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CONTOH MAKALAH BAHASA INGGRIS TENTANG KEMISKINAN POVERTY AND ABATEMENT ISSUES PAPERS



POVERTY AND ABATEMENT ISSUES PAPERS


CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION


1.1 Background

Government programs to address the issue of poverty has been successful in reducing the number of poor from 54.2 million (40.1%) in 1976 to 22.5 million (11.3%) in 1996. However, many things that happen in Indonesia have negative impacts on people's lives, such as: economic crisis since July 1997, earthquake and tsunami in Aceh and Northern Sumatra in late December 2004. According to the calculation of BPS (Central Bureau of Statistics) the number of poor people increased to 49.5 million (24.2%) in 1998.

Poverty is complex because it involves a variety of aspects such as the fulfillment of the right to food, health, education, employment, and so on. In order to decrease poverty in Indonesia requires the support and cooperation of the public and the government's seriousness in addressing this issue. Seeing the condition of the Indonesian state that still has a high poverty rate, the authors are interested to raise the issue of poverty in Indonesia and handling. The author hopes that this paper can contribute in order to eradicate poverty from this beloved country.

1.2 Problem Formulation

Based on the background of the above-mentioned problems, the formulation of the problem is:

1. What is the condition of poverty in Indonesia?

2. What caused poverty in Indonesia?

3. How to address the problem of poverty in Indonesia?

1.3 Purpose of

The purpose of writing this paper are:

1. Knowing the condition of poverty in Indonesia

2. Knowing the causes of poverty factor

3. Knowing how to tackle poverty

1.4 Method of Writing

The author uses the method library and browse the internet in the writing of the paper.

1.5 Benefits of Writing

The benefits of writing this paper is that people know the condition of poverty in Indonesia and can find solutions mitigate them. The reader is expected to help the government to poverty in Indonesia can be resolved soon.

1.6 Systematics Writing

This paper is structured with the following systematics:

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

In this chapter the author describes the background of the problem, the formulation of the problem, the purpose of writing, writing methods, writing benefits, and systematic writing.

CHAPTER II THEORY

CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

In this chapter the author  about this kind of research, data sources, data collection techniques.

CHAPTER IV RESULTS

CHAPTER II DISCUSSION

In this chapter the author describes the conditions of poverty in Indonesia, the causes of poverty in Indonesia, and the alleviation of poverty.


In this chapter the author describes the conclusions and suggestions.


CHAPTER II

THEORY


From a variety of viewpoints on the definition of poverty, is essentially a form of poverty can be grouped into three terms, namely:

1. Absolute poverty. Someone categorized belong to the class of absolute poverty if their income results were below the poverty line, are not sufficient to meet the minimum needs of life, namely: food, clothing, health, shelter, and education.

2. Relative poverty. Someone who is poor has actually lived relatively above the poverty line but still below the ability of the surrounding communities.

3. Cultural poverty. Poverty is closely related to the attitude of a person or group of people who do not want to try to improve the lives despite the efforts of others who helped.

Poor families is the actor who plays entirely to set goals, control of resources, and directing processes that affect their lives. There are three potential which needs to be observed from a poor family, namely:

1. Ability to meet basic needs, for example, can be seen from the aspect of family expenses, the ability to reach the basic level of formal education attained, and the ability to reach base protection.

2. Ability to perform social roles will be seen from the main activity of making a living, role in education, the role in the field of protection, and a role in other areas of society.

3. Ability in dealing with problems can be seen from the efforts of a family to escape and defend themselves from the economic and non-economic pressures.

Poverty is a problem that is characterized by a variety of things such as poor quality of life of the population, lack of adequacy and quality of food, limited and poor quality health care, child nutrition, and low quality of education services. So far, many efforts have been made to reduce poverty through the provision of food needs, health care and education, the expansion of employment opportunities and so on.

These efforts have been successful in reducing the number of poor from 54.2 million (40.1%) in 1976 to 22.5 million (11.3%) in 1996. However, with the economic crisis since July 1997 and a variety of natural disasters such as earthquakes and tsunami in December 2004 have negatively impacted the lives of the people, namely the weakening of economic activity, deteriorating health and education services, public facilities deteriorating, resulting in the increasing number of poor people into 47.9 million (23.4%) in 1999. Then in the last 5 years seen falling poverty rates continuously and slowly to reach 36.1 million (16.7%) in 2004 as shown in the figure below (note: the revised method occurred in 1996).
Revised methods

Solving the problem of poverty requires measures and programs that are specifically designed and integrated by the government and is a shared responsibility between government and society. Author of this paper would like to emphasize three major problems with poverty in Indonesia, namely: the limited adequacy and quality of food, limited and poor quality of health services, and the limited and poor quality of education services.

1. Limited Adequacy and Quality of Food

It is related to the low purchasing power, uneven food availability, and the lack of government support for farmers to produce rice while the Indonesian people depend on rice. Food security problems, among others, can be seen from the low calorie intake of the poor and the poor nutritional status of infants, toddlers, and mothers.

2. Limited and Low Quality Health Services

This results in lower resistance and health of the poor to work and earn a living, the limited ability of families to child growth and development, and poor maternal health. One indicator of limited access to health services is the infant mortality rate. Susenas (National Socioeconomic Survey) shows that the infant mortality rate in the lowest expenditure group is still above 50 per 1,000 live births.

3. Limited and Low Quality of Education

This is due to the high cost of education, the limited willingness of educational facilities, the limited number of qualified teachers in the area, and the limited number of schools eligible for the teaching and learning process. Formal education has not been able to reach out evenly throughout society so that there is a difference between the rich and the poor in education issues.

Causes of Poverty

There are two conditions that cause poverty could occur, namely:

1. Natural poverty. Poverty naturally occur due to limited natural resources, the use of low technology, and natural disasters.

2. Artificial poverty. This occurs because poverty agencies in the community to make some members of society are not able to control the economic means and other facilities available to them remain poor.

If both the causes of poverty is linked to problems of food quality, health, and education we can conclude some of the causes of poverty include:

1. Lack of availability of tools that can be used as a decent example of poor family health centers, schools, land can be managed for farming.

2. Lack of government support so that poor families can not live and earn their right to a decent education and health care because of high costs

3. Low interest of the poor to fight for their rights because of their lack of knowledge about the importance of higher education and possess good health.

4. Lack of government support in providing expertise so that the poor can work and earn a decent income.

5. Indonesia is a very broad area that it is difficult for the government to reach all areas with equal attention. This led to a difference in health, food and education quality between urban areas and disadvantaged areas far from urban.

Poverty Reduction

A. Development Goals of 2007

As for the poverty reduction targets in 2007 are:

1. Reduced the poor to reach 14.4% by the end of 2007.

2. Increased path opportunities for the poor to basic services, especially education and health.

3. Reduced expenditure burden of the poor, especially for education and health, as well as adequate food and nutrition.

4. Increasing the quality of poor families.

5. Rising incomes and opportunity to the poor, including increased opportunities for the poor to capital, technical assistance, and a variety of production facilities.


CHAPTER III

METHODS


The third chapter describes the types of research, data sources, data collection techniques.
3.1 Types of Research

I use this kind of research is correlative study. That the purpose of the study is correlative studies linking existing data. In accordance with this definition I connect the data I can from each other. In addition I also connect the existing data with the theoretical basis that I use. So expect my research could be right and proper research.

3.2 Sources of Data


I took the data source is from the books and other references pertaining to the problem of poverty.

3.3 Data Collection Techniques

The data collection techniques that I use in this study is to use books and other references relating to the problem of poverty.


CHAPTER IV

RESULTS


4.1. Poverty conditions in Indonesia

Literally, poverty comes from the root word that means poor-affluent are not objects (Poerwadarminta, 1976). In a broader sense, poverty can be interpreted as either a condition of inability of individuals, families, and groups that are vulnerable to the onset of the condition of other social problems.

Poverty is seen as a condition of a person or group of people, men and women are not fulfilled their basic rights are eligible to take and develop a life of dignity. Thus, poverty is no longer limited to the inability to understand economics, but also non-compliance with fundamental rights and discrimination against a person or group of people, to live a life with dignity.

Poor living not only means living in a state of lack food, clothing, and shelter. However, poverty also means low access to productive resources and assets to obtain the necessities of life, such as: knowledge, information, technology, and capital.

From a variety of viewpoints on the definition of poverty, is essentially a form of poverty can be grouped into three terms, namely:

Ø Absolute Poverty. Someone categorized belong to the class of absolute poverty if their income results were below the poverty line, are not sufficient to meet the minimum needs of life, namely: food, clothing, health, shelter, and education.

Ø Relative Poverty. Someone who is poor has actually lived relatively above the poverty line but still below the ability of the surrounding communities.

Ø Cultural Poverty. Poverty is closely related to the attitude of a person or group of people who do not want to try to improve the lives despite the efforts of others who helped.

Poor families is the actor who plays entirely to set goals, control of resources, and directing processes that affect their lives. There are three potential which needs to be observed from a poor family, namely:

Ø Ability to meet basic needs, for example, can be seen from the aspect of family expenses, the ability to reach the basic level of formal education attained, and the ability to reach base protection.

Ø The ability to perform social roles will be seen from the main activity of making a living, role in education, the role in the field of protection, and a role in other areas of society.

Ø The ability to face the problems can be seen from the efforts of a family to escape and defend themselves from the economic and non-economic pressures.

Poverty is a problem that is characterized by a variety of things such as poor quality of life of the population, lack of adequacy and quality of food, limited and poor quality health care, child nutrition, and low quality of education services. So far, many efforts have been made to reduce poverty through the provision of food needs, health care and education, the expansion of employment opportunities and so on.

These efforts have been successful in reducing the number of poor from 54.2 million (40.1%) in 1976 to 22.5 million (11.3%) in 1996. However, with the economic crisis since July 1997 and a variety of natural disasters such as earthquakes and tsunami in December 2004 have negatively impacted the lives of the people, namely the weakening of economic activity, deteriorating health and education services, public facilities deteriorating, resulting in the increasing number of poor people into 47.9 million (23.4%) in 1999. Then in the last 5 years seen falling poverty rates continuously and slowly to reach 36.1 million (16.7%) in 2004 as shown in the figure below (note: the revised method occurred in 1996).
Revised methods

Solving the problem of poverty requires measures and programs that are specifically designed and integrated by the government and is a shared responsibility between government and society.

Authors would like to emphasize the scientific work with 3 major problems of poverty in Indonesia, namely: the adequacy and quality of the limited food, limited and poor quality of health services, and the limited and poor quality of education services.

1. Limited Adequacy and Quality of Food

It is related to the low purchasing power, uneven food availability, and the lack of government support for farmers to produce rice while the Indonesian people depend on rice. Food security problems, among others, can be seen from the low calorie intake of the poor and the poor nutritional status of infants, toddlers, and mothers.

2. Limited and Low Quality Health Services

This results in lower resistance and health of the poor to work and earn a living, the limited ability of families to child growth and development, and poor maternal health. One indicator of limited access to health services is the infant mortality rate. Susenas (National Socioeconomic Survey) shows that the infant mortality rate in the lowest expenditure group is still above 50 per 1,000 live births.

3. Limited and Low Quality of Education

This is due to the high cost of education, the limited willingness of educational facilities, the limited number of qualified teachers in the area, and the limited number of schools eligible for the teaching and learning process. Formal education has not been able to reach out evenly throughout society so that there is a difference between the rich and the poor in education issues.

4.2. Causes of Poverty

There are two conditions that cause poverty could occur, namely:

Ø Poverty natural. Poverty naturally occur due to limited natural resources, the use of low technology, and natural disasters.

Ø Poverty artificial. This occurs because poverty agencies in the community to make some members of society are not able to control the economic means and other facilities available to them remain poor.

If both the causes of poverty is linked to problems of food quality, health, and education we can conclude some of the causes of poverty include:

Ø Less availability of poor families that can be used appropriately as health centers, schools, land can be managed for farming.

Ø Lack of government support so that poor families can not live and gain their rights to education and health are feasible due to high costs

Ø Low interest of the poor to fight for their rights because of their lack of knowledge about the importance of higher education and possess good health.

Ø Lack of government support in providing expertise so that the poor can work and earn a decent income. Indonesia is a very broad area that it is difficult for the government to reach all areas with equal attention. This led to a difference in health, food and education quality between urban areas and disadvantaged areas far from urban.

4.3. Poverty Reduction

A. Development Targets

As for the poverty reduction targets in 2007 are:

Ø Decreasing the poor to reach 14.4% by the end of 2007.

Ø Increased chance path of the poor to basic services, especially education and health.

Ø Reduced expenditure burden of the poor, especially for education and health, as well as adequate food and nutrition.

Ø Increasing the quality of poor families.

Ø Increased revenue and opportunity to the poor, including increased opportunities for the poor to capital, technical assistance, and a variety of production facilities.

B. Development Policy Direction

To achieve these objectives, the poverty reduction policy in 2007 focused on:

1. Less Workaround Nutrition and Food Shortage

Handling problems of malnutrition and food shortages include:

1. Community nutrition with priority activities: prevention of protein energy malnutrition, iron deficiency anemia, iodine deficiency disorder, lack of vitamin A, and other micronutrients in poor households.

2. Improved food security with priority activities: distribution of subsidized rice to poor families.

2. Expanding opportunities for the education of the poor

Expansion opportunities of the poor to education includes the following priorities:

1. Provision of operational support to elementary school, junior high school, Pesantren Salafi, and unit non-Islamic education at the primary and junior high school.

2. Scholarships to poor students high school level.

3. Development of education to be able to read.

3. Expansion opportunities of the poor to health

Expansion opportunities of the poor to health includes the following priorities:

1. Poor health services at the health center

2. Health services for the poor in third class hospitals.

3. Facility and infrastructure improvement of basic health services, especially in border areas, isolated, left, and islands.

4. Increased referral health services, especially for handling potentially infectious and epidemic diseases, maternal and child health services, poor nutrition and care to the emergency department.

5. Technical training midwives and health workers to reduce the rate of death at birth.

4. Seek Expansion Opportunities

Expansion of business opportunities include increased support for business development for the poor with the following main activities:

1. Acceleration of the implementation of land registration poor households.

2. Structuring advisor and certification of land ownership rights of farmers.

3. Provision of infrastructure for businesses.

4. Skills training to run a business.

5. Improvement of service cooperatives as business capital


CHAPTER V

CLOSING


1. Conclusion

1. The incidence of poverty in Indonesia is very alarming. It is characterized by poor quality of life of the population, lack of adequacy and quality of food, limited and poor quality health care, child nutrition, and low quality of education services. Therefore, should receive special treatment from the government and integrated together with the community.

2. There are two causes of poverty, which is the natural factors and artificial factors. Besides those two factors there are other factors that lead to poverty, namely:

Lack of availability of tools that can be used properly poor families.

Lack of government support so that poor families do not get their rights to education and proper health.

Low interest of the poor to fight for their rights.

Lack of government support in providing the expertise.

Indonesia is a very broad area that it is difficult for the government to reach all areas with equal attention.

3. Poverty reduction is realized by the government in the form of Development Goals and Policy of Development in 2007. Success of the poverty reduction program will not be achieved without good cooperation and shared responsibility between government and society.

2. Suggestion

As for the suggestion that the author can say is:

1. The government should run an integrated program in a serious and responsible in order to immediately address the problem of poverty in Indonesia

2. As a good citizen of Indonesia, let us support all government programs in earnest for the future of the nation and state of Indonesia out of poverty.

3. Let us increase social awareness and sensitivity to help our brothers who are still experiencing poverty.
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