MAKALAH ILMU SOSIAL BUDAYA DASAR TENTANG KEBUDAYAAN
Humans in their daily life will not be separated from culture, because humans are the creators and users of the culture itself. Human life because of the culture, while the culture will survive and thrive when people want to preserve the culture and not ruin it. Thus people and culture can not be separated from each other, because in life is impossible not to deal with the results of culture, every day people see and use culture, sometimes even consciously or unconsciously undermine human culture.
Close relationship between the human (especially people) and culture has further revealed by Melville J. Herkovits and Bronislaw Malinowski, who argued that cultural determinism implies anything contained in any society is determined by the culture that is owned by the community. (Soemardjan, Selo: 1964: 115). Then Herkovits see culture as something superorganic. Because berturun culture from generation to generation still alive. Although humans are a member of the community has changed because of birth and death.
Furthermore it can be seen from the definition put forward by E. B. Tylor (1871) in his book Primitive Culture: Culture is a complex which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, customs, and other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. In other words, culture includes all of the acquired or learned by human beings as members of society. Culture consists of everything that is learned from the normative behavioral patterns. Therefore, people who study the culture of the community, can build a culture (constructive) and could also damage (destructive).
1. Know and understand the meaning of culture
2. Know and understand the culture form
3. Understand the culture and describes the main contents
4. Understand and explain cultural traits
5. Understand and explain the cultural system
6. Understand and explain the influence of culture on the environment
7. Understand and explain the process and the development of culture
8. Understand and explain man's relationship to culture
C. Writing Methods
In preparing this paper, we use the method of literature study, namely the search for literature relevant to the discussion that we serve.
D. Systematics Writing
To help you achieve the goals of this paper, this paper systematics, among others:
1. Being understanding and Culture
2. Systems, Elements and Substance (contents) Culture
3. Cultural properties
4. As the Creator of man and the User Culture, Cultural Influence on the Environment.
1. UNDERSTANDING AND culture form
A. Definition of Culture
Culture comes from the culture while culture is the plural form of the word which means the cultivation of love, intention, and taste. The word actually comes from the culture snsekerta buddayah the plural form of the word buddhi which means cultivation or culture akal.dalam English word derived from the word culture, in Dutch termed Cultuur words, in Latin, derived from the word corela.
Here's culture or cultural understanding of several experts:
1. E.B. Tylor, culture is a complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, science, law, customs, and other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.
2. R. Linton, culture can be viewed Sebai configuration of learned behavior and results ntingkah learned behavior, where the elements of its creation was supported and passed by other community members.
3. Koentjaraningrat, means that culture is a whole system of ideas, belong to human beings by learning.
4. Selo Soemardjan and Soelaeman Soemardi, saying that culture is all the work, creativity, and sense of community.
B. Embodiment of Culture
Koentjaraningrat argued that culture was divided or classified into three states, namely:
1. Form as a complex of ideas, the idea of the values norms and regulations
2. Culture form as well as a complex activity pattern of human action in society.
3. Culture form as objects of human handiwork.
The classification is based on a form of culture, the culture can be grouped into two: 1. Cultures that are abstract and 2. Culture that is concrete.
As mentioned Koentjaraningrat concrete manifestation of this culture with the social and physical systems, which consist of:
Behavior is the act or behave a certain way in certain situations. Every human behavior in society should follow the patterns of behavior (patterns of behavior) community. Behavioral patterns are the way to act all members of a society norms and have the same culture.
Humans have their own rules in life in the community, because it is according to Linton Rapl in regulating human relations required design for living or lines of instructions in life as part of the culture, for example:
1. What is good and bad, right and wrong, appropriate and not liking (valuational element)
2. How people should apply (priscriptive element)
3. Whether or not traditional rituals or ceremonies held beliefs, (cognitive element).
Ralph linton mention that one of the most important causes in culture to reach his level as it is the language. Language serves as a means of thinking and communicating tool. Without a culture of thinking and communicating difficult there. As we know a proverb saying: language shows the nation, meaning a language that popularized the nation which of course includes the culture of the nation. Through the language of the culture of a nation can be established, nurtured, developed, and can be passed on to future generations.
Material culture is the result of the activities, actions, and the work of man in society. This kind of material in the form of clothing, household appliances, tools production, transportation equipment, communication devices, and so on.
Classification of cultural elements from small to large are as follows:
1. Items, which is the smallest element in the culture
2. Traits, is a combination of several elements of the smallest
3. Cultural complex, a combination of several of the items and trait
4. Cultural activities, is a complex combination of several cultures.
Combination of several cultural activities generate a thorough cultural elements (cultural universal). The occurrence of these cultural elements can be through discovery, namely the discovery that occurs accidentally or incidentally, which previously did not exist. And invention, the invention or a deliberate attempt to acquire new things.
2. SYSTEM, ELEMENTS, AND SUBSTANCE CULTURE
A. CULTURE SYSTEM
The word comes from the Greek system, which systeme which means a set of elements (the parts) are working on a regular basis. The concept of the system can be addressed to: organization, collection, set, organs and so on. According to Emile Durkheim society is a system, that system is a socio-cultural socio-cultural elements that are interrelated with others regularly, so as to create a harmonious code of conduct for its people.
Culture system is a component of culture that is both abstract and consists of thoughts, ideas concepts, and thus sitem cultural beliefs are part of the Indonesian culture is more commonly known as the customs. In the customs and norms contained therein sitem also one of the functions is to set the culture system as well as establishing the actions and human behavior.
Culture of a regional system would produce the kinds of different cultures. This type of culture can be classified into two, namely:
a) material culture
Material culture, among others, the results of creativity, initiative, tangible objects, natural processing equipment items, such as buildings, factories, roads, houses and so on.
b) non-material culture
Is the result of creativity, initiative in the form of habits, customs, science and so on. Non material include:
1. Way (usage)
Interaction process that will continually give birth to certain patterns called way (usage). Norma called method has only a weak force compared to other norms. Violation of this norm is called not only polite, such as eating while standing up, tutting burping and so on.
2. Volkways (Norma prevalence / custom)
Habits are actions that are repeated in the same form, is a reflection of that person is like his actions. For example tells manners, slaam members, respect for parents. Keiasaan violation of the community. The penalties for violation of reproof, innuendo, slander and that its sanction society, which might be considered mild.
3. Mores (Norma code of conduct / ethics norms)
Mores is a rule that is based on what is good and should be in accordance with the teachings of religion, philosophy or cultural value. Violation of the usage, folkways will only be considered bizarre or offensive, but the offense will be called evil mores. Examples of the mores is adultery. Severe sanctions, stoned or expelled from the village Because the sanctions severe weight mores called norm.
Norm function code of conduct in society:
a. Gives the limits on individual behavior (in the form of do's and don'ts)
b. Inividu identify with the group (forcing people to adjust their behavior to the norms that apply)
c. Maintain solidarity among members of society (maintaining the unity and cooperation among members
4. Norma customs (custom)
Code of conduct which is eternal. As well as strong integration with the patterns of people's behavior can escalate into customs (custom). Members of the public who violate customs can get severe sanctions, such as being excluded from society. For example, divorce is a big disgrace to society Lampung. Sundanese women in society is considered a disgrace if it is not spoken for, otherwise in Minang society women who apply for men and
5. Legal norms (laws)
Is a norm which is more accurately described as the law is written, though not always the case. Laws are a set of rules that community contain provisions, orders, obligations and prohibitions in order to create a society of order and justice. Atura are typically written form various codes of law, or no written form of court decisions customary law. Because most of the legal norms are written then the sanction is most emphatic when compared to other norms.
6. Mode (fashion)
Fashion or fashion is a way and style of doing and making things change often and follow the crowds. This last point is a characteristic of the mode of its mass. Fashion or fashion is not only seen in the way people use the cut and dress, how to set hair and so on, but also in terms of pursuit of something new in other fields. From fashion something new will be born who are innovative, such as traditional Javanese dance elaborated with Malay or Balinese art is born of modern contemporary dance, but of the mode will also give birth to something that is considered strange by society as a funky hair style, with colored paint in- colorful which may later be considered normal.
In this culture system formed elements most related to each other. So as to create a code of conduct cultural elements embodied in a single unit. The following will explain the elements of the culture.
B. ELEMENTS OF CULTURE
The existence of a form of cultural differences between one culture with another culture because society consists of various elements, both large and small that make up a whole. There are many opinions about the elements that make up a culture.
1. Melville J. Herskovits, cultural elements consist of the following:
a. Technology tools
b. Economic system
d. Political power
2. Bronislaw Malinowski mentions cultural elements as follows
a. System of norms that allows cooperation among community members in order to master the natural surroundings.
b. Economic organization
c. Tools and institutions or officers-[etugas to education, keep in mind that the family is the primary institution
d. Organisas strength
3. C. Kluckhohn argues that there are seven elements of culture that are universal (cultural universal) means the seven elements of culture can be found in all nations of the world, namely:
a. Religious system
b. System knowledge
c. Subsistence system
d. Technology equipment or system life
e. Community organizations
Each of these cultural elements can be broken down into elements smaller until times. By Ralph Linton method can be done up to four times. Because similar to each element in the overall culture of universal culture that also has the three states of the system ie a form of culture, social system and the form of physical culture form so of the seven elements each must also be done Regarding the third form.
Form system of universal cultural elements such as customs and the traditional first stage can be broken down into several cultural complex. Cultural complex can be broken down further into cultural themes. Finally in the third stage of culture each theme can be specified in the idea.
C. SUBSTANCE (ISI) MAJOR CULTURAL
Substance (content) is a form of abstract primary culture of all kinds of new ideas and emerging human in society that gives life to the people themselves, either in form or in the form of system knowledge, values, way of life, beliefs, perceptions, and cultural ethos.
1) Knowledge Systems
System of human knowledge as a social being is an accumulation of his life in terms of trying to understand:
a. Surrounding natural
b. The natural flora in the area of residence
c. Natural fauna in the area of residence
d. Raw material substances and objects in its environment
e. The human body
f. properties and behavior of fellow human
g. Space and time.
To acquire knowledge of the above-mentioned three ways of human conduct, namely
a) Through experiences in social life. Knowledge through direct will form the skeleton fikir individuals to behave and act in accordance with the rules and guidelines used.
b) Based on the experience gained through formal / formal (in school) as well as from non-formal education (not official), such as courses, refresher-upgrading courses and lectures.
c) Through the clues that are symbolic, often referred to as symbolic communication.
Value is something good that is always desirable, and aspired to be an important oeh all humans as members of society. Therefore, if something is said to have a useful and worthwhile values (truth value), beautiful (aesthetic niulai), good (moral or ethical), religious (religious values).
C. Kluchon argued, that which determines the orientation of the value of human culture in the world is that universal, namely:
a) The nature of human life
b) The nature of human folk
c) The nature of human time
d) The nature of human nature
e) The nature of human relationships.
3) Way of Life
Outlook on life is a guide to a nation or community to answer or solve problems. It contains the concept of the value of life aspired to by the people. Therefore, living the values shared by a society with carefully selected by the individual, group, or nation. If a nation does not have a live view of the nation will be easily controlled by another nation, easily swayed, lost their identity and ultimately hard to be a nation and or country has set a vision and mission to achieve in life, is not so easily swayed and have a principle like embodies his view of life.
Thus, the view of life is the crystallization of the values possessed by a nation, which is believed to be the truth and cause determination to the people to make it happen.
Belief that contain a broader sense of religion and belief in the Almighty God.
Basically, human beings have an instinct to devote themselves to the Almighty, that is another dimension beyond the self and the environment, which is considered to be able to control human life. This impetus as a result of or reflection on the human inability mengahdapai life's challenges, and only the Supreme Being alone is capable of providing power to find a way out of the problems of life and living.
Belief in "something" that "great" beyond human beings. Vary depending on the confidence man.
Perception or point of view is a starting point of thought composed of words that are used to understand the events or symptoms in life.
Perception consists of:
1. Sensory perception, the perception that occurs without the use the human senses,
2. Telepathic perception, mental activities of individuals working knowledge of the other,
3. Perceptions of clairvoyance, namely the ability to see events or events elsewhere, away from where people are concerned.
In everyday human perception sometimes differs from other human perception, this is largely attributable to several factors, such as experience, knowledge and the environment, as well as processes in man.
The process of the emergence of perception in a person through the stages experienced by humans: sensory and another receiver, vibration menrima ether (light and color), acoustic vibrations (sound), smell, taste, touch, pressure, mechanical (heavy-light) , (cold-storage services), and so on. The stimuli into specific cells brain section. On the ground, a variety of physical processes, and psychology fisologo happen. Various kinds of vibration and pressure was processed into an arrangement that and projected to be a picture of the individual who gave birth environment perception.
6) Cultural Ethos
Ethos or culture of the soul (the anthropologist) derived from the English language means a typical character. Ethos is often seen in the behavior of people such as style, craze-craze their peoples, as well as a variety of cultural objects of their works, seen from the outside by a stranger.
Each tribe has a cultural ethos of each that might be different is striking, what is good in certain parts is not necessarily good in the other tribes, therefore posture maturity necessary to understand other cultures.
3. NATURE OF CULTURE and trends
A. CULTURAL PROPERTIES
Although the culture of every society it is not the same, as in Indonesia, which consists of a variety of different ethnic groups, but every culture has the characteristics and properties of the sma. The trait is not specifically defined, but is universal. Where cultural traits that have the same characteristics for each human culture without differentiating factors of race, the natural environment, or education. That is the very nature applies to every culture everywhere.
The true nature of culture, among others:
1. Manifested and channeled culture of human behavior.
2. Culture has existed prior to the birth of a certain generation and will not die with the end usua generation is concerned.
3. Required by human culture and is manifested in the development of behavior.
4. Culture includes regulations which contains obligations, actions, accepted or rejected, prohibited actions, and actions are permitted.
Characterize the intrinsic nature of each culture. However, if a person or group of people who understand the true nature of the essential, first he must solve the contradictions therein.
B. CULTURE HELD TOGETHER BY A GROUP
As has been described, as a society and culture as a container and the contents of an entity that can be separated and united two components. Each community has distinct culture and cultural there are people who have it. Each of these communities often have a culture that is unique, that is only owned that community.
Characteristic of the difference was caused by differences in the background of the peoples concerned. The factors that cause the differences include:
1. Natural Factors
Natural factors or environmental factors is the geographic location of the Earth system, climate, and other natural factors. The natural factors have a major influence on the formation of culture. For example music, flute, and the first of West Java West Java because nature provides plenty of bamboo.
2. Habit Factor
Habits of the public sector in which there are different from one another, sometimes what is allowed in a given population are prohibited by other people. For example, in Japan emits a hiss of mouth is considered as a token of appreciation for those who a higher degree of social, whereas in the UK emits a hiss of mouth is considered an insult.
3. Factors Regional Services
Spawned regional factors specific cultures (sub-cultures) of the people living areas different from one another. For example, the prevailing custom in Sundanese society will be different from the prevailing custom in the Minahasa people, Padang, and so on.
4. Social stratification
Social stratification or social strata culture can affect groups of people, such as first class royal palace speech, dress with the present group of ordinary people as well as between the middle class and above will be different ways to behave, get along, dressed with the most.
C. SURVIVE AND CULTURE TRENDS changing
Culture will continue to live when people want to defend it culture will be destroyed if the people are no longer using it.
In studying the cultures always be aware of the relationship between the elements that affect the culture tend to persist or change and circumstances experienced by the peoples concerned.
The elements of the cause of the persistence of a cultural tendency among others:
1. Elements Ideology
Ideology is a set, the idea, as well as the ordering of society and the state. Ideology is the soul and the personality of the people who lead a nation unlike any other nation. Ideology is used as a guide to live a bagsa. Thus, elements of this ideological tendency persisted because it was believed to be the truth by a society or a nation.
2. An element of Belief / Religion
All activities related belief / religion based on a belief in the truth (faith). Therefore the element of religious belief or is likely to survive regarding beliefs, , or faith that believed.
3. Art elements
Art is something that is beautiful, artistic birth of love, affection, intimacy, worship, both against God, or against fellow human beings.
Disclosure think art can be through music, dance, painting, literature, and so on, as the result of creativity, initiative, human from time to time.
4. Language elements
Language is a communication tool, a link between human intent, of our language can express what we want.
Language tendency remained unchanged over time, although the vocabulary is growing, with no human language can not be related to each other.
Meanwhile, elements of the trend of cultural change due to, among others:
1. Elements of livelihoods
Traditional livelihood system tends to turn into a more advanced system. Include changes in the system of production, distribution, consumption. The changes are due to:
a. Dissatisfaction with the existing circumstances and situations
b. Aware of the deficiencies
c. Efforts to adjust to changing times
d. Increase the demand
e. The desire to improve living standards
f. Open attitude toward new things (innovative)
Thus, the livelihood system of life tend to change from time to time, in line with the changing times, the development of science and technology, as well as lifestyle.
2. Elements of technology systems
Humans can not close themselves off from the progress of technology because the technology itself facilitate human. Technological advances evolve with increasing human knowledge.
Technological developments can be seen from the periodicity of the time, the stone age, bronze age, iron age, and is now called modern times. We thus changing trend of technology as the development of human intellect and knowledge.
3. Knowledge elements
Human knowledge system has been changed into science. Science aims to make more people aware of and explore facets of life. Therefore, science continues to evolve in accordance with the development and the level of human curiosity. For example, science pengertahuan first mention of Plato is a planet, but it is now evident that Plato is not a planet.
D. CULTURE AND MEETING THE NEEDS OF HUMAN LIFE
Culture works to help people meet their needs. Needs of human life consists of biological needs, social needs, and psychological needs. Humans have different religious needs to adjust to the environment. In addition, human needs appear as a man's attempt to exploit the environment.
Human needs will vary according to place, time, circumstances, and conditions. Needs in the village will be different from the needs of the city, the need during the rainy season will be different from those during the dry season, and so on.
1. Biological Necessity
Absolute biological needs must be met humans, meaning that if the requirement is not met then the biological human organs will be disrupted, even death.
Biological needs include:
a. Eating and drinking
c. Defecation and small
d. Protection of climate and weather
e. The release of sex drive
f. Good health
In an effort to meet the biological needs, a man who must consider the interests of other human beings.
2. Social needs
To facilitate the achievement of biological needs, human beings need social needs. Social needs such as:
a. Joint activities
In the life of society, man can not live alone, because definitely need another human. Therefore, humans create joint activities to make ends meet and maintain its viability. Since the first human beings can not live alone, so people called social creatures.
b. Communicating with fellow
human communication can be done either by oral, written, or gesture. Without the ability to communicate with others, humans would have difficulty in meeting their needs. Therefore, the communication process has been carried out in children since the age of the children for physical and mental growth.
c. Social order and social control
Social order and social control is needed humans as citizens. Social order will create a society that is orderly, safe, and secure. This order will be achieved when all members of society behave and act in accordance with the values and norms that exist. Strived to maintain the social order of social control. Social control can be done between people, both as individuals and groups.
So that these needs can be done, education is needed. Education can open the eyes and hearts as well as insight into the direction of a better life.
3. Psychological Needs
Psychological needs include the following:
a. Relaxed or casual
Relaxed or casual relaxation of tension, a psychological need to eliminate boredom and serves as a refreshing (refreshing) of human life.
Humans in their activities often experience fatigue and boredom, therefore people need to relax so that his spirit comes back, for example, enjoy the scenery, enjoy the music, and so on.
Compassion, love and romance are always needed humans as social beings. Humans want to be loved and want to love. Manifestation of this affection can give birth to human creativity, human life has a spirit of love and affection. Because of the compassion, love and is human psychological needs.
c. Altruistic satisfaction
Satisfaction of human altruism is a satisfaction to do good or to serve to others, to an idea, or a goal.
Honorary size regardless of the size or power of wealth, but of wealth and power so sometimes spawned honor. Honor is usually born of authority, wisdom virtue somebody, because it's one of the most respected or at s usually get a place on the top layer so that they often become leaders or
e. Ego satisfaction
Ego gratification manifest if a person feels satisfied after successfully achieving goals, desires, and so on.
E. OBTAINED THROUGH CULTURAL LEARNING PROCESS
As already discussed, that the culture is obtained through the process of learning from the community and the environment. Code of conduct that is based on the culture studied by members of the community for generations. However, not all learned behavior is culture. Animals can also be learned, but learned behavior that is not culture. Animals can follow orders from his master, but can not create and develop culture. Differences are studied animal behavior and human cultural behavior is very important, not only to understand the origin of culture, but also to recognize the nature of cultural properties.
Cultural learning process by humans as members of society can be through:
1. Internalization process
Humans have the potential, talent and a tendency to develop genetically different feelings, desires, passions, and emotions in his personality. Trends and potential development of his personality is strongly influenced by the natural environment,
social and cultural environment. Every day people learn to feel joy, sadness and others.
Thus, the process of internalization is the process of development potential in humans have, which influenced both the internal environment of the human self and externally, ie outside the influence of human beings.
2. Socialization Process
In the socialization process of an individual from childhood to old age always learn the patterns of action in interaction with all kinds of people around who occupy a wide range of social roles. Terms of the socialization process are:
a. Individuals must be given the skills needed for later life in the community.
b. Individuals must be able to communicate effectively and develop the ability to read, write and speak.
c. Control of organic functions must be learned through introspective exercises that right.
d. Indivdu must familiarize with the values and norms of the community.
3. Enculturation process
In this process an individual to learn and adjust his attitude of mind as well as the customs, system norms, and rules of living in a culture. Since childhood enculturation process already started in the human mind from the early family environment, then friends playing, society by imitating the behavior patterns that take place within a culture. Therefore, this process is also called the civilizing or in English institutionaliozation.
4. PEOPLE AND CULTURE
A. HUMAN AS CREATOR AND USERS OF CULTURE
Born as human beings in the most perfect, because human reason is given, so that the human intellect can meet all kinds of needs of life. Needs of human life never stops, it requires people to continue thinking how to meet their needs. The purpose of life is to meet the needs of various copyright and ultimately gave birth to human works, or what we call culture. So basically humans create culture is to make ends meet, because that man is called as creators and users of culture, or do not even realize sometimes people are destroying the culture that has been in creating it.
The results of the work of human creativity and technology, among others, have given birth to help facilitate human primary purpose of protecting human and natural environment. So the culture has a role as:
1. A relationship between people or group guidelines.
2. Containers to channel feelings and other capabilities.
3. As mentors human lives and livelihoods, including ends meet.
4. Distinguishing humans and animals.
5. Clues about how humans should act and behave in a socially.
6. Arrangements so that people can understand how it should act, act determines his attitude when dealing with others.
7. As an authorized capital development.
Thus, humans are creatures of culture, through human minds can develop culture. Similarly, people living and depending on the culture as a result of his creations. Culture also provides rules for humans in the process environment with technological creations.
Culture has a great function for people and communities to conquer a variety of forces that must be faced man and society as a force of nature and other forces. Besides human and community satisfaction requires both spiritually and materially.
Cultures are largely fulfilled by the culture that originates in the community itself. The work of the birth of technology or material culture which has the main purpose to protect the public against the environment in it.
In relation to satisfy all kinds of needs and actions to protect themselves from the natural environment in the early stages of human being surrendered and acting solely within boundaries to protect herself, but with a sense of human mind keep trying. So the day of human thought and society is growing increasingly complex, and then was born the higher level of culture. The work is a technology that provides vast possibilities to utilize the natural results even over nature.
B. CULTURAL INFLUENCE ON ENVIRONMENT
Culture that was developed by humans will have implications on the cultural environment in which it develops. A culture emit a characteristic of people who look from the outside, artin6ya strangers can see the cultural distinctiveness of an area / group. By analyzing the influence and effect of culture and environment, one can find a different environment with other environments and cultures produce different course.
Some Variavel related to cultural and environmental issues:
a) Physical Environtment, pointing to the natural environment
b) Social Cultural Environment, Covers and its cultural aspects of the socialization process
c) Environmental Orientation and Representation, refers to the perceptions and beliefs of cognitive differences in the community about the environment.
d) Environmental and Process Behavior, covering how people use the environment in social relations
e) Carries Out Product, includes the results of human actions such as building homes, communities, and so on.
Thus, it can be said that the prevailing culture and developed in a particular environment has implications for patterns of conduct, norms, values, and other aspects of life that would be characteristic of a society with other people.
C. PROCESS AND DEVELOPMENT OF CULTURE
Cultural development of the dynamics of a person's life is complex, and has an existence and also be sustainable and social heritage. One is able to influence the culture and provide opportunities for cultural change.
Culture is owned by a group will not avoid the influence of cultural influences other groups with Adaiah contacts between groups or through a diffusion process. A social group will adopt a particular culture if that culture is useful to address or meet the demands it faces. The adoption i by physical factors, such as climate, topography and natural resources like.
The times also led to changes in all sectors included in the culture. Inevitably culture embraced by all social groups will be shifted either slow or rapid rise between groups who want change and who do not want change.
The most important thing in the process is the development of a culture in the presence of control or control the behavior of regular (that looked) are shown by the adherents of the culture. Because it is not uncommon behavior shown in stark contrast to the behavior adopted in the social group. What is needed here is the social controls that exist in the community, which became a "whip" for the cultural community. So that they can sort out, where appropriate culture and what is not appropriate.
D. Problems CULTURE
1. Cultural barriers associated with live view and siatem confidence.
For example, the Java connection to the land they live on from generation to as gifts of life. They are reluctant to leave their hometown or the switching pattern of life as a farmer. Though their lives are generally poor.
2. Cultural barriers related to differences in perception or point of view, these barriers can occur between the community and the development. Examples of family planning or family planning program was originally rejected society, they assume that a lot of kids a lot of sustenance.
3. Cultural barriers related to psychological or psychiatric factors.
Efforts to residents of areas affected by natural disasters much trouble. This is because of concerns that the residents living in the new place they will be more miserable than those living in the old place.
4. Alienated society and lack of communication with the outside community.
Society remote areas that lack of communication with the public, because very limited knowledge, as if enclosed to receive development programs.
5. Traditionalism that prejudiced attitudes towards new things.
This attitude extolling traditional culture in such a way, that consider new things that will be destructive to their lives they already have for generations.
6. Ethnocentrism attitude
Attitude of ethnocentrism is cultural attitudes that glorify their tribe and other tribes despise culture. This kind of attitude will easily lead to sara cases, the opposition tribal, religious, racial, and sectarian.
7. The development of science and technology as a result of culture, often abused by humans, and as an example of nuclear bombs to destroy the humans made it is not to preserve a generation, drugs created for health but in fact use much abused that interfere with human health.
8. Cultural Shock or stuttering culture, if man is not biased to adjust or adapt to another culture, giving rise to doubt and awkwardness.
E. Triangulation: INDIVIDUAL, COMMUNITY, AND CULTURE
Most of the latter part of the module, will be presented by triangulation: Individuals, society, and culture. As already mentioned, that as human beings is a biological entity that needs to be friendly living. Friendship is nothing but to create a culture that produces tools also immaterial material needed in life. The culture is essentially a tool-a tool used by humans for the existence and survival or meet their needs. The importance of culture in human life expressed by two anthropologists, namely Melville J. Horkovite and B. Malinowski (Soekanto, 1981:56) argues that cultural understanding determination which means that everything that determined the culture of being owned by the community.
From the description, it appears that there is a reciprocal relationship between the individual, society, and culture affect human life. The linkage was caused when we talk about human culture, so if we talk about the issue of culture will be presented to the community and its members, the man who collected therein and the interaction between the groups with other people. Simply put that relationship in the triangle described as follows (Hamid Sharif, 1995:96):
The third side of the triangle is just as important but each has its own properties and have a special role that gives shape to each of these elements. When examined more deeply, which plays an important role in all three of these elements are human. As noted Ciinton (in Syafri Hamid, 1995:96) that:
"..... The individual is a living organism capable of independent thought and action feeling, but with his limited independence all his responses profoundly modified by contact with the society and culture in roomates he develops".
As an organ of human life and does not have the ability to depend on others feelings and actions, but it's true capabilities and also limited by the ability because they all modified through relationships with community and culture and in the individual's relationship forward.
Who shows the closeness of the relationship between the individual, society and culture, is the community is a group of individuals, where there is no society that has no culture and no culture otherwise without the public as supporting container. Separation of the three terms is theoretically and for the sake of analysis, because in reality it is difficult to be separated. In this regard, as quoted Soerjono Selo Soemardjan Soekanto (1990:123) stated that the community is a collection of people who live together produce culture. Triangulation framework shows the relationship between the individual, society and culture can not be separated from each other.
Human life because of the culture, while the culture will survive and thrive when people want to preserve the culture and not ruin it. Thus people and culture can not be separated from each other, because in life is impossible not to deal with the results of culture, every day people see and use culture, sometimes even consciously or unconsciously undermine human culture..
Kessing, Roger, M., 1992, Antropologi Budaya suatu persepektif Kontemporer, jilid 2, terj: Samuel Gunawan, Jakarta: Erlangga
Koentrajaningrat (Ed), 1975, Manusia dan Kebudayaan di Indonesia, Jakarta: Jambatan.