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KUMPULAN KARYA ILMIAH BAHASA INGGRIS LENGKAP TENTANG ORGANISASI



PAPER CHARACTERISTICS, INGREDIENTS, AND THEORY OF ORGANIZATION


CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION


1.1 Definition of Organization
Organization is a system of cooperation between two or more persons, or organization is any form of cooperation for the achievement of common goals, organizational structure is the division of labor and the working relationship between the structure of a group of people working together to holders of certain positions to work together to achieve certain goals.
Organization is a container or a place where people can be together to achieve a goal that has been established in the absence of a current organization for people to carry out a collaboration, because not everyone knows how to work together will be implemented.
Sense of place here in the concrete sense, but in an abstract sense, and thus place here is in the sense that the function holds or desires  several people working together to achieve certain goals.
In a general sense, the organization can change the container a collection of people that have a specific purpose such as labor organizations, women's organizations, student organizations, and so on.

CHAPTER 2
DISCUSSION

2.1 Organizational Characteristics
As for the characteristics of the organization are:
- The component (superiors and subordinates)
- The existence of cooperation (cooperative is structured from a group of people)
- The purpose
- The target
- The attachment format and order that must be obeyed
- The existence of delegation of authority and coordination tasks
According to Berelson and Steiner (1964:55) an organization has the following characteristics:

1. Formality, is a hallmark of social organization which refers to the formulation of a written rather than -laws, statutes, procedures, policies, goals, strategies, and so on.
2. Hierarchy, an organization characteristic which refers to the existence of a pattern of power and authority in the form of a pyramid, meaning that there are certain people who have position and power as well as a higher authority than ordinary members of the organization.
3. The magnitude and complexity, in this case social organization generally has a lot of members so that social relations between members is indirect (impersonal), these symptoms usually known as symptoms of "bureaucracy".
The length (duration), refers to himself that the existence of a membership organization longer than people in the organization.
There is also a state that the social organization, has several other features that relate to the organization's existence. Among them are:
1. Formulation of operational boundaries (organization) is clear. As has been discussed
above, shall give priority to the achievement of organizational objectives by making
that has been agreed. In this case, the operational activities of an organization
limited by the provisions of a binding based on common interests, as well as
meet the aspirations of its members.
2. Have a clear identity. Organization will be quickly recognized by the community
around it if it has a clear identity. Relating to identity
information about the organization, the purpose of creating an organization, or place
organization was established, and so forth.
3. Formal membership, status and role. At every member has a role and
each task in accordance with an agreed limit.
Thus, some characteristics of organizations that have been put forward we will easily distinguish which an organization can be said and that which can not be said as an organization.

2.2 Elements of Organizations
Element - element of Organization:
1. Man (Man).
2. Cooperation.
3. Shared goals.
4. Equipment (Equipment).
5. Environment.
6. Natural wealth.
7. Framework / mental Construction
Broadly speaking, the organization has three elements, namely:
1. Humans.
2. Cooperation.
3. Goals together.
Of the three elements are interrelated and have a unity. from a variety of organizations in the theory put forward by the experts that no one has the absolute truth. and the theory of organizations with each other are complementary.
Organizational elements
Each form of organization will have certain elements, which are as follows:
• For container or a place to work together.
• The process of cooperation between at least two people
• Clear assignment and position of each
• There is a specific purpose
In summary the elements of the organization's most basic is:
- There should be a container or a place to work together.
- There must be people who work together.
- The status and duties of each person must be clear.
- There should be a common goal would be achieved.
2.3 THEORY OF ORGANIZATION
Organization theory is the study of how organizations carry out their functions and how they affect and are affected by the people who work in it, or people in their scope.
Organization theory is a konsefsi, view, views, teachings, opinions or approaches to solving organizational problems to be more successful in achieving the targets. The problem is everything everything that has to do with the interests of the organization that needs solving and decision-making.
There are many issues facing the organization (complex) and requires its own solution so that it appears a variety of studies to better understand the organizational effectiveness organizational theory comes against the backdrop of 19th century English Revolution and the birth of the giant companies in the United States.
Evoluasi Organization Theory Consisting of:
 Theory Classical Theory type of organization (Bureaucracy) by Max Weber (German sociologist TheoryØ
Scientific Management by Fredrick Winslow Taylor (AmerikaTeori) administrative (prinsif-
prinsif organization) by Henry Fayol (France).
 Organizational Theory and Management of Neo ClassicalØ
 Modern Theory
Ø
 JapanØOrganizational theory and management  
5 Modern Organization Theory Group (Prajudi Atmosudirdjo):
 classical organizational theory;Ø
 The theory of human relations organizationØ
 Theory of the process;Ø
 Theory of behavior;Ø
Theory of Sistema.Ø
4 Kinds of Organization Theory (Amitai Etzioni):  Classical Theory (Scientific Management);Ø

The flow of human relationships (human relations);Ø
System structural approach;Ø
Theory of decision makingØ
9 Kinds of Organization Theory (Wursanto, 2003:260-274)
classical organizational theory;Ø
 Theory of bureaucratic organization;
Ø  The theory of human relations organization;Ø
 Theory of organizational behavior;
Ø
Theory of organizational processes;Ø
Theory of organizational leadership;Ø
Theory of organizational functions;Ø
Theory of organizational decision-making;Ø
contingency organization theory.Ø
8 Organization Theory Approach (Harold Koontz and Cyril O'Donnell)
approach or case experience (the empirical, or case approach);Ø
approach interpersonal behavior (the Interpersonal behavior approach);Ø
.


CHAPTER 3

CLOSING

3.1 Conclusion
Organization is a system of cooperation between two or more persons, or organization is any form of cooperation for the achievement of common goals, organizational structure is the division of labor and the working relationship between the structure of a group of people working together to holders of certain positions to work together to achieve certain goals.
As for the characteristics of the organization are:
- The component (superiors and subordinates)
- The existence of cooperation (cooperative is structured from a group of people)
- The purpose
- The target
- The attachment format and order that must be obeyed
- The existence of delegation of authority and coordination tasks
Broadly speaking, the organization has three elements, namely:
1. Humans.
2. Cooperation.
3. Goals together.


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