AN ANALYSIS OF FPBS STUDENTS’ ABILITY IN CLASSIFYING
AND DESCRIBING ENGLISH CONSONANTS.
This part deal with background of the problems, statement of the problems, objective of the study, scope of the study, assumption of the study, definition of key terms, hypothesis of the study and significance of the study.
1.1. Background of the Study
Language is means of verbal communication that is reasonable instance which make someone interested in knowing and investigating, Especially in English. English as a world language has been investigated by many people. It plays most important role in plenty of activities in bearing on conferences, meetings, negotiations, congress in the international scope, because of the role most countries must utilize it., either as second language or as a foreign language.
Other essential benefit of English is a medium of transferring or transmitting sciences and technology. Since, science and technology have to be limited from Western Scientist, many books and original references about science and technology are also written in English.
The government of Indonesia sets an educational curriculum, it includes English instruction as one of some required subjects with is studied from junior, senior high-school and up to university.
Instruction of English as a foreign language lot of students complain commonly, they regard that English is difficult, many of them get trouble in learning English. In addition, the difficulties which students face, especially in reading comprehension. They can not pointing the literal meaning, interpretation, generalization, and inference. If the difficulties ignore, the ability of the students in comprehending reading passage will be slow.
Referring to the phenomena, the writer referred to Padron's and Wexman's theory (1988). They use self reported technique to identify cognitive reading strategies of Hispanic ESL students in relation to their reading comprehension. They found that there were seven strategies that positively correlated to the students better achievement of reading comprehension test. The seven strategies are: (1) summarizing, (2) underlining, (3) self-generative questioning, (4) checking through the story whether it is remembered, (5) asking question about apart of the story which is not understood, (6) taking notes, (7) imagining or picture the story in mind (174). The most frequently used strategies were asking questioning about the part of the story which is not understood, checking trough the story whether it is remembered, imagining or picturing the story in mind, and looking up the word in dictionary.
From the methods, the writer chooses the first strategy to be investigated. Summarizing is helpful because it requires that thoroughly understand the reading material, it also build comprehension power, improve the ability to take effective classroom and textbook notes.
1.2. Statement of the Problem
The study is attempted to provide the answer of the following research question ”is there any positive effect of summary on students’ reading achievement at the second year students of MTs. Addinul Qoyyim Kapek Gunung Sari in academic year 2007/2008”.
1.3. The Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to find out whether summary in post activity have positive effect or not on the students’ reading achievement at the second year students of MTs. Addinul Qoyyim Kapek Gunung Sari in academic year 2007/2008.
1.4. The Significance of the Study
The theoretical significance of this study is that its results can be used as a basic acknowledge further researcher in analyzing summarizing.
The practical significance is that this writing will hopefully be of some use to:
1. Inform English teacher that summarizing in post activity has positive effect on students' reading achievement.
2. Help English teachers to improve current reading practice or teaching techniques.
3. Be one consideration for teachers of English in selecting their techniques.
1.5. Assumption of the Study
This study is conducted:
- The second year students of MTs. Addinul Qoyyim Kapek Gunung Sari in academic year 2007/2008 have been active in reading activity.
- The group of research sample, control group, experimental group have similar utility in competence and performance.
- The method of collecting data is accurately selected and the instruments are considered valid.
1.6. Scope of the Study
The scope of the investigation that will be discussed in this writing is limited to the following points:
- The object of this study is at the second year students of MTs. Addinul Qoyyim Kapek Gunung Sari in academic year 2007/2008.
- The study is conducted to investigate the effect of summarizing reading text in post activity on students’ reading achievement at the second year students of MTs. Addinul Qoyyim Kapek Gunung Sari in academic year 2007/2008.
The hypothesis is arranged of the recent study as the temporary conclusion of the research problem which reads; ”summarizing in post activity have positive effect on the students reading achievement at the third year students of Madrasah Tsanawiyah Negeri 2 Mataram in academic Year 2007/2008”.
The hypothesis above is then, change into null hypothesis which reads; “there is no positive effect of summarizing in post activity on the students reading achievement at the third year students of Madrasah Tsanawiyah Negeri 2 Mataram in academic Year 2007/2008”
1.8. The Definition of Key Terms
To avoid ambiguity, misunderstanding, or misinterpretation of the term used in this study, the following key terms or concepts and constructs are defined.
The usage of something. Something refers to summary
Summary is a brief statement of the main point of something (Hornby, 1995:1196)
Summarizing is taking note from paragraph, article, and reduce to our own words
Evaluation is to determine or fix the value of ”or” to examine and judge. (Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary ; 1981, in Dr. Soekartawi).
Evaluation is a process of examining certain objects and events in the lights of specifics value standards for the purpose of making adaptive decisions. (Paulson: 1970, in Dr. Soekartawi).
From the two opinions we can say that evaluate is examining an object or activity with specific criteria as needed in making decisions.
- Post Activity
Post is prefix, means later
Activity is a specific thing or things done; action or occupation (Hornby, 1995:13)
- Reading Achievement
It is the ability to analyze and to appreciate a reading together with physical, psychological, emotional and intellectual responses.
REVIEW OF RELATE LITERATURE
2.1. Definition of Reading
In general, reading is process done by the teacher to get the massages expressed by the writer through the written language (Hodgson in Tarigan, 1979 ; 7). But it is not a simple process as what the thing Harris and Sipay not that:
"Reading is very complex process in which the recognition and comprehension of wrote symbols are influenced by the perceptual skill, the decoding skill, the experience, the language background, the mind set and reasoning ability of the reader, as the anticipates meaning on the bases of what he has just read (Harris and Sipay 1975 : 7).
Furthermore, Papas defines reading as a thinking (Gorge Papas, 1970 : 11) it is not just the recognition of words, but involves gaining meaning from the printed symbols (words and understanding the meaning) it carries. Then he also explains that "reading is predominantly usual thinking skill utilizing the eyes and the higher mental process the method by which the perception of printed symbol, causes some forms reaction in the mind" (Papas, 1070 : 12-13).
Another expert, Burns et al, (1984 : 10) wrote that reading is thinking process. In this extend, the reader must be able to use the information to make inferences and read critically and creatively to understand the figurative language, determine the author purpose, evaluate the ideas presented and apply the ideas to actual situation.
To support the opinion above, Burns et. al, quoted the opinions of Chambers and Lowry as follows:
"Reading is more than morely recognition the words for which certain combination of letters bring about a correct recall. It is includes the whole gamut of thinking process; feeling and defining some need, selecting from alternative means, experimenting with choices route and devising some mean of evaluating the results" (Chambers and Lowry in Burns et al., 1975 ; 114).
In nature, reading is thinking, if is not just the recognition of the printed words or understanding the meaning it carries out that reading is predominantly a visual thinking skill utilizing the eyes and the higher mental process. It is the method by which the perception or the printed symbols causes forms reaction in the mind.
Reading may be classified as two simply categories, intensive and extensive reading (Rivers 1968, and Finochioro, 1983 : 146-147).
Firstly, intensive reading, according to rivers that a reading activity being related to further progress in language learning a control from a teacher is compulsory and it will provide a basis for elucidation of difficulties of structure, and for the extension of vocabulary. To the some extens, Marry Fhochioro (1983 : 146) also glanced that the intensive reading when the students' attention, nation sounds, structures and cultural allusion will be unfamiliar to them in the passage.
Secondly, extensive reading developing at the students own face according to his individual ability is not completely controlled by the teacher. Students are learned to read without the teachers role. The extensive reading activity is mostly concerned with the purpose of training students to read directly and fluently, for his/her own employment, without the aid of the teacher. Structures in the text will be already familiar to him and new vocabulary will be introduced slowly in such way that its meaning can be deduced from the context.
2.2. The Concept of Teaching Reading
The aims of teaching reading is to develop the students reading skill. In general, the purpose of reading are classified into: (1) getting general information from the text (2) getting specific information from the text (3) reading for pleasure or interest (William, 1984). This classification is implemented into development of different reading skill e.g. skimming, scanning, reading, between the line, summarizing, etc.
These reading skill are needed in rill life when people read different kinds of reading material such as: newspaper, magazine, brochure, manulas, notice, article, etc.
"In teaching reading is anticipate different type of text which are stimulating their interest. We need to develop and foster the students appropriate reading skill according to different reading purpose. Students need, for example, to be encouraged to read quickly when it is appropriate the text intensively to get inflict information. Consequently, the transferability of principled flexible skill to different type or text is one of the most effective thing to develop in the reading skill class (Mc. Donaugh and Shaw, 1993 : 112).
Developing reading skill primarily in the students is the most effective things to develop in the reading class. Students will have firm foundation in studying reading.
2.3. The Factors Affecting Reading Comprehension
There are some factors that effect reading comprehension, fall roughly into the two broad categories, (1) linguistic, and (2) non linguistic factors. The students may face some problem in the reading comprehension caused by linguistic aspect of the text. That are, in term of vocabulary, grammar and prior knowledge. While non linguistic factors are in term of legability, and interest (Andersol et. al, 1969). There are effecting in student reading comprehension.
Building the reading the vocabulary will increasing word recognition, attaching new word structurally and interpretively; inferring meaning from lexical, syntactic, factual and semantic clues; and interacting with words that relate to their experience and to the text in self. So that if the students have capability to cope with all aspect stated they will be easily to comprehend a reading text, because a students who has difficult in recognizing words quickly and accurately is likely to be a slow reader. He is a special this advantage when wishes to find the answer to a question. He is also handicapped when he tries to read study type material that content word not easily recognized. In addition, the students who can identify a large number of word through effective use of method of word attack other than phonic such as recognition of sight word or use of context clause or structural analysis, may often be the who can more speedly accomplish his purpose in reading comprehension .
The students might encounter some difficult or problems in answer a test in the term. It is because of their problems in structure; while this competent is very important in reading comprehension. Besides the familiarity of vocabulary. So, structure and vocabulary play important role in reading comprehension. They could not be separated. In short, the students are required to have a capability other in order that students are able to answer the test as what is started by Vellete (109 : 1982).
" Reading requires a familiary on the part of the reader. The two fundamental blocks of the particular language under study; structure and vocabulary, the broader the students, knowledge of the structure and the greater their vocabulary regardless of how these two use required the more the test will be able to approach.
- Prior knowledge
In order to be successful readers, the students should master structure and vocabulary. But, one factor than contribute the successfulness in reading comprehension, that is, background knowledge or prior knowledge of the students.
A students knowledge base refers to the different kind of knowledge a student brings to the reading situation, as well as any knowledge acquired during reading instruction (Jenkins and Bausely, 1983). This knowledge base involves reasoning skill, background knowledge, and the knowledge involve in making sense of word and the logical connection between the text and the reader experience.
Reading comprehension is always directed and controlled by the needs and purposes of individual. Therefore, the information that is taken from reading material was known by the students. Carel (220 : 1987). State that previously acquired knowledge is called the reader's background knowledge and it follows the schema theory, that is, comprehending a text is an interactive process between the reader's background knowledge and the text. Those, efficient comprehension requires the ability to relate the textual material to one's own prior knowledge.
- Legability of Reading Material
The size and style of type, length of the line, spacing between lines and color of paper are affect and easy of reading. It is difficult to generalize on this fact because what applies at one age level does not necessarily apply at another. Also, such factors are size of type and length of line are independent. However, with the size of the print used by most newspaper the optimum length number of the line has been pound to be some where between 1,50 to 1,75 inches. A number of experiment has shown that the text without reading is more difficult to read than the text with headings. Wide margins and spacing are also an aid to reading ability .
- Interest of Reading Material
It has also been shown that the more interesting a writer passage is the easier it is to read understand. The used of personal word (I, me, my, you, your) and the use of personal sentence (direct speech) give book greater human interest. It is debatable whether diagram illustration of picture contribute to reading comprehension.
And attractive reading material could be as generator to generate and motivate students in reading and getting the information from reading material. A beautiful cover, for example, give an interest to the students before they read the book.
1. Definition of Summary
Definition can be defined in some ways, such as Hornby defined summary is a brave statement of the mind point of something (1995 : 1996). This definition can be emphasized on the brief statement. Behrent and Laurence (1985 :3) state that summary is a brief statement in your own word of the content of a passage (a group of paragraph, a chapter, article and a book). From the definition can be emphasized on the "brief statement" and own words.
From the two definition above, there are not principle differences. So, the definition of summary is a brief statement of information of passage to the most important point in own words.
2. Guidelines for Writing Summary
According to Leo (1994), there are some steps in writing summary such as: (1) make sure you understand what you read, (2) collapse list, (3) use topic sentence, (4) get rid of unnecessary detail, and (5) check and double check.
1. Make sure you understand what you read
Concentrate on determining the main idea, highlight and make marginal notes as you study than go over to the material and your own highlighting and notes as you prepare to write summary.
2. Collapse list
Instead of including list of detail in your summary, try to classify them under a hiding for instance, if you show broccoli, cabbage, kale, mistard, and coulif lower, and you could use the term cruciferous vegetable to include and of them.
3. Use topic sentence
Look for topic sentence, paragraph any you find and include them in your summary. If you find no topic sentence, try to make one up and use it in your summary.
4. Get rid of unnecessary detail
Include only the most important information and then eliminate detail an be carefully not to repeat ideas (in your summary).
5. Check and double check
Ensure that you have no list and no repetition. Ensure as well that you include all the most important information and that you have stated it in your own words make sure the summary read smoothly and easily to make future studying more efficient.
2.5. The Advantages of Summarizing
Summarizing is helpful because it requires that you thoroughly understand the material you are reading. In addition, work summarizing will have students to build comprehension power, it will also markedly improve students ability to take effective classroom and take book notes (Langan, 1986 : 355). By summarizing students build comprehension power, improved their ability to take effective classroom and take book notes.
So, the advantages of summarizing are summary can help students in understanding reading material, building students comprehension power improving students ability to take effective classroom, and improving students ability to take book notes.
2.6. The Technique of Reading
According to Sabrony (1989 :45) the technique in teaching reading usually employ the following steps:
2.6.1. Pre-reading Activities
This activity is done with purpose to arouse the students' interest, and the steps can be:
a. Ask reading question referring to their knowledge and experience related to the topic of the selection.
b. Ask the students to mention some vocabulary items related to the selection.
2.6.2. Whilst Reading Activities
a. Reading aloud
Some students reading aloud the passage, often the students are assigned to read it at home, the teacher begin the lesson by directly asking them question about the text.
b. Analyzing of each paragraph
1. Often the teacher uses the translation method in analyzing the paragraph.
2. The teacher ask actual question (who question) and then ask the students what each paragraph is about.
1. The students answer the comprehension question given in the book orally
2. They sometimes have to answer more difficult question, such as giving true false statement and the reason why they choice either of it.
3. and drawing inferences of the whole selection.
2.6.3. Post Reading activities
Usually this step is done without reading the passage. The students have a chance to develop their knowledge communicatively. The activities are retell, ask the idea or opinion, make summary dialogue, report, writing a letter, solving problem, etc.
James Ward (1980 : 2) suggest some techniques for teaching reading comprehension, according to Ward, generally consist of two steps: (1). Motivation, (2). Presentation of material. Each of these step will be disclosed in the following.
To motivate is to be creative. The more interesting the reading topic or the more interesting can make is same the easier it will be to teach. If a picture a companies the reading, create interest by asking question about it. If there is no picture draw one.
2. Presenting material
1. have the students read the entire selection to them selves.
2. read the entire selection (if it not too long) to your students, and then do a paragraph by paragraph analyze.
3. read the selection paragraph by paragraph
4. try a sandwich. Read the introduction and conclusion, and then ask the students to guess what they are going to read about.
5. after analyzing a paragraph or series paragraph, read all of the material again, so that the students can pull together the vocabulary, structure and meaning and graps the passage as a whole.
In this part the writer present the method of research applied in this study which is followed by a brief discussion of population sampling as well as the method of collecting analyzing data finally, the research instrument used to gather the need data to end up this section.
After determining the problems, purposes and hypothesis of the investigation, it is continued by observing and collecting the data for the accomplishment of the study which was partially conducted trough intensive library research.
In research activities the function of method is very important because the success of research is depending on the method applied.
The method of the study, first of all the writer formulates the title of this research as follows "an analysis of the students' achievement in reading comprehension taught by using summary at the second year students" of MTs. Addinul Qoyyim Kapek Gunung Sari in academic year 2007/2008.
The aims of this study is to find out whether summarized reading in post activities text have any positive contribution towards the students’ reading achievement.
The method of the research to be applied is descriptive research and the data is collected trough the result of a test that distribute to the students and data analysis in basic statistical consumption.
In conducting investigation one of the important element is that what is termed as a research population. Sutrisno Hadi defined population as a number of people or individual who have at least the same character (Sutrisno Hadi: 1984 ; 220).
In this study population is defined as a set of element and/or character having at least the same category the target population of this research is at the Second year students of MTs. Addinul Qoyyim Kapek Gunung Sari in academic year 2007/2008 which consist of 65 students who sit in two classes.
Sample is part of population that it’s characteristic want to study. The element of sample less than the element of population (Djarwanto: 1990 ; 43).
In taking the number of sample, the writer referred to Surachmad states that if the population less than one hundred, the sample can be taken for 50%, and if the population more than one hundred the sample can be taken for 20%.
From the definition above, the writer takes 50% because the population in MTs. Addinul Qoyyim Kapek Gunung Sari in academic year 2007/2008 at the second year is less than one hundred (65 students). Finally, the writer gets 34 students as a sample in which 17 from class IIA and 17 students from class IIB. The sampling is done randomly.
3.4. Method of Data Collection
A data collecting is very important step in scientific research because the data will be used to the test the hypothesis that has been formulated. For this study, the data will be obtained from both of the groups. They are treated to use the kind of the same reading material, test by the same item and the same length of the time limitation to do, it is presented in a different way.
Experimental group is asked to summarize the reading text based on the questions given, while control group is treated without any summarizing.
The writer then applies one type of test where the students are expected to answer all of questions while they are reading the reading text. Before the instructional activities, the two group are pre tested to know the students' previous ability by using the same test. Afterwards, both of the groups are given a post test to know their reading comprehension after the process of the reading activities done.
3.5. Research Instrument
A research needs indicator or instrument with the certain relation ship among variable in population the instrument used is intended to measure reading achievement as she constructs. She constructs the same reading text either for experiment or control group. There are three reading text comprised 10 items in each in forming multiple choice answer.
3.6. The Method of Analyzing Data
After raw scores are collected from both groups, group experiment and control group. It is computed with the following steps; first, the writer calculated the means score of the teo groups by applying the following formula:
ME = is the mean score of experimental group
X = is the deviation score of pre test and post test
N = is the number of sample in experimental group
The similar formula is also applied to compute the mean of control group. Second, the writer computes and compares the significance of deviation of the two mean scores :
(Arikunto, 1993 : 269)
The score of students of pre test and post test are considered as the data of the recent study.
ME = Is the mean score of experimental group
MC = Is the mean score of control group
NE = Is the total number subject of experimental group
NC = Is the total number subject of control group
X = Is the deviation of x1 and x2
Y = Is the deviation of y1 and y2
∑ = Is the sum of
= Is the root of
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