will help make it easier for students to study all subjects in school.  The results were presented at the Workshop on the National Institute of Mental Health United States 1984 among them, that physical fitness is positively associated with mental health and overall health of a person (Kathleen 1992:143). The study, led by Bowers from Bowling Green University, showed that after 10 weeks of walking or jogging, the elderly have turned out better memory and sharper thinking power.
This study shows that immediately after exercise, mental awareness and the capacity to think can be improved (Kathleen, 1992:142).  Purnomo (Bulletin Kesjas 2/Th.II/1995 Edition; 13) in a study of 20 secondary schools in 4 provinces (East Java, Bali, Yogyakarta, and South Sulawesi) concluded that a good level of physical fitness, positive effect on student achievement. This is evident from the results of physical fitness tests and values ​​learning outcomes taken from 10 subjects. Having classified the results indicate that there is a significant relationship between students who have good academic achievement with a good level of physical fitness.
Wiranto (1997, 4), states that emotional intelligence can be developed through physical education and sport. Understanding the essence of emotional intelligence by Rush (1997), includes four aspects: self-control, diligence, perseverance and the ability to motivate yourself. The conclusion that emotional intelligence is one internal factor in determining student success.
Support of physical fitness is required by the school for the students to follow the learning process each day on average takes five hours. Thus no doubt that physical education is very much needed by the students to improve and maintain physical fitness. According Wiranto (1997:3), intelligence and creativity gained through sport should be attached to a person's personality and abilities.  Improvement of physical fitness is expected to be transferred positively to the cognitive learning abilities. It is hoped the results reflected in higher student achievement in the learning process of mathematics, the natural sciences (Mathematics) and social sciences (IPS), which needs to be proven in this study.  Through Physical Education and sports, the students are expected to be easier to master the concepts and skills of others, resulting in the transfer of physical education learning outcomes are positive towards mastery of concepts and skills of other subject areas. Physical education curricular enrichment program is expected to be very significant in the improvement of physical fitness in order to support the achievement of learning in general.  Based on the above, the authors are interested in researching about: is there any influence of physical fitness with increased learning achievement in Mathematics and Social Studies elementary students ". The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of physical fitness on learning achievement in Mathematics and Social Studies elementary students. Benefits of the research are (1) to develop a learning process of physical education in order to produce optimal levels of physical fitness are primed to support cognitive learning achievement. (2) assist the development of physical and cognitive achievement outcomes.  There are several viable theory adopted include physiological theory, motor theory, transfer of learning and physical education contribute to cognitive development. Physiological theories include the following. (A) The system is endogenous opioids hormone system that serves as morpin, the receptor of the system is contained in the hypothalamus and limbic system of the brain, the area associated with emotion and human behavior. Endogenous opioids hormone systems, one of which is beta-endorphins which reduce pain, provide the strength to face cancer and also increase memory. When exercising the pituitary gland to increase production of beta-endorphins and the result is concentration of beta-endorphins rise in blood flow to the brain as well, so it can reduce pain, anxiety, depression and fatigue, (b). Alpha brain waves, that is, during exercise there is the addition of alpha waves in the brain. Increasing alpha waves in the brain power to contribute to a reduction in anxiety and depression. (C) The nervous system is the brain, nerves channeling the brain (neurotransmitters) such as norepinephrine (NE) and serotine (5-HT) is involved in depression and schizophrenia. Depression is associated with reduced NE in the brain, or disruption of NE or 5-HT at the time of a person suffering from depression. Exercise can increase the NE and 5-HT in the brain, so it can cope with depression (Kathleen, 1992: 144-145). (D) Synapses are junctions between two neurons the axon makes contact with the dendrite or cell body of another neuron. Enlargement of axon fibers at the contact point is known as synaptic knob, which is a base that allows the transmission at the synapses that involve learning occurs because of the enlargement of synaptic knob (Donald, in Andi, 1968:124).
Synapses is the impulse to pass from one cell to another cell which can be found in connections between nerve cells and nerve cells or nerve cells to muscle cells. Connections between nerve cells in skeletal muscle cells is called the neuromuscular junction. Jichun Jin, (2000) says that intelligence is the basic ingredient in the nervous system is the most perfect form of the brain, is closely linked to the movement of muscle, smooth muscle and cardiac muscle. Sports not only form the arms, legs and strengthen the organs inside the body, but also to strengthen the foundation of intelligence.
Based on these theories, it can be concluded that the activities of the physical education / health system based on endogenous opioids, alpha brain waves, brain and nervous system synapses can calm the mind, reduce anxiety, depression, improve memory, and strengthen the foundation of intelligence.
Motor theory Kephart (Nurhasan 1998: 35-36) says that every sentence or hand movements result in reverse flow stimulation that creates the next action, in a series of reactions, so that instead of ideation (the process of forming an idea) what one has is a series of reactions stimulus response. Developed conceptions about sensory feedback remains valid and important to understand the behavior of the glow.  Contribution of physical activity on cognitive development of children is a stimulus to improve thinking ability and can make the factor strengthening the child's academic ability, because basically all three domains (cognitive, psychomotor and affective intertwined with each other (Gabbard, et al in the Furqan, 1997:7).
Transfer learning is the influence of learning outcomes that have been acquired in the past of the process and the learning outcomes that ensued. Nature of the theory of transfer learning is an event that reflects the function of the human as a whole. Transfer learning goal is to apply what has been learned it was made public nature (Slameto, 1988:120; Ratna, 1988:176).
2. Research Methods
Type of quasi-experimental studies are providing treatment aerobic gymnastics training to improve the physical fitness of students as much as 2 times per week for one quarter of the treatment group. The research design using "Control group pre test - post test design"
The study population was all students of class V SDN 3.4 and Java 7 Banjar Singaraja totaled 115 students consisting of 65 boys and 50 female student. Sampling was done by purposive sampling technique, while the sample by pairing placements. Sample of 60 people consisting of 30 sons and 30 daughters SDN classes 3, 4 and 7 Singaraja Java Banjar is located in the middle of the group. The selection of specific samples of his fifth grade elementary school (age 10-11 years) according to Watson (1992), although the individual differences that arise in the growth and maturity, which are basically little reason to impose sex segregation sports activity until approximately age 14 years. Rusli (1993:45) states that after puberty there is a difference endurance capacity boys and girls. In conclusion there is no separation of sporting activities especially targeted at endurance ability of the public elementary school students.
Provisions of the middle group are those who are in the top 25% group and 25% among the lowest, which is defined as the percentage of the order value through the development of Social Science and Mathematics in the quarter of I.
Middle group chosen because this group is still open opportunities decreased or increased academic achievement.  Method of data collection by conducting tests and measurements. Used to measure physical fitness physical fitness test of Indonesia's primary school physical fitness and recreation center with a level of reliability and validity 0.89 0.92 (Department of Education, 1986). Measurement of student achievement in social studies and Mathematics taken from the list of values ​​quarterly I and II. Components of the assessment include: assessment of the observations (a), homework assessment results (b) and then averaged (X), assessment of daily test results (Y) given weight 1 and summative assessment test (P) is weighted 2. The assessment components are formulated to produce a final value (N). N = (X + Y + 2P): 4, ie 4 is the amount of weight (Depdikbud. 1999).
Data processing method using a nonparametric statistical test with marked  = 0.01.
aWilcoxon Rank test (Sidney Siegal, 1997:93) with  

3. Results and Discussion.
3.1 Research Results.
3.1.1 Results of Analysis of the Effect of Physical Fitness on Student Achievement IPS Control group.
Analysis of the influence of physical fitness on student achievement in social studies the control group will test the null hypothesis (Ho) states that the lack of physical fitness category does not affect the increase in mean scores on student achievement IPS control group.
Ho testing using nonparametric statistical test with marked Wilcoxon Rank  t<test, the criteria for rejection of Ho is if the price observation t  critical value at significance level for two-sided test of 0.01.
Of  = 0.01
athe results have been obtained price observation t = 90, with  for two-sided tests and n = 15 is obtained critical value t = 16.  t critical value, then Ho is accepted.>So the observation t  Conclusion obtained is less physical fitness category had no significant effect on the mean score increased student achievement IPS control group. Students who score less physical fitness category average achievement in the social studies cawu I = 53 was not significantly different from the mean score of academic achievement IPS cawu II = 50.27. This shows the decrease in learning achievement.

3.1.2 Results of Analysis of the Effect of Physical Fitness on Student Achievement IPS Treatment Group.
Analysis of the influence of physical fitness on student achievement in social studies this treatment group will test Ho stating that physical fitness category were not affect the increase in mean scores on student achievement IPS treatment groups. Ho testing using nonparametric statistical test with the Wilcoxon test,  t critical<the rejection criteria Ho is if the price observation t  value at significance level for two-sided test of 0.01.  Of  = 0.01athe results have been obtained price observation t = 0, with  for two-sided tests and n = 15 is obtained critical value t = 16.  t critical value, then Ho is rejected.<So the observation t  The conclusions obtained are the physical fitness category were significantly affect the increase in mean scores on student achievement IPS treatment groups. Physical fitness of students categorized as being mean achievement scores in social studies cawu I = 52.93 is significantly different from the mean score of academic achievement IPS cawu II = 59.93. It showed no significant increase in student achievement.


3.1.3 Summary of Effects of Physical Fitness for IPS Learning Achievement.
Table 01. Summary of the Effect of Physical Fitness Achievement IPS.
Group Control group  (Lack of physical fitness category) Treatment Group
(Categories of physical fitness are)  I quarterly quarterly quarterly quarterly II I II quarterly Beda Beda  Mean 53 50.27 -2.73 52.93 59.93 6.99  No significance Significance Significance

3.1.4 Results of Analysis of Physical Fitness Effect on Student Achievement in Mathematics and Science Learning Control group.  Analysis of the influence of physical fitness on learning achievement in Mathematics student control group test Ho stated that lack of physical fitness category had no effect on the mean score increased learning achievement in Mathematics student control group. Ho testing using nonparametric statistical test with the Wilcoxon test,  t
<the criteria for rejection of Ho is if the price observation t  critical value at significance level for two-sided test of 0.01.  Of  = 0.01athe results have been obtained price observation t = 55, with  for two-sided tests and n = 15 is obtained critical value t = 16.  t critical value, then Ho is accepted.>So the observation t  Conclusion obtained is less physical fitness category had no significant effect on the mean score increased learning achievement in Mathematics student control group. Students who lack the physical fitness category mean score on the Mathematics achievement cawu I = 50.80 did not differ significantly with the average achievement score IPS cawu II = 50.55. It showed no decrease in learning achievement.
 3.1.5 Results of Analysis of Physical Fitness Effect on Student Achievement in Mathematics and Science Study Treatment Group.  Analysis of the influence of physical fitness on learning achievement in Mathematics student test treatment group Ho stating that physical fitness category were not affect the increase in mean scores on student achievement MIPA treatment groups. Ho testing using nonparametric statistical test with the Wilcoxon test,  t critical
<the rejection criteria Ho is if the price observation t  value at significance level for two-sided test of 0.01.
Of  = 0.01
athe results have been obtained price observation t = 0, with  for two-sided tests and n = 15 is obtained critical value t = 16.  t critical value, then Ho is rejected.<So the observation t  The conclusions obtained are the physical fitness category were significantly influence the increase in mean score on student achievement MIPA treatment groups. Students who were categorized physical fitness achievement mean score of Mathematics at I = 50.70 cawu differ significantly from the mean score achievement IPS cawu II = 55.75. It showed no significant increase in student achievement.
4. Cover
From the results of research and discussion can be concluded. (1) social studies and Mathematics Achievement in the control group students whose level of physical fitness in the category less did not show an increase in student achievement. (2) social studies and Mathematics Achievement in the treatment group students whose level of physical fitness in middle category showed significant increase in academic achievement.
Of  research and discussion the following suggestions can be put forward. (1) The principal to issue policy guidance on the importance of physical fitness for their students, because physical fitness is a pre-condition for learning readiness. (2) The teacher should always pay attention to physical exercise can improve physical fitness and to stimulate increased cognitive achievement.

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