KUMPULAN KARYA ILMIAH BAHASA INGGRIS LENGKAP KACANG HIJAU



SCIENTIFIC WORKS OF THE GROWTH OF BIOLOGY-GREEN BEAN SEEDS

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

A. Background
Initial growth of seed plants started from seed. Seeds contain the required potential to grow into a new individual, such as embryo, food storage, and the candidate leaves (potential root). A seed contains an embryo. Embryo consists of radicle (which would grow into the roots) and plumula (which will grow into sprouts). Stored food reserves for the embryo in cotyledon contained therein starch, protein and several enzymes. Cotyledons surrounded by a solid material, called the testa. Testa serves as a protection to prevent damage to the embryo cotyledons and the entry of bacteria or fungi in the seed. Testa has a small opening, called a micropyle. Near the hilum is the micropyle are combining skin cotyledons. (Bagod Sudjadi, 2006)
 Seeds contain very little water. By the time the seeds are formed, the water in it was issued so that the seeds are dehydrated. In the absence of water, the seeds can not hold the metabolic process so that it becomes inactive (dormant). Seed dormancy is very useful in uncomfortable conditions (extreme; very cold or dry) because of strong grain structure will protect the embryo in order to survive. (Bagod Sudjadi, 2006)
Germination is the process of embryo growth and seed components which have the ability to grow normally into new plants. The seed component is part sprouts contained in seeds, such as radicle and plumula. Germination is the process of growth and development of the embryo. The results of germination is the emergence of a small plant from the seed. The process of changing the embryo at germination is plumula grow and develop into the stem, and the radicle to grow and develop into roots.
Germination is the process whereby sustu radicle (embryonic root) extends outward to penetrate the seed coat. Behind the morphological symptoms with the radicle appearance, physiological-biochemical processes occur are complex, known as the physiological process of germination.
            Developing embryo does not have chlorophyll, so that the embryo can not make their own food. In plants, in general food for embryo growth comes from the endosperm. (Istamar Syamsuri, 2004)
Germination begins with the absorption of water into the cells. This process is a physical process. Ingress of water in seeds causes the enzyme active work. Workings of the enzyme is a chemical process. Amylase enzyme works to break down starch into maltose, maltose subsequently hydrolysed by maltase into glucose. Protein is also broken down into amino acids. Compounds into glucose metabolic process and broken down into energy or converted into carbohydrate compounds that make up the body structure. Linked amino acids into proteins that serve to structure and organize cells of new enzymes. Fatty acids are primarily used to construct cell membranes. (Istamar Syamsuri, 2004)
Seed germination associated with chemical aspects. The process includes several steps, such as imbibition, the secretion of hormones and enzymes, hydrolysis of food reserves, food delivery dissolved and hormones to the growing point or other areas, as well as assimilation (photosynthesis). (Bagod Sudjadi, 2006)
Process fluid absorption in seed (imbibition) occurs through the micropyle. Water that enters the cotyledons cause volume increases, consequently cotyledons swell. The swelling eventually lead to rupture of testa. (Bagod Sudjadi, 2006)
In physiology, the process of germination takes place in several important stages, including:
1. Water absorption.
2. Metabolic breakdown of food reserve material.
3. Material transport results from endosperm to embryo splitting is actively growing.
4. Processes of re-establishment of new materials.
5. Respiration.
6. Growth. (Mayer and mayber, 1975)
 Many of the factors that control seed germination process, both internal and external. Internally the seed germination process determined the balance between promoters and inhibitors of germination, especially gliberelin acid (GA) and abskisat acid (ABA). External factors that are ecologically germination include water, temperature, humidity, light, and the presence of certain chemical compounds that act as inhibitors of germination. (Mayer and mayber, 1975)
            The process of germination is influenced by oxygen, temperature, and light. Oxygen is used in the oxidation process of cells to produce energy. Germination requires the right temperature for the enzyme activation. Germination can not take place at high temperatures, because of the high temperatures can damage the enzyme. Growth has been fairly good in the dark. Germination requires hormones and hormone auxin is susceptible to damage at high light intensity. Because it's in a dark place sprouts grow longer than in the light.

B. Problem Formulation
1. Is soaking time effect on green beans?
2. What factors are affecting the growth of green beans?
3. Does humidity affect the growth of green beans?
C. Research Objectives
1. To know and observe the effect of duration of immersion on the growth of green beans.
2. To find out how much time to do a good soaking mung bean seed germination.

D. Benefits of Research
The benefits of this study are to determine the effect of immersion time on the growth of green beans.

E. Limitations
The study was conducted for 6 days. From 30 July to 4 August 2012.

CHAPTER II
LITERATURE REVIEW

A. Green Beans
Green beans are a type of cultivated plants and crops are widely known tropical areas. Plants belonging to the tribe of legumes (Fabaceae) has a lot of benefits in our daily lives as a source of high protein food.
The most valuable part of the economy is its seeds. In addition, the green bean harvest should be done several times. Increased production of green beans is done by improving the technical culture of farmers, getting varieties of high production and cooking simultaneously, as well as an increase in post-harvest business. In terms agronmis can be done by setting the action NPK fertilization and population size, spacing, sanitation, control of pests and plant diseases.
            Inside there is a lot of green beans nutrients such as protein, calcium, phosphorus, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin E, iron, magnesium and antioxidants.

B. Plant Growth
Growth is defined as a process of increase in size or volume and number of cells are irreversible, or not be able to get back into shape. Development is a biological change events into manhood can not be expressed by size but by body shape changes (metamorphosis) and level of maturity. Growth and development are both activities of life that can not be separated, as the process goes along.
Plants are still small, has recently emerged from seed and still living off food supplies contained in the seeds, called sprouts (plantula). Early germination begins with the end of dormancy. Dormancy period is due to the cessation of growth in plants that are not suitable environmental conditions. The end of the dormancy period was marked by the entry of water into the seed of a plant, which is called the imbibition process. Imbibition occurs due to absorption of water due to low water potential in the dry seed. Berimbibisi water causes seeds to swell and break the wrapping skin and also trigger metabolic changes in the embryo that led to the continued growth of the seeds. The enzymes will begin digesting the materials stored in the endosperm or cotyledons, and the nutrients-nutrients transferred to the growing embryo.
Seeds can germinate because in it there is an embryo or plant body. Embryo or plant body has three parts, namely the roots organizations / potential root (radicle), leaves the institution (cotyledons), and stem institutions (kaulikulus).
There are two kinds of growth, namely:
1. Primary growth
Occurs as a result of cell division-cell primary meristem tissue. Takes place in the embryo, the tip-end of the plant such as roots and stems.
2. Secondary growth
An activity of secondary meristem cells which cambium and the cork cambium. This growth is found dikotil, gymnosperms and causes enlargement of the diameter of the plant. Cambium initially present only in the vascular bundles, called cambium or cambium intravascular vasic. Its function is to form the primary xylem and phloem. Furthermore parenchyma root / stem that lies between the vascular bundles, to be called the cambium cambium intervasis.
 Factors affecting the growth and development of plants distinguished by external factors and the factors.
1. Factors Affairs (External)
a. Food
Food is a source of energy and as a source of material to synthesize cell components. Required nutrients plants not only carbon dioxide and water, but also other elements. Carbon dioxide is absorbed by the leaves, while the water and minerals absorbed by the roots.
b. Water
Without water, plants will not grow. Water main compounds including much needed plants. Water for photosynthesis among other functions, activate the enzymatic reaction, keeping moisture and helps seed germination. Without water, the chemical reaction can not take place within the cell resulting in plant death.
c. Temperature
Good or ideal temperature required to plant growth and development take place either called the optimum temperature (10oC-38oC). Generally, plants can not grow at temperatures below 0 ° C and above 40oC. The existence of this temperature is closely connected with the action of the enzyme. If the temperature is too high or too low, the enzyme will break down.
d. Humidity
 Humidity affect the evaporation of water associated with the absorption of nutrients. Water evaporation increases when low humidity, consequently plants can absorb many nutrients.
e. Light
Light is needed by plants to perform photosynthesis. If a crop shortage of light, then the plant may appear pale and the color was yellowish plants.
2. Factors In (Internal)
a. Gen
 Is the substance of heredity and genes determining individual properties contained in the chromosome. The kinetic properties affect the size and shape of the growing plants.
b. Plant hormones (Phythohormone)
Phytohormones are organic compounds produced by plants, which in low concentrations or small can regulate physiological processes. As for the terms of phytohormones namely organic compounds produced by the plant itself; must be translocated; synthesis and different working places, and is active in low concentrations.
Green beans are in a cup to get enough sunlight to perform photosynthesis, so the process of photosynthesis can be carried out properly and leaf green beans were fresh green. While green beans are placed on another glass in a dark place with no sunlight. Thus, the process of photosynthesis can not take place, so that leaves the green beans at the pale yellow glass.
        The green beans are soaked longer, will be faster than the growth of green beans marinated in a shorter time and not soaked.
C. Hypothesis
 Soaking time will affect the growth of green beans. The green beans will grow faster when submerged longer. And light also affects the growth of green beans. Light can slow the growth of green beans.


CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
A. Location and Time Research
The research was conducted in the classroom XII IA, SMAN 1 as tall. Dated July 30, 2012.

B. Population and Sample
Population: Mung beans (Phaseolus radiatus). \
Samples: 25 green beans.
C. Research Variables
There are three types of variables in scientific research, namely:
1. Independent variables: long immersion.
2. Control variables: plant height and number of leaves.
3. Dependent variables: environmental factors.
D. Research Methods
 The method used in this study is library research methods, namely, learning theories germination through reference books. It also uses the experimental method, the method through experiments and observations to compare the increase in green beans (Phaseolus radiatus) in 5 plastic cups.
E. Research Design
This research was conducted using 25 green bean seeds planted in plastic cups containing 10 cotton that has been moistened. Each of these plastic cups are 5 pieces of green beans. The composition of each plastic cup is as follows:
a. A plastic cup: 5 green beans without soaking.
b. Plastic cups B: 5 green beans soaked for 1 hour.
c. Plastic cups C: 5 green beans soaked for 2 hours.
d. Plastic cups D: 5 green beans soaked for 4 hours.
e. Plastic cups E: 5 green beans soaked for 6 hours.
F. Equipment and Materials
1. Pot / mineral used plastic cups 10 pieces
2. Ruler
3. Cotton
4. Water
5. Green beans
G. Step Work
1. Take 25 green bean seeds in good condition.
2. Soak green beans with the following treatments:
a. PO (green beans without soaking, used as a control).
b. PA (green beans soaked for 1 hour).
c. PB (green beans soaked for 2 hours).
d. PC (green beans soaked for 4 hours).
e. PD (green beans soaked for 6 hours).
Note: Each treatment consisted of 2 replications, where each replication / pot contains 5 green beans. Try green beans are soaked, taken at the same time, that is when it will be planted.
3. Enter the green beans into the pot that already contains cotton that has been moistened.
4. Put the pot in the same place / not separate.
5. Do mung bean sprouts height measurements using a ruler on the 6th day, and then write the
results of measurements in the table provided.
6. Analyze the data that has been obtained.

CHAPTER IV
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

A. Result
Table Observations
Effect of Long Soaking the Seeds Mung Bean Growth



B. Discussion
Plants need water, that's for sure. If not watered the plants will die. So also with the green beans, the water needed to support plant growth.
Many factors affect the growth of which is a genetic factor to internal and external factors consist of light, humidity, temperature, water, and hormones. For the germination process is influenced by many factors light, hormones, and water although other factors influence.
Green beans were given water regularly, in other words here not too long and the water that is in excess of cotton is also not going to grow more fertile. And its development was not as long as if the green beans water shortages.
As for the green beans are not soaked and the water that is in just a little cotton, green beans will wither and eventually can not properly grow well enough green beans water.
        To distinguish plant hormone that has more or less we have to know the anatomy and physiology of the plant so that it easier to find out.
        Besides the above mentioned, there is one more factor that causes the growth of mung bean seeds inhibited, ie too much water.
Maybe because it's too long then soaking the plants rot. Or the amount of water that is in the cotton media. If the green beans to rot, it will bad odor.





CHAPTER V
CLOSING
A. Conclusion
External factors that affect the growth of mung bean seeds are:
1. Water
Serves to soften the seed coat, dissolving food storage, food transport dissolved, and hormones to the meristematic (growing point) along with hormones and build cell elongation and development.
2. Light
Light is a controlling factor in the growth and development of plants is mainly involved in the ongoing process of photosynthesis.
3. Temperature
Temperature plays a role in controlling germination and vegetative growth. In connection with the germination process of imbibition is faster at higher temperatures.
B. Suggestion
1. Before marinated green beans, choose a good green beans and the same size. If the size of the first sample then adjust the samples to another by using the green beans are a great size.
2. When giving media instead of soil medium cotton, cotton sure when it's not too wet nor too dry. Because if it is too wet cotton green beans will rot from too much water is absorbed and if cotton is too dry it will wither green beans or possibly die from lack of water.
3. Do not get too close to plant green beans, green beans because of the growth can be hampered because it is too close to plant the green beans.
4. In order for rapid growth of green beans while soaking seed germination longer try.
5. Always monitor the growth of green beans every day.

REFERENCES
            Candra Kirana dan Idayu Ria Pramudyanti. 2012. Biologi SMA/MA Kelas XII Semester Gasal. Klaten: Viva Pakarindo.
             Pratiwi, D. A., Bambang S., Sri Maryati, Srikini, Suharno. 2007. Biologi untuk SMA Kelas XII. Jakarta: Erlangga.
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