A. Definition
Organizational communication is sending and receiving the messages organizations in the formal and informal groups of an organization (Wiryanto, 2005). Formal communication is communication that is approved by the organization itself and its nature-oriented interests of the organization. Contents of the inner workings of the organization, productivity, and a variety of work to be done in the organization. For example: memos, policies, statements, press conference and official letters. The informal communication is communication that is socially approved. Orientation is not the organization, but rather the individual members.
Correlations between science communication with the organization lies in its review that focused on human beings involved in achieving the organization's goals. Communication of science to question what form of communication that takes place within the organization, methods and techniques are being used, the media what to wear, how to process, what factors is the bottleneck, and so on. The answers to these questions is to study the material for further presents a conception of communication for a particular organization based on the type of organization, the nature of the organization, and scope of the organization to take into account the particular circumstances at the time the communication was launched.
B. Communication Functions
Sendjaja (1994) stated that the function of communication in the organization is as follows:
1) Function informative.
Organizations can be viewed as an information processing system. That is, all members of an organization hope to gain more information, the better and timely. The information obtained allows every member of the organization can perform their tasks more precisely. The people in the management level need information to make an organizational policy or to resolve conflicts in the organization. While employees (subordinates) requires information to carry out the work, in addition also information about security, social security and health, permit leave, and so on.
2) regulatory functions.
This function relates to the regulations in force within an organization. There are two things that affect the regulatory functions, namely: a. In connection with the people who are in a management level, ie those who have the authority to control all information submitted. Also give orders or instructions that his orders duly executed. b. Associated with the message. Regulative messages basically oriented work. That is, subordinates need regulatory certainty about the job and should not be allowed to be implemented.
3) Function persuasive.
In arranging an organization, power and authority will not always bring results as expected. Given this reality, it is a lot of leadership to persuade subordinates rather than giving orders. Because the work is done voluntarily by the employee will result in greater concern than if leaders often show power and authority.
4) integrative functions.
Every organization strives to provide channels that allow employees to carry out tasks and work well. There are two communication channels that can achieve this goal, namely: a. Formal communication channels such as publishing specialized in the organization (bulletins, newsletters) and the organization's progress report. b. Informal communication channels such as interpersonal conversations during work breaks, sporting events, field trips or activities. Implementation of these activities will foster the desire for greater participation in the employee towards the organization.
C. Approach to Communication
Griffin retell discuss three approaches to organizational communication. The third approach is as follows:
1) A systems approach.
Karl Weick (pioneer approach to information system) considers hierarchical structure, chain of command communication lines, standard operating procedure is mungsuh of innovation. He saw the organization as an organic life must continually adapt to a changing environment in order to sustain life. Organizing is the process of understanding the vague information through the creation, selection, and retention of information. Weick believes the organization will survive and flourish only when its members include many freedom (free-flowing) and interactive communication. Therefore, when faced with a situation that mess, managers must rely on the communication of the rules.  Weick view organizing as an evolutionary process that relies on a series of three processes:   determination (enachment) à selection (selection) à storage (retention)
2) The cultural approach.
Assumption of symbolic interaction say that people act on something based on their interpretation of something that. Got a big boost from the anthropologist Clifford Geertz, theorists and ethnographic, cultural researchers who see the unique shared meaning is specified organization. Viewed as a cultural organization. An organization is a way of life (way of live) for its members, to form a common reality that distinguish it from other cultures.
Pacanowsky and other interpretive theorists assume that culture is not something that is owned by an organization, but culture is something an organization. organizational culture is produced through the interaction of its members. Actions that are not only achieving task-oriented goals short term but also create or reinforce other ways besides behavioral task "official" of the employee, because the activities of day-to-day the most down to earth also contribute to the cultural .
3) Approach criticism.
Stan Deetz, one of the adherents of this approach, consider that corporate interests have dominated almost every other aspect of society, and our lives are determined by the decisions made on behalf of corporate organizations settings, or managerialism.
Language is the main medium in which social reality is produced and reproduced.
Managers can create health organizations and democratic values ​​by coordinating stakeholder participation in corporate decisions.
D. Communication Process
Communication occurs in the relationship between the sender and the recipient. Communication can flow in one direction and ends there. Or a message can cause a response (which is formally known as "feedback") of the receiver.  Sender (source message) is a party to initiate communications. In an organization, the sender can be someone with information, needs, or desires and with the aim of communicating it to one or several others.
Recipient is a person whose senses receive messages from the sender. May occur many number of recipients, such as if a memo sent to all members of the organization, or just a single person, as if someone is discussing something confidential to a colleague. Messages must be tailored to the background of the recipient. Production manager should avoid the use of highly technical terms to communicate with someone in the marketing department.
The three factors that influence the effectiveness of communication include encoding, interpretation and interference.
1) Encryption
Encryption occurs when the sender translates that information into a series of symbols to be sent. Encoding is necessary because the information can only be transmitted from one person to another through representatives or symbols.  Because communication is the object of encryption, the sender tried to define the meaning of "that can be understood along" with the receiver by selecting the symbol, usually in the form of words or gestures, which is trusted by the sender has the same meaning to the recipient. Often encountered, the lack of cooperation is one of the common causes of misunderstanding or failure to communicate.
2) interpretation
Is a process that is done by the receiver to interpret the message and translate it into information that has meaning. This is a two-step process, namely (1) to receive the message, and then (2) interpret it. Interpretation is influenced by the experience of the recipient, personal assessment of the symbols and gestures used, hope (people tend to hear what they want to hear), and in common sense by the sender. In general, the more meaning the same recipient with the message intended by the sender, the more effective communication.
3) Disturbance
Includes all factors that disturb, confuse, or interfere with communication. Interference can arise in the communication channel, or shipping method. Disorders can occur due to internal factors (eg less heed to the recipient) or external factors (eg interrupted by another voice message from the environment. Disorders can occur at any stage of the communication process, especially at the stage of encoding and interpretation.
E. How to Improve Communication Process
Effectiveness of communication can be detected through "to what extent the parties involved to address the four aspects of communication" which include: differences in perception, emotion, inconsistencies between verbal and non-verbal, and trust (or distrust) between the initial parties involved.
1) Perception Differences
Is one of the common communication barriers encountered. People who have the background knowledge and experiences often receive the same phenomenon from a different perspective. Language differences are related to differences in individual perceptions. So that a message can be communicated precisely, the words used must have the same meaning for the sender and receiver. To overcome this, the message should be explained so that it can be understood by recipients who have different views and experiences.  
2) Emotions
Emotional reactions (such as anger, love, defend opinions, jealousy, fear, shame, etc.) will affect the way people understand messages from others and the way others understand the message the person. The best approach to dealing with emotions is to accept it as part of the communication process and try to understand when emotions cause problems.
3) The inconsistency
Many people have argued that the spoken and written language is the main medium of communication. In fact, the message that is sent or received is often influenced by factors such as non-verbal gestures, clothing, physical distance communicators, posture, limb movements, facial expressions, eye movements, body touch, and others.
The key to that is to beware and watch out to not send false messages. For the verbal message must always be in harmony with the non-verbal aspects.
4) initial distrust
Level of confidence in the message recipient is generally a function of the credibility of the sender in the recipient's mind. Credibility of the sender of the message is influenced by the environment in the context of the relevant message. This is where the history of the employment relationship has communication links. Credibility is the result of a long-term process where a person of honesty, good faith and justice known and understood by others. Good relationship in  can only be developed through consistent action.

F. Factors Affecting Organizational Communication
Lesikar outlines the four factors that influence the effectiveness of organizational communication which include:
1) formal communication channels.
Is a way of communication that is supported, and may be controlled by the manager. Examples are newsletters, regular memos, reports, staff meetings, and others.
2) The structure of authority.
Differences in status and power within the organization to help determine who will communicate with whom tasty. In addition, the content and accuracy of communication is also influenced by the differences of authority.
3) Specialization work.
Usually will facilitate communication within different groups. Member of a working group usually has jagron, views on time, goals, tasks and personal style are the same.
4) Ownership information.
Each individual has unique information and knowledge about their work, which is a sort of power for
A. Definition
Negotiation or bargaining is a process of bargaining between the parties involved in the conflict. In these negotiations no agreement expected value between the two groups. Or Robs said negotiations can be defined as a process in which there are two parties / more goods or services and attempt to agree on the level of co-operation for them. \
Robbins (1999) offers two negotiation strategies, which include:
a. Distributive bargaining, meaning negotiation that seeks to divide a fixed amount of resources (a win lose situation).
b. Integrative bargaining, the negotiations that seek a settlement or more that can create win-win solutions.
Negotiation is a complex communication process, all the more obvious when one round of negotiations is the only episode in the relationship longer term. Such circumstances are often the case in employee relations with management.  Preparation is the key concern for negotiators. The preparation should include a review process that occurs prior negotiations and outcome of those negotiations. Negotiators took a considerable risk if he thought that history is not important to the other party.  The link between relationship with time in the negotiation process is massive. Organizational strategy and functional plan will serve as a guideline and threshold values ​​that define the limits of what should and should not be done by the negotiators. Nimran (1999) offers several conflict management strategies, namely:
1) Strategy competition, called win-lose strategy, ie the problem solving power.
2) The strategy of collaboration or win-win strategy in which the parties involved to find a way of resolving conflict are equally beneficial.
3) avoidance strategy, ie a strategy to avoid resource conflicts by diverting the issue so that the conflict does not occur.
4) The strategy of accommodation, is a strategy that puts its own interests above the interests of the opponent. This strategy is also referred to as nature relented.
5) Strategies compromise, ie a lose-lose strategy in which the parties to a conflict are equally compromising partly from his target and get the maximum results
B. Characteristic Negotiations
Negotiations have several major characteristics, namely:
1. always involves people - either as an individual, organization or company representative, alone or in a group;
2. has in it the threat or occurrence of a conflict that occurred from the beginning to the end of an agreement in the negotiations;
3. using exchange means something-whether it be a bargain (bargain) and exchange (barter);
4. almost always face-to-face-shaped using spoken language, gestures and facial expressions;
5. negotiations usually involve things in the future or something that has not happened and we want to happen;
6. end of the negotiations was an agreement made by both sides, although the deal as both sides agree to disagree.
C. Negotiate steps
1) Preparation
The first step in negotiating is a preparatory step. Good preparation is a solid foundation for the negotiations which we will do. It will give you the confidence that we need to negotiate. The first step we have to do in preparation is to define clearly what we want to achieve in the negotiations. This objective should be clear and measurable, so that we can build a room to negotiate. Without measurable goals, we do not have a handle to bargain or compromise with other parties.
The second thing in preparation for negotiations is our mental readiness. Keep us in a state of relaxed and not tense. The easiest way is to do relaxation. For those of us who were expert in subconscious reprogramming (subconscious reprogramming) we can do the negotiation exercises in our subconscious mind, so after doing it so many times mentally, we become more prepared and confident.
2) Opening
Initiate a negotiation is not as easy as we imagine. We should be able to create the right atmosphere or ambiance before the negotiation process begins. To initiate a negotiation properly, we need to have self-confidence, calmness, and clarity of purpose we negotiate. There are three attitudes that we need to develop in initiating negotiations, namely: pleasant (unpleasant), assertive (firm, not wishy-washy), and firm (firm in the establishment). Smile is also one of the things that we need to initiate a negotiation, so it will give you a feeling of comfort and open to both parties. Here are some steps in initiating a negotiation:
a. Do not hold anything in your right hand when entering the negotiating room;
b. Reached out to shake hands first;
c. With firm handshakes and brief
d. Give a smile and say something that is fitting for initiating a conversation
D. Begin the process of negotiating
The first step in starting the process of negotiation is delivered (proposing) what the wishes or demands of us. That need to be considered in the process of delivering our objectives are:
1) Wait for the right time for both sides to begin talks on the subject matter of negotiations;
2) Present the main points of your party wishes or demands are clear, concise and full of confidence;
3) Emphasize that you or your organization wishes to reach an agreement with them;
4) Provide room to maneuver or bargaining chip in negotiations, do not make only two choices yes or no
5) Tell them that "if they give you is you'll give them that - if you'll give us this, we'll give you that." So that they understand clearly what they have to provide a compensation of what we give .  The second step in the early stages of the negotiation process is effectively listen to what is being offered or that the demands of others. Listen effectively requires practice and certain techniques. Such as how to interpret gestures and facial expressions speakers. Always establish eye contact with the speaker and we were in a state of relaxed yet attentive.


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