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KUMPULAN SKRIPSI BAHASA INGGRIS TERBARU POWER IN LANGUAGE USE



KUMPULAN SKRIPSI BAHASA INGGRIS TERBARU POWER IN LANGUAGE USE ; A CASE STUDY IN GONDANG
SASAK SPEECH COMMUNITY
2009/2010





CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

A.    Background of the study
Language is  the  most  important  of  all  the  forms  of  human  life  communication.  Through  the acquisition  of  language  is,  we  become  human  and  social  beings:  the  words  we  speak  situate use  in  our gender and our class. In fact, language is often said as the chief feature that distinguish man from all other animal. However, language and society are two things that cannot separate and every society has its own language. The existence of the language in the need.
Power is one of useful concept that will help explain linguistic behavior, it also means a complex set of relationship between knowledge production and material and social condition. Power is also phenomenon , which relates language the social world, which warrants its classification within sociolinguistic.
Human beings  naturally have feeling or intuition about something, they know how they feel and believe about a subject, but it something that they take the force to verbalize : they merely contain it in their minds as a belief; it is because they did not have power . However, there are certain people who verbalize and put into words these internal feeling and gain the trust of the people. These certain people are our leader; who have power, speakers and interlocutors. For example in age power : young and old people.
In language use, power may cause different pronominal system between young people are extremely taught to give good respect and appreciation to all people in many ways. One of those ways is by using appropriate personal pronoun address from when  they talk with old people. However, the old did not appropriate pronouns  when they talk with  young people or their son and daughter, because the old people having power.
Sasak tribe especially in Gondang village has two levels of social class namely noble and common people or ordinary people. These two classes have different kinds of language use. The noble people in Gondang (Raden/ Datu) use of bahasa halus (high language) such as kula (me) kaji (me), nika (you), da (yes), tiang (me) etc. These words are used among noble to communicate with each other from noble people or common people. However, the common people also used those words when they talk to the noble people. The different language used between noble people and common people shows that the noble people having power in language use.
Based on those phenomena, the writer would like to research these phenomena of power, function and setting of power in language use in people speech community. It is aimed at exploring the existence and descriptive  explanation  of power  in order that community it self  can maintain them as one of the language heritage. The study is also intended to add sociolinguistic inquiry into the using power in language use.      


B.     Statement of Problem
This particular study attempts to answers the following questions below :
1.      What are the sources of power in Sasak language  used in Gondang community ?
2.      How is power manifested in language use in Gondang community ?
3.      What are the contrastive features of power in Gondang community compared to other Sasak community ?

C.    Purpose of Study
The general purpose of this research is to investigate the power in language use. Besides the general purpose. The writer also states the specific purpose :
a.       To find out the sources of power in Sasak language
b.      To find out how power is manifested I language use.
c.       To find out the contrastive features of power  in Gondang community compared to other Sasak community.
D.    Definition of Key Terms
These are some terms, which are used in this thesis ;
1.      Power
Oxford Elementary Learner’s Dictionary (1994) power is being able to do something or being able to make people do what you want.
            Language gains power only when it’s used by individuals, having power; a specific language often joins together people having power and is a symbol of struggle for the concrete status or the sign of discrimination. Power is something you have which can make someone wants to be like you.
2.       Language use
Language use to be flexibility in any modes of meaning or communicative acts in the relation. The concluded that language use is all of the words used by people to communicate with each other in their daily activities and to be the social control in society.


CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

A.    The Nature of Language
Language  is means of communication between human beings. Almost no communication appear without using language. The role that language carries makes people depend on it. Communication goes wrong and sometimes miscommunication occurs because of the power that the language is carried.
Although every human use a language in his or her daily activities, however, not everyone understands what the language actually is. That’s why, in other to get the reader know what a language really is, the writer wants to provide some definitions of language.
Everyone has and uses language in his or her life. She use it to communicate ideas or massage to other people. She is also uses it to express emotion, desire and feelings. Competence refers to the capability of man in understanding the rule system of language, while performance refers to human isolation from contextual constraints. Performance refers to human power of the contextual constraints, which determine his or her speech acts. Competences refer to the ideal.  Performance refer to the fall. Competence has its source in the very biology of man. Performance specific act that refers to the choices, which are made in specific speech encounter.

B.     Language and Society
Society is a large group of people with a particular organization and shared customs(Longman, 1933). To share the  custom and to make an organization people in society  need a language. Language occurs in the society where members of the society use it to communicate their feeling and ideas. Without language, humans being will not grow or have their functions.
More particularly, language as a communicate itself is often assumed to be the way of reflecting  the system of value and knowledge existing in the society and the way acting out of the system of culture of  the group society by it’s member is one of semiotic system that constitute the culture.
Human as a social creature cannot live alone, they will always need other to share their live. Social interaction usually appears in verbal communication and may occur in every place and condition. When people are in the public service requires social interaction What happened in the house between parents and their son and daughter, the teacher and the students, males and females at school, at recreations place, at ritual ceremony take place in all such case where people meet each other in day to day lives. All of social interactions process needs language since the function of language as communication. They need language to understand the speakers thought and feeling when they communicate in their society.
There are two aspect of language behavior that is very important from social point of view. The first function of language in establishing social relationship, and  the second function of language is giving information about the speaker. It is the clear that both those aspect of linguistic behavior are relationship of the fact that there is a close relationship between language and society.

C.    The Nature of Sasak  Language
Sasak language is the regional language that is protected by sasak society. Sasak as a mother tongue in sasak region is used as a tool of communication in all  of activities in sasak such as ; in the family, at school, and in the actualization. This language has been the interest of expert and the researchers, because of their awareness of its potential function in the daily life as nat(Longman, 1933). ive language.
Syahdan ( 2000:99) says that Sasak language is spoken by the majority  of the inhabitants of the island of Lombok. Sasak people tend to use the sasak language  in their daily communication, only a very small percentage of these speakers use it for written purposes for some villagers in Lombok. Sasak language is not use in government or low but only use in Lombok people daily activity.
D.    The Function of Language
The first function of language is an instrument of communication. Because of it, in linguistic knowledge languages usually use to define a symbol of arbiter vocal that use to be the communication tool (Subhan, 2001). Human being use language to communicate their feelling,experience, idea, and what they want to another.
Subhan (2004) states that in connection with the distinction between linguistic and non-linguistic behavior there are two kinds of function of language. There are cognitive and attitudinal function. The cognitive function is related to the element of utterance that expresses beliefs, perception, or imaginings of a situation or the world in general. For this reason, the cognitive function is related to the  propositional or contextual element.
E.     Power in Language Use
Power in Language use may cause different pronominal system  between speakers, interlocutors, also increasing politeness, and impoliteness. There are three factors, which influence the power in language use. The three factors are follows ;
a.      Speech persuasion
            There are two form of speech persuasion those are direct speech indirect speech.
(1)     Direct speech
Direct speech is saying exactly what someone has said or face-to face speech. In direct speech, the original speakers exact words are given and are indicated by quotation marks.
     Direct speech usually influences someone power because the direct speech happened face to face between the power I language used by the speaker and interlocutor.


(2)      Indirect Speech
In indirect speech, the exact meaning of the speakers words is given, but the exact words are not directly quoted. For example : Dean said that he did not know what to do.
b.     Speech Level
            Speech level form is applied reflected in various parterns particularly I choosing the word. By mean that the selected word which are going to be speakers to his / her addressee is determine by speakers possession in membership structurally.
            The language use by the speakers may give us information about the speakers. The language that the speakers use may show the social and geographical background, such as the use of certain variety in language can give the speakers comes from upper class, middle class, or low class in society.
            The level and the style of Gondang used in their daily activity when they interaction with the other ( depend on the situation and with whom they talked ). In below some level of language n Gondang have :
Alus Example  : Sawek nika majengan ?
Tengak Example         : Sawek tiak/epe mengan ?
Kasar Example            : Sawek dik memodos/membelot ?
c.      Address Form  
            The importance of their system of addressing, pronoun or system of addressing, pronoun or system of reference since they are misused probably can cause several unexpected negative things, and destroy the harmonious insinuate. Personal address from or system in the language very important to define the nature and the state of the interlocutor’s relation to each other and their larger social structure.
            In below there are some personal pronouns or personal name in Gondang:
1.      Personal pronouns :
For noble people(you)  :  Nika
                  (Me) : Kaji, Kula, Tiang
For elder people (you) : Epe, Tiak, Sita
                                                            (Me)  : Ku / Aku
For younger people (you) ; Dik
For son (you) : Cung, Tung, Ecek
For daughter (you) : Peng, luh
2.      Personal names  :   Nurul-Uyung
                                                            Radiah-Diah


CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODS

A.    Method
      The method employed in this study is descriptive. Nasir (1998) states that such as method facilitated us to look over an object, a group of people in set of certain condition, which aims to give systematic description of the fact and phenomena.
      This method is used to describe the situation, individual characteristic, phenomenon or certain group, and it generalizes the relationship between phenomena through hypothesis testing.
B.     Population and Sample
There are some techniques that the researcher employed in this study, namely: Populatio, Sample, Recording, and Participatory observation.
a.       Population
            In this study, The population means all of people who live in Gondang village district of Gangga North Lombok, whose practice the Sasak Language.
b.      Sample
            In order part added that there is no fix standard about how many  percent of the sample being taken from the population. In this case, the number of sample is four people.

C.    Data Gathering Procedure
a.       Recording
          The data of the study are collected through tape recording where the Gondang people have interaction or exactly in conversation in their speech community at anytime.
b.      Participatory Observation
          The research is able to come into the field or object of observation where Gondang people did their interaction in daily activities if the researcher tried into the participatory observation. In daily live the researchers tried to observe the society life in  order the data, especially dealing with their interaction.
D.    Data Analysis
      After collecting the data, the writer analyzed it descriptively including the principle of pragmatic analysis. The result of the study is made in order to answer the problem previously stated in the first chapter.
The analysis of the data on the following item of analysis:
1)      Identification of Power
In many senses share Sasak common culture, however, Sasak accounts of the past have more in myth, legend and parable than with history. Parallel  this power in speech community, there are three-speech levels usually used in Gondang   village to show the power of speaker and interlocutor namely :
-       Alus (Sawek nika majengan? have you eaten? ), for high power
-       Tengak (Sawek Epe mengan? Have you eaten?), for middle power
-       Kasar (Sawek Dik mangan?have you eaten?) for low power.
2)      Classification of Power
The classification of power in language use is cultural power, social power, linguistic power and gender power.
a.    Cultural Power
Cultural power, also called cultural hegemony, cultural imperialism and cultural colonialism,is generally referred to as imposed cultural values between states and between ethnic groups.
b.    Gender Power
Gender power is  one of the consequences of the gender differences in power is that men and women are likely to employ different strategies to influence others. By influences strategies, I refer to behaviors exhibited to influence other by effecting  their opinions or actions.
c.    Linguistic Power
A conversation is more than just an exchange of information. A conversation is also a social event in which the participants perceive themselves as individuals and as a group. Linguistic variation and social structures a means of negotiating power relationship and identities. The linguistic choices bring about   in the conversation.


3)      Description of Power
Power is a measure of a person ability to control the environment around them, including the behavior of the other people. In ordered groups, the leaders power over an individual is amplified by the virtual power gained from having the other group members already obeying the leaders order. For example, if a school student gets out of her  seat, she can be identified easily if all the other students are already sitting in their seats.
4)      Explanation of Power
In this case, the commparation  of power in other sasak speech community and Gondang speech community is address forms. In Gondang community, the address forms are different from the other Sasak community in East Lombok , Central Lombok and West Lombok . The differences of address form can show the different power between Gondang speech community  with other community in Sasak. Below  there are some examples of the different  address form between Gondang speech community and the other Sasak speech community.
·    Address forms  of Gondang  community
Personal pronouns:
For noble people:
-   (you)        : nika
-   (me)          : kaji, kula, tiang
For elder people :
-   (you)         : Epe, Tiak, sita
-   (me)          :ku
·        Address from of other Sasak speech community
For noble people :
-   (you)         : Nika, De kaji,Pelungguh, Pelinggih
-   (me)          : Tiang
For elder people :
-   (you)         : Side
-   (me)          : Ku
For younger people -(you)                : Kamu
For son and daughter -(you)             :Tatik, Baiq



CHAPTER IV
DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

In this chapter, the discussion is focused on analyzing the data in Gondang speech
Community conversation. The data discussed are based on the domination of these communities to show the power in language use in their interaction. Extract from the conversation will be served to illustrate the case. It is important to note that gathered in this study were recorded from Gondang community.
The data were collected from the conversation between noble and noble, non-noble and non-noble, noble and non-noble, man and man, women and women, women in their ordinary conversation located at Gondang . That people used power in language usually depends on who speak to whom they talked.
In Sasak community especially in Gondang there are two kinds  of social class, namely noble people and non-noble people. The noble people usually show their power by using the high speech level (basa alus) and appropriate personal pronoun (nika, kaji, kula,tiang, epe) when they talked with the noble people or non-noble in their activity.In the other case non-noble people usually use appropriate address form when they talked with the noble people or people having power.
A.    Identification of Power
a)      Conversation 1
Participants and setting
Conversation below the writer took in North Lombok located Gondang.The participants are Raden Suta(noble,55 years old) and Raden Agus (noble, 50 years old). They talked about their job.
(1)     Raden Agus : Sampun napi niki miq ?
                   There what REL PRO
                   What are there  father ?
(2)     Raden Suta :   Karya  mangkin kira-kira niki ?
                   Work now perhaps DEM ?
                   Do you work right now ?
(3)     Raden Agus :  Meran, marak niki ruang kaji niki, marak sik singakin den wayah  mangkin ?
Yes like this appcrarance ISG now like REL look PRO now
Yes, like this, like you are looking now.
(4)     Raden Suta :  Amun bau kaji nunas ager saring mangkin tiang muputang karya sik sampun mupakatang  sik sampun liwat.
If ca ISG ask so that  now ISG do work REL have agree REL have ago
If can, I asked to do the work that we have agree before,soon.
(5)     Raden Agus :  Ampurayan yen semangkinan niki nenten kaji bau ngiring marak pekayon den wayah, moga mogi benjang pungkur bau sik kaji ngiring marak pekayon  den wayah.
Sorry if now DEM cannot ISG can do like want PRO, maybe sometime can REL do like want PRO
Sorry if just now I cannot do like what you, I hope that sometime I can di like what you want.
(6)   Raden Suta : Yen Marak niki kira-kira wenren kesempatan niki ?
If like that when perhaps there chance DEM
If like that, when perhaps there is the chance ?
(7)   Raden Agus :  Sampun niki endekman kaji bau sik nentuang, sengak semangkinan
Niki kaji sedek sebet gati.
Now DEM not yet REL determine because now DEM ISG busy
                        Really
I cannot determine just now bwcause I really busy right now.
(8)   Raden Suta : Yen sampun niki tiang nunas pamit, mudah-mudahan melemak
Mejemak bajang pungkur kaji bak pun niki ampok.
If have DEM ISG asking permission right now may be sometimes  
                        ISG PREF here again.
If like that, I asking permission right now may be sometimes I
                        Come here again.
(9)   Raden Agus :  O…..nggih dawek
                        O….yes please
                        O… yes please
b)     Conversation 2
Participants and Setting :
Conversation below the writer took in  North Lombok located at Lekok. The participants are Izzudin hafiz (23 years old) and Didi (23 years old ) they talked about the coming of the friend.
(1)     Izzudin :  Piran dik dating ?
            When 2SG  come
            When you come ?
(2)     Didi :       Baruk ne
            Now DEM
            Just now
(3)     Izzudin : Apa su oleh-oleh no ?
            What DEM things DEM
            What things you bring ?
(4)     Didi :       Derakeng ngak beras
            Nothing only rice
            Nothing only rice
(5)     Izzudin : Mbe titipanku ?
            Where entrusted 3SG
            Where is my entrusted ?
(6)     Didi :       Icak lek dalem
            There PREF inn
            There in your room
(7)     Izzudin : Terus sai kancan dik ite ?
            So who with 2SG here
            So with whom are you here ?
(8)     Didi :       Mesak susahku ne darak mak kan .
            Alone, trouble 2SG DEM nothing REL eat
            Alone, I am trouble because nothing to eat
(9)     Izzudin :  Piran dik mendaya ?
            When 2SG PRO
            When you go home ?
(10) Didi :       laun ding rebo
            Later DEM Wednesday
            Later in Wednesday
B.     Classification of Power
In Sasak speech system, the term of power in language use used by the Community in other too increase politeness and impoliteness between speaker and Interlocutors.  Expression or sentence are characterizing power even if they contain one “ alus” word. In this discussion the writer would like to  classify terms of power in language use into Cultural power, Social power, Gender power and Linguistic power used between noble and noble, non-noble and non-noble. Below are the explanation about the Cultural power, Social power, Gender power and Linguistic power.
1)      Cultural power
Cultural power is the cultural value that shows from the interaction between the speakers and interlocutors in their speech community. In this case , the value  which shows can give us information about power in language use by the speaker and interlocutor. In conversation 1: A “ karya mangkin kira-kira niki ?”B”Meran, marak niki ruang kaji mangkin niki, marak sik simangkin den wayah mangkin” we can see more politeness value from the conversation between noble and noble because they used high speech level (basa alus) in their conversation.
2)       Social power
Social power is a capacity to produce effects through another people with lots of money, muscle, status and intelligence usually successfully influence other people.
3)      Gender power
Gender power is one of the consequences of the gender differences in power is that men and women are likely to employ different strategies to influences others.
4)      Linguistic power
Linguistic variation and  social structures are means of negotiating power relationship and identities.


CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

A.    Conclusion
Based in the identification and classification of power in language use in the previous chapter, the  concluded based on the statement problem in this study. Power in language use phenomenon really happens in the interaction of Sasak speech communities in Gondang village. There are the differences in language uses from people having power to the people who do not have power. Compared the language use in conversation between people having power in Gondang speech community and the people having power in the other  Sasak speech community to find the constrastive feature of power and found  the different personal pronouns used in Gondang speech community from those used in the other Sasak speech community reflected their power in language use. Moreover, power in language use is also reflected in increasing politeness and impoliteness between speakers and interlocutors because power can make language og the speakers or interlocutors more polite and impoliteness.

B.     Suggestion
In this study, the writer would like to suggest to the speakers to use appropriate address form and appropriate personal pronoun in their speech community although they did not have power. They would make good relationship between one and each other in their interaction because the language choice or the language use used   by the speaker can give us information about  the speaker in society.
In this study, the writer also suggest to the researchers of the future in order to analyze, classify and describe the power more explicit than this research. The writer still lack delved about power and on the other hand, the writer hopes to the researcher of the future to make this thesis as reference for the new research  about power, as the sociolinguistic inquiry into the problem of using language.
           









BIBLIOGRAPHY

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