Various problems that arise in the classroom when a teacher will begin the lesson from it as detailed as any problems a student, a teacher must know about it, so that the intake of the subjects being taught a teacher is not hampered by the problems.
Teachers and to increase the role of competition, because in the process of learning-and student learning outcomes are largely determined by the role of the teacher and competition all sorts of things. Wide variety of teaching techniques can be developed to achieve the goal of a teacher, active, innovative, creative, effective and fun can be a good way of teaching models and can be developed in education.
The role of a teacher is very important in promoting the spirit of the students, basically we can know a student and the other students have the same ability to receive instruction from teachers, only one teacher needs special methods to deliver material to students.
Active learning, innovative, creative, effective and fun it can be achieved after all sorts of things have been done both in terms of classroom study, research methods to the emergence of a solution of it.
Results of the scientific work of this order may be as a reference material for elementary education next 129 Beram Itam Right and the whole SD in general.
1.2. Problem Formulation
Based on the background described above, the formulation of the problem can be formulated as follows:
What are the role of the teacher in the learning process and the general principles in the teaching methodology of effective teaching and learning activities?
How to choose a good method for the learning process goes active, creative, effective and fun?
This scientific paper has the objective which is basically divided into two, namely the purpose of theoretical and practical purposes.
Theoretical purpose, namely to uncover and explain the method of active learning class, innovative, creative, effective and fun.
Practical purposes, a brief portrait of how active learning methods, innovative, creative, effective and fun is.
While the results of this study are expected to have two benefits, namely scientific benefits, and benefits for teachers. Both of these benefits can be summarized as follows:
Scientific benefits, the results of this study are expected to increase and enrich the study materials.
Benefits for teachers, namely as a donation in the audience thought reintroduce teaching methods.
1,5. Methodology of writing
The method I use in this paper is a literature study methods, namely by finding and examining various reference materials related to the efforts and support the preparation of this paper.
1.6. Systematics Writing
Scientific paper is organized within the framework of the writing as follows:
Chapter I Introduction, contains the background of the problem, formulation of the problem, objectives, benefits, writing and systematic methodology of writing.
Chapter II discussion, a chapter of the core subject matter. Unraveling the role of the teacher in the learning process and the general principles of teaching methodologies and effective teaching and learning conditions.
Closing Chapter III, is the final chapter of this scientific paper, contains the conclusions and suggestions the authors want to convey.
2.1. Role of Teachers in Teaching and Learning Principles Principle and General Methodology of Teaching
2.1.1. The role of teachers
New developments on the view of teaching and learning have consequences for teachers to enhance the role and the competition for learning process and student learning outcomes are largely determined by the role of the teacher and competition. Competent teachers will be able to create an effective learning environment and will be able to manage the class so that student learning outcomes are at an optimal level.
The role and competence of teachers in the teaching-learning process involves many things, among others, as a teacher of teachers, class leaders, mentors regulatory environment, participants, planners, supervisors, motivator, and konselor. want to put forward here is the role that is considered the most domonan and most are classified as the following:
Teacher as a demonstrator
Through its role as a demonstrator, or teaching teachers should always master the material or subject matter to be taught and continually develop it in the sense of improving its ability in terms of their knowledge as this will determine the learning outcomes achieved by students.
One thing that must be considered by the teacher that he himself was a student. This means that teachers must continually learn and develop themselves. that way she will enrich himself with the science as a provision in his duties as a teacher and demonstrator that is able to demonstrate what he did is didactic. It means that what it really conveys is owned completely by the students.
Also a teacher should be able and skilled preformance formulate learning objectives, understand the curriculum, and he himself as a learning resource skilled in providing information to the class. as a teacher he should help students to be able to receive, understand, and master the science. The teacher should be able to motivate the students to continue to learn in a variety of occasions. Finally a teacher will be able to play a role as a teacher when he controlled well and is able to implement skills- teaching.
Teachers as classroom management
In his role as manager of the class, the teacher should be able to manage the classroom as a learning environment as well as an aspect of the school environment should be regulated and supervised this that learning activities directed towards educational goals. Supervision-supervision environment that helped determine the extent to which the environment is a good learning environment. Good environment that is both challenging and stimulating students to learn, provide a sense of security and achieve goals.
And the quality and quantity of student learning in the classroom depends on many factors, among others, is the teacher, personal relationships between students in the classroom, as well as the general conditions and the atmosphere in the classroom.
The general objective is to provide classroom management and classroom facilities to use a variety of teaching and learning activities in order to achieve good results. While the specific objectives is to develop students' skills in using the tools learning tools, providing the conditions that allow students to work and learn, as well as helping students to obtain the expected results.
As a teacher manager is responsible for maintaining the physical environment in order to be kept in its class fun to learn and directing or guiding the intellectual and social processes in the class. By Accordingly teacher does not allow students to learn, but also the ability to work and develop effective learning among students.
Other responsibilities as a manager is important for teachers to guide students' experiences of day-to-day direction for students bit by bit does not rely on teachers to perform their duties, which means students develop a sense of responsibility towards their duties with full awareness that high, students must be able to organize themselves, manage their activities with full awareness and responsibility will allow teachers to convey the material and facilitate the achievement of the objectives expected of a teacher.
Teacher as a mediator and facilitator
As a mediator teachers should have sufficient knowledge and understanding of the media quiet about media education because education is a more effective communication tool for teaching and learning process. Thus media education are the basics that are indispensable complement and are an integral part for the success of the process of education and teaching in schools.
Master is not enough just to have the skills to select and use and commercialize the media well. For that teachers need to experience exercise-laihan practice continuously and systematically.
As Mediator teacher becomes an intermediary in human relations. For the purposes of skilled teachers should use the knowledge about how people interact and communicate. The goal of teachers in order to create maximum quality interactive environment. In this case there are three kinds of activities that can be done by the teacher. Namely fostering good social behavior, develop a style of personal interaction, and foster positive relationships with the students.
As a teacher facilitator should be able to seek a useful learning resources as well as to support the achievement of the objectives and teaching and learning, both in the form of a resource, text books, magazines, or newspapers.
Teachers as evaluators
If we look at the world of education, will we know that the order to each type of education or other forms of education is always an evaluation, which means that at certain times during the study period, always mengadkan assessment of the results achieved, either by hand or by trained educators.
Similarly, the one-time teacher teaching process the teacher should be a good evaluator. This activity is intended to determine whether the objectives have been formulated that is achieved or not, and whether the material being taught is quite appropriate, all such statements will be answered through the evaluation or assessment activities.
Thus, the teacher can determine the success of achieving goals, students' mastery of subjects, as well as the accuracy or effectiveness of teaching methods. Another purpose of such assessment is to determine the position of the students in the classroom or teacher assessment can be classified whether a group of students, including students who are good, moderate, less, or simply when compared with their peers.
By examining the achievement of objectives of teaching, teachers can determine whether the teaching is done quite effectively gives good and satisfactory results or otherwise. Thus, it is clear that teachers should be able and skilled implement because, with teacher assessment can achievement by students after he carry out the process of teaching.
In its function as an assessment of student learning outcomes, teachers should constantly keep learning outcomes achieved by students from time to time. Information obtained through this evaluation is a feedback on the teaching and learning process. This feedback will be used as a starting point to improve and enhance the learning process further. Thus the teaching and learning process will be continuously improved to obtain optimal results.
2.1.2. Principles of Teaching Methodology
Didactic, methodical, and methodology
Before discussing the notion of Islamic religious teaching methodology should be discussed in advance in Didactic, methodical, and methodology. The term comes from the Greek which means so clever is a discuss the science or provide principles on ways to deliver learning materials, so controlled and by learners. In other words, the science of teaching and learning, specifically a science of teaching and teacher learning didk participants.
If the didactic contained two activities, namely the "teaching" and "learning". Activity on the part of teachers and teaching and learning activities on the part of learners. To teaching active teacher in the learning activities while active learners. Didactic generally divided into two kinds of general and specific didactic. General didactic provide general principles relating to the presentation of the lesson material motivation, role-modeling, and other interests so that children master it.
These principles apply to all subjects, whether biological, Islamic Education, psychology, geography, and so on. So common is the science didactic talk about how the learning process is generally applicable for each subject and lesson materials. The general didactic seruing also called "general studies science" or "science teaching in general". Special about how to teach specific subject areas where the general didactic principles in use. Didactic special needs because every field of study has distinctive characteristics different. Specifically called methodical didactic.
Definition of methodical
Methodically derived from the Greek meaning through and hodos metha means path or way. Therefore, methodical means path or way which must be passed to achieve a particular goal or in other words methodical is the science of how to go through the learning process in order to achieve the learning objectives. For example, methodical reading, methodical calculating, methodical writing and so on.
Methodology can also be divided into two kinds: (1) general methodical, and (2) specially methodical. Discuss general methodical way of teaching in each subject in general, such as: how to teach languages, history, science and so on. Discussed as well as the teaching methods that can be used by teachers in the learning activities. Special methodical, discuss how to present lesson material specific to particular learners. For example: a special method to teach elementary subjects, different course for junior and senior high school, and college.
Method can be interpreted as a way of teaching used by teachers in conducting relations with learners during the learning process. Thus, the method of teaching is a tool for creating a learning process. In a philosophical view of education, the method is a tool used to achieve educational goals. The device has a dual function, which is polipragmatis and monopragmatis.
Polipragmatis where the method uses Seba contain multiple (multi-purpose), for example, a particular method on a situasai certain conditions can be used to build or repair. Usefulness can depend on or repair. Usefulness may depend on the wearer or the style, form, and the ability of the method as a tool, contrary monoprogmatis when the method containing the kinds of uses for the purpose of use implications are consistent, systematic and meaningfulness according to the condition of the target given that the target is a human method required educators to be careful in its application.
Experts define the following methods:
Hasan Langgulung defines that the method is a method or a way to go to achieve educational goals
Abd al-Rahman Ghunaimah defines that the method is practical ways to achieve the goal of teaching
Al-Ahrasy also defines that the method is the path we follow to give sense to peerta students about all kinds of methods in a variety of subjects.
Based on the definition above it can be concluded that the method is a set of ways, roads and techniques used by educators in the learning process for learners to achieve specific learning objectives or competencies outlined in the syllabus subjects.
Understanding Teaching Methodology
Terms of teaching methodology consists of two words, namely, "methodology" and "teaching". "Methodology" also consists of: "method" and "logy". "Logy" comes from the word logos meaning "science". Thus, the methodology is a way of talking about science or the way to go to achieve the goal or master a particular competency. While teaching is a process of presenting or teaching materials are presented. Thus the teaching methodology means a science that talks about the way or ways that must be passed to achieve the purpose of learning or mastering specific competencies defined in the syllabus. Teaching methodology will not mean anything if it is not implemented in practice education. Implementation of the educational methodology in education in education called "teaching methods".
2.1.3. Method of use
Hasan Langgulung argued that the use of the method is based on three main aspects, namely:
Properties and interests with regard to the main purpose of education.
With regard to the method-method possible really apply
Talking about the movement (motivation) and the principles
Efforts of teachers to choose the right method of educating learners are well adapted to the demands of dealing with participants it must see to it that the lessons given to the learners-learners was so readily accepted, it is not enough with only gentle . He had to devise methods that will be used, such as choosing the right time, a suitable material, a good approach, so the effectiveness of the method. For that a teacher is required in order to study the various methods used in the teaching of a subject, such as storytelling, demonstrations, try, solve problems, which is used by the experts to discuss education and learning the principles of methodology.
2.1.4. Basics Method of Education
Educational methods in practice many problems welcomes individual or social learners and educators themselves, resulting in a method educators should pay attention to the basics of common methods of Islamic education. Because the method is just a means of education or education so all the way to the road taken by an educator should refer to the basics of the education method. In this case can not escape the basic religious, biological, psychological and sociological.
Basis of Religion
Implementation of educational methods in prkteknya lot going on between educators and learners in the wider society, have a major impact on the personality of students. Therefore, religion is one of the basic methods of education and teaching by educators. Religion can not be separated from the implementation of educational methods. In his capacity as a basis for teaching, then by itself educational methods should refer to the source of the teachings. So that all the use and implementation of educational methods do not deviate from the purpose of education itself.
Development of human biological influence in intellectual development. So the longer the developmental biology of a person is by itself the intellectual power is increasing as well. In providing education and teaching in Islamic education an educator must treat biological development of learners. The development of physical (biological) also have a strong influence on him darting through. A person who suffers from physical disabilities will have advantages and disadvantages that may not be owned by normal people, for example, a person who had abnormalities in the eye (nearsightedness), then he is likely to occupy a front row seat as he was in front, then he can not play- play when the teacher gives the lesson so that she noticed teachers whole description. Because it continues, then he will have more knowledge than with other friends especially her motivated with the eye disorder.
Based on this, it can be said that the physical development and physical condition itself, indeed a very important role in the educational process. Thus, in a study using educators consider the condition of biological learners. A student with disabilities will affect learners' achievements, the positive influence of both negative Maupin. This gives wisdom and God's creation, it is with great hope educators can provide a sufficient understanding of the student participants to receive God's creation in such a way.
New educational methods can be implemented effectively, would be based on developmental and psychological conditions pesert learners. Cause developmental and psychological conditions give learners an enormous influence on intermalisasi value and transform science, led to the transformation of science and intermelisasi value will not run as expected.
Psychological development of a person walking according to their biological development, so an educator in the use of educational methods not only treat psychological too biological. Because someone who is biologically incapacitation, then psychologically he feels tormented because AKN turns out he felt that his friends did not experience what he suffered. With that in mind this is such a new educator observant and able to distinguish the state of mind of students, because humans are basically the same no.
Thus it can be said that the method of education of an educator besides the physical condition of the students also need to consider the condition of the soul or rohaniyah, because man is essentially made up of two elements, namely physical and spiritual both a unity that can not be broken separate. Psychological condition in which the methods of education in the form of a number of psychological learners including motivation, emotion, interest, attitude, desire, willingness, talents and skills intellect (intellectual). Thus an educator is required to develop the potential of the existing psychological learners.
interactions between learners and the interaction between teachers and learners is a reciprocal interaction both parties will each have a positive impact on both. In a sociological fact an individual may be an impact on the social environment and vice versa. Therefore, as a teacher educator in interacting with learners should provide role models in the process of socialization with other parties, such as when his dealing with students, fellow teachers, staff, and principals. Educational interactions that occur within the community is providing an enormous influence on the development of learners where they have it in the environment community. Sometimes the interaction or influence the society and also affect the classroom and school environment.
One of the properties of education is the process of inheriting the cultural values from one generation to the next generation or by the older to the younger. In the sociology of interaction also occurred learning process. At that time an older person (educators) are required to use the values that have been accepted by the general rules of ethics and the rules of the society. And is also expected that educators are able to develop and actualize these values to students with attention to the development of culture and civilization that emerged. So that the learning process can take place value, and that value is applied in the lives of young people further. Thus it can be understood that the basic use of a method of Islamic education is a basic sociological one, both in the interactions between learners with learners, teachers with students, teachers and the community, and the students with the community and even among them all with the government . The basis of the above, an educator in niali internalize that already exist in the community are expected to use the method in order pross learning Islamic education does not stray far from the goal of Islamic education itself.
2.1.5. Principles of Teaching Methods
To be effective, the teacher must have metode principles as follows:
The method should make use of the theory of independent activity. Learning is the result of the activity of learners. Basically it's tangible learning experience, react, perform and according to this principle a study by the reaction or through independent activity which is the foundation of all learning. In other words participants gain a learning experience.
The method must be derived from what is already known learners. Utilizing the experience of past students that contain the same elements with the elements of learning materials that will be studied expedites learning. This can be achieved with very well through correlation and comparison. Learning will be facilitated if the start of the learners already know.
The method should be based on an integrated theory and practice which aims to unite properly learning activities. Knowledge without charity (practice) like a tree without fruit.
The method should pay attention to individual differences and use the procedures in accordance with the personal traits such as needs, interests as well as mental and physical maturity.
Method should stimulate thinking and reasoning abilities of the learners. Prosedurna activities should provide opportunities for thinking and organizing activities carefully. The principle of self-activity is very important in teaching students to reason.
The method adapted to learners' progress in terms of skills, habits, knowledge, ideas, and attitudes of learners, because all of this is the basis for developmental psychology.
The method should provide for students learning experiences through learning activities are many and varied. The activities are many and varied are provided to ensure understanding.
The method should be challenging and motivating learners towards activities related to the process of differentiation and intregrasi. Process of unification of experience is very helpful in the formation of integrated behavior. This is best achieved through the use of integrated teaching methods.
The method should opportunities for students to ask and answer questions. And provide opportunities for teachers to find the deficiencies in order to do repairs and enrichment.
2.1.6. Factors You Should Look For In Choosing Teaching Methods
Goals to be achieved
Everyone should know that doing something with clear goals to be achieved. Similarly, every teacher who principally work educating and teaching must clearly understand the purpose of education. Understanding of the purpose of education is absolutely necessary because that goal will be targeted and be directing their actions in carrying out its function as a teacher. Besides being a target and a director, the purpose of education and teaching also serves as a criterion for the selection and determination of the tools (including methods) which will be used in teaching.
In the world of education and teaching we recognize the common goals, objectives temporary, incomplete goals and objectives. The general objective of education is also called the ultimate goal of education is something that is the target of the overall activities of educating and teaching. The general purpose needs to be translated into specific objectives for then the teacher will get a clear picture of what it intends to accomplish it and the teacher will be able to also prepare the tools are going to wear and what the proper method would be used.
The learners will receive learning material presented, must be noted by teachers in selecting teaching methods. This is necessary because the existing teaching methods that require specific knowledge and dexterity Discussion instance method requires considerable knowledge (so that participants can learn and judge right or wrong opinions expressed anything other participants) and the mastery of language and expression skills. Similarly Lecture method requires mastery of passive language learners because he (the learners).
In addition to the demands (the terms of the specific methods that must be met by students) of the above teaching methods, teaching methods must use something according to ability, and personality development of the students.
Teaching materials that require investigation activities by learners should be presented through the method or methods of project unit. If the lesson contains material problems, must be presented through a problem-solving method. Study materials containing facts can be presented as a lecture mode, while the lesson material that consists of exercises (eg skills) is presented through the Drill method and so on.
Factors are included in the facility among other props, time, place and lab equipment, books, and libraries. This facilitation helped determine determining teaching methods that will be used by the teacher. Facilities and influence and determination of this method is very pronounced in situations where circumstances demonstrations and experiments / trials.
In general, if the facility is lacking or absent, then the teachers tend to use the lecture method because this method does not require a lot of facilities (when compared with the demands of the discussion method or methods of demonstration and experimentation).
Are included in the situation here is in a state of learners (concerning their fatigue, their weather conditions, the state teachers (teacher burnout) state of adjacent classes with classes that will be taught by a certain method.
If learners have tired (which was taught by lecture method) then the teacher should change their teaching methods such as the method sosiodarma. Similarly, if the teacher noticed that the students were excited about (in talking about events in the community) that teachers use discussion methods.
- Hasan langgunung, Pendidikan dan Peradapan Islam, jakarta : pustaka Al-Alhusna , 1985
- ________, manusia dan pendidikan suatu analisis pisikologi, Jakarta : Alhusna, 1986
- Anggoro toha, metode penelitian,jakarta , Universitas Terbuka