THE EFFECT OF ENGLISH GLOSSARY TO THE STUDENTS’ ABILITY IN TRANSLATING ENGLISH TEXTS INTO INDONESIAN; AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AT THE SECOND YEAR STUDENTS OF SMPN 18
MATARAM, IN ACADEMIC YEAR
1.1. Background of the Study
Language is a means of communication among people, there are so many languages that people use to express their ideas or transfer messages, one of them is English. English is one of the international languages that had been used in most of the countries in the world. Some countries in the world use English as the formal language. People from all over the world speak English as their second language to communicate one to another in every international event like meeting conferences, commerces, or work shop.
Translation is the sense of most people would perceive it as an activity of great importance in the modern world. The twentieth century globalization era has made the world ‘narrower’, meaning that people from different parts of the world, not only geographically, but also culturally and ideologically, can easily make contacts. It is why the writer tries to investigate the research with the title “The Effect Of English Glossary To The Students’ Ability In Translating English Texts Into Indonesian”. In add, the reason that the writer decide of this study to verificate the English glossary affected in the students’ translating and also in order to get some important information.
1.2. Statement of the Problems
Based on the background of the study above, the problems that research by the researcher are as follows:
a. What are the positive effects of English glossary to the students’ ability in translating English texts into Indonesian?
b. What factors promote the effectiveness of using English glossary to the students’ ability in translating English texts Into Indonesian?
1.3. Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to know if English Glossary affects the quality of Students’ translation from English into Indonesian. The purpose is broken down into the following objectives :
a. To know the positive effect of English glossary to the students’ ability in translating English texts into Indonesian.
b. To know the factors that promote the English glossary as an instrument which has positive effect to the students’ ability in translating English texts into Indonesian?
1.4. Significance of the Study
The significances of the study that conducted by the researcher are as follows:
a. By putting the English Glossary under the test, the students will identify some difficult words and try to translate and understand them.
b. After translating the texts, they will know how important the information that they get from English texts is.
1.5. Scope of the Study
The investigation conducted on the second year students of SMPN 18 Mataram in academic year 2009/2010. The object of this study is limited ’’to the students’ English Glossary affected their translating ability in English texts into Indonesian”.
1.6. Definition of Key Terms
a. English Glossary
English glossary is defined as collection of explanation of difficult word in English text. The explanation defined the word/phrase in accordance their construal meaning in whole passage the word in phrase in the reader current competence and which constitute the importance point necessary for understanding text.
According to Hornby (1983: 2) ability is the lexical meaning of “Special nature power to do something well”. In this study, the ability refers to students’ mental power or skill in English glossary to their translating ability of English text.
According to Hanafi, (1986: 26) Translation is the replacement of text in the source language (SL) by semantically and pragmatically equivalent text in the target language (TL). In this study, the term of translation refers to students transfering the language of English text into Indonesian.
According to Halliday (1986: 1257) text is language that is functional any instance of living language that is playing some part in a context of situation shall be called a text. The important thing about the nature of text is really made of meaning. The text may be spoken either and written text.
1.7. Assumption of Study
To avoid any factor that may cause bias in this research, the writer in this part proposes some assumption. The assumptions are also aimed to maintain the validity of the data. The assumptions can be showed as follows:
a. The second year students of SMPN 18 Mataram have no enough vocabulary or glossary. So they have no enough ability in translating and understanding English text.
b. It is assumed that English Glossary under the English text can help the students to translate the meaning of the text.
c. Method of collecting data as well as instrument applied appropriately selected and constructed.
Hypothesis is used as the tentative answer to a research problem. There are two kinds of hypothesis, there are: the alternative hypothesis (Ha) and the null hypothesis (Ho), answer the existence of comparative study between two or more variables.
Based on the theoretical point of view, the tentative answers of the research problem are formulated in the following hypothesis:The alternative hypothesis :
The English glossary has positive effect to the students’ ability in translating English texts into Indonesian.
a. The null hypothesis :
The English glossary has no positive effect to the students’ ability in translating English texts into Indonesian.
Hopefully, this research that is conducted by the writer can be problem solving either the students as receiver or the teacher as a transformer of teaching English.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1. The Nature of Translation
Leonard (1958: 124) states that, translation is become more significant when it is considering to the books on science and technology written in English. According to Larson (1984: 154) that, “it is quite true”. Based on the fact or reality that probably we have seen together around us that there are a lot of books either science or technology written in English. It can be proved by the existence of English books that used by the people as literature of their thesis or a research in an institute or a university. So that, to make them easy to understand the literature, translation is more significant way to help them to finish their work. Because, there are still also a lot of people do not understand English.
Nevertheless, translation, is not only way to explain the meaning. Hanner (1983: 85-86) suggest that such items lake reality, pictures (chalkboard or whiteboard drawing, wall pictures charts, flashcard and any other technical visual representation), mime or action or gesture, contrast, enumeration and explanation can be also useful way of giving the meaning as translation does.
In accordance with the teaching and learning process, the use of translation has been debated. To some extent, some linguist say that if the teacher always translate the sentences or word which are not understood by the students, it will be impede students learning, since they want to hear and use the target language, not their own.
2.2. The Problem of Non-Equivalence Translation
In translation, a translator should be able to identify or investigate the things that become the problem in translation it self. If language were simply a nomenclature for a set of universal concept, it would be easy to translate from one language to another (Culler, 1976: 21-22). However, what does a translator do when there are no words, sentence, phrase, structure, idiom and so on in the target language which expresses the same meaning at the source language? Is there a one-to-one relationship between word and meaning, between sentence and meaning, between phrase and meaning, between structure and meaning and so on? Such as in word or phrase : ‘big boss or beautiful girl’, it cannot be translated into Bahasa Indonesia like ‘besar bos or cantik gadis’, in idiom ‘get angry’, it consist of ‘get’ means ‘mendapatkan’ and ‘angry’ means ‘marah’. So, it cannot be translated into Bahasa Indonesia ‘mendapatkan marah’. But, it is translated ‘menjadi marah’, and so on. Rachmadi (1989: 12) explains that translation would be a little bit easier if there are similarities in linguistic components between source language and target language, such as in the structure or phrase, position of modifier, and morphological structure.
The following are some common problems types of non-equivalence at word level.
a. Culture-specific concept
The source language word may express a concept which totally unknown in the target culture. The concept in question may be abstract or concrete; it may relate to a religious belief, social custom, or even a type of food. Such concepts are often refered to as ‘culture specific’. An example of an abstract English concept which is notoriously difficult to translate into other language privacy (Indonesia; kebebasan pribadi) this is a very ‘English’ concept which is rarely understood by people from other culture. Talking about the privacy between western people an eastern people, of course it is very different. Each country has different view about the privacy..
b. The source language concept is not lexicalized in the target language
The source language word may express a concept which is known in the target culture but simply not lexicalized, that is not ‘allocated’ a target language word to express it. It means that a translator will find the difficulty to translate source language word into target language, because of not allocated in a dictionary, such as savory. The word savory has no equivalent in many languages, although it expresses a concept which is easy to understand. Landslide has no ready equivalent in many languages, although it simply means ‘overwhelming majority’.
c. The source language word is semantically complex
The source language word may be semantically complex. This is a fairly common problem in translation. That is single word which consists of a single morpheme can sometimes express more complex of meaning than a whole sentence. It means that one word in source language can be translated into a sentence in target language.
d. The source and target languages make different distinction in meaning
The target language may make more or fewer distinction in meaning than the source language. For instance, Indonesian make a distinction between going out in the rain with knowledge that is raining (kehujanan) and going out in the rain with knowledge that is raining (hujan-hujanan). English does not make this distinction, with result that if an English text referred to going out in the rain, the Indonesian translator may find it difficult to choose the right equivalent, unless the context makes it clear whether or not the person in question knew that was raining.
e. The target language lacks a super ordinate
The target language may have specific word (hyponym) but no general word (super ordinate) to head semantic field. It will be a trouble for translators when target language lack of general word (super ordinate).
f. The target language lacks a specific term (hyponym)
More commonly, language tends to have general words (super ordinate) but lack specific ones (hyponym). There are endless examples of this type of non equivalence. English has many hyponym under article for which it is difficult to find precise equivalents in other language, for example feature, survey, report, critique, commentary, review, and many more. Under house, English again has variety of hyponyms which no equivalents in many languages, for instance bungalow, cottage, croft, chalet, lodge, hut, mansion, manor, villa, and hall. Under jump we find more specific verbs such as leap, vault, spring, bounce, dive, clear, plunge, and plummet.
g. Differences in physical or interpersonal perspective
Physical perspective may be of more importance in one language than it is another. Physical perspective has to do with where thing or people are in relation to one another or to a place, as expressed in pairs of word such as come/go, take/bring, arrive/depart, and so on.
h. Differences in expressive meaning
There may be a target language word which has the same propositional meaning as the source language word, but it may have a different expressed meaning. The difference may be considerable or it may be subtle but important enough to pose a translation problem in a given context. It is usually easer to add express meaning than to subtract it. In other words, if the target language equivalent is neutral compared to the source language item, the translator can sometimes add the evaluate element by means of modifier or adverb if necessary, or by building it in somewhere else in the text.
i. Differences in from
There is often no equivalent in the target language for particular form in the source language or text. Certain suffixes and prefixes which convey propositional and other types of meaning in English often have no direct equivalents in other languages. English has many couplets such as employer/employee, trainer/trainee, and payer/payee. It also makes frequent use of suffixes such as – is (e.g. boyish, hellish, and greenish) and –able (e.g. conceivable, retrievable, and drinkable) and so on.
j. Differences in frequency an purpose of using specific forms
Even when particular forms are does have a ready equivalent in the target language, there may be a difference in the frequency with which it is used or the purpose for which it is used. English, for example, uses the continuous–ing for binding clauses much more frequently than other languages which have equivalents for it.
k. The use of loan words in the source text
The use of loan words in the source text poses a special problem in translation. That is the cause why the translators are sometimes confused to translate the words from source language into target language that is because of using loan words or we can say that taking the words from another language.
2.3. The Strategies used to translate non-equivalence
There are approximately eight strategies that mentioned in Mona Baker’s book on title In other words, a course book on translation in which can be applied by the translators when they find out non-equivalent words or expression in translating some sentences or text from source language into language target, in order to be able to understand.
a. Translation by a more general word (super ordinate)
This is one of commonest strategies for dealing with any types on non equivalence, particularly in the area of propositional meaning. It work equally well in most, if not all, languages, since hierarchical structure of semantic field is not language specific.
b. Translation by a more neutral/less expressed word
It means that if the translators find out any difficult words in source language they can try to translate by using more neutral or less expressed words.
c. Translation by cultural substitution
This strategy involves replacing cultural-specific item or expression with a target language item which does not have the same propositional meaning but is likely to have a similar impact on the target reader. The main advantage of using this strategy is that it gives the reader a concept with which she/he can identify something familiar and appealing. On the individual level, the translator’s decision to use this strategy will largely depend on (a) how much license is given to him/her by those who commission the translation and (b) the purpose the translation.
d. Translation using a loan word plus explanation
This strategy is common in dealing with culture-specific items, modern concept, and buzz word. Following the loan word with an explanation is very useful when the word in question is repeated several times in the text. Once explained, the loan word can then be used on its own; the reader can understand it and is nit distracted by further lengthy explanation.
e. Translation by paraphrase using a related word
This strategy tends to be used when the concept expressed by the source item is lexicalized in the target language but in a different form, and when the frequency with which a certain form is used in the source text is significantly higher than would be natural in the target language.
f. Translation by paraphrase using unrelated words
If the concept expressed by the source item is not lexicalized at all in the target language, the paraphrase strategy can still be used in some contexts. Instead of related word, the paraphrase may be based on modifying a super ordinate or simply on unpacking the meaning of the source item, particularly if the item in question is semantically complex.
g. Translation by omission
This strategy may sound drastic, but in fact it does not harm to omit translating a word or expression in some context. If the meaning conveyed by a particular item or expression is not vital enough to the development of the text to justify distracting the reader with lengthy explanation, translators can and often do simply omit translating the word or expression in question.
h. Translation by illustration
This is a useful option if the word which lacks an equivalent in the target language refers to a physical entity which can be illustrated, particularly if there are restrictions on space and if the text has to remain short, concise, and the point. Hamer (1983: 85-86) suggest that such items lack reality, picture (chalkboard, or with board drawing, wall picture charts, flashcards and any other technical visual representation), mime or action or gesture, contrast, enumeration and explanation can be also useful way of giving the meaning as translation.
Glossary is a means to assist the understanding of a text date from the middle age. In the present time, the practice of glossing the difficult words to assist foreign language readers has been quite prevalent. Textbook writers maintain that glosses are necessary for fluent reading of a foreign language text (Davis, 1989). Its main function is to help the readers to focus attention on the meaning of the passage (Brutten, 1981). Widdowson (1982) shed light on differences between two kinds of glossaries. The first precede the reading passage and serves to prepare the learner before hand for his in encounter with possible problems in the passage. The latter is in form of explanations about problems as the reader actually encounters them in context. If usually appears after the passage so that the reader will refer to them in his effort to tackle specific problems with difficult words in the passage it self. Being put this way, the glossary of this kind is also called marginal glosses (Dupuis and Askov, 1982: 211).
3.1. Method of Research
On this research the writer using quantitative method, because the method and the technique can influence the result of the study or the result, this chapter deals with the method that used, population and sample, data collection, and data analysis procedure.
Faesal (1989: 12) elaborates some methods applicable to any social research. In the first phase, experimental method has required at least two variables, such as: independent variable and dependent variable.
3.2. Population and Sample
Hadi (1984: 220) defines population as a number of people or individual that at least has the same characteristic. William (1983: 30) states that population is event or subject to generalized the result of research. According to West (1977: 76) population is any individual that have one or more characteristic that makes they interesting to the researcher. The population of this research is the second year students of SMPN 18 Mataram 4 classes consist of 120 with the total numbers 28-32 students in one classroom.
Arikunto (1993: 36) says that if the number of population is less than one hundred, it is better to take all of the population as the sample. While, if the population is more than one hundred, it is better to take 10%-15% or 20%-25%. Based on the explanation above, the writer decided to takes 20%-25% of the population. So, the research subject of this investigation is 5 students as the sample.
3.3. Data Collection
To collect the data in this research, the writer use representative analysis in which the students were given simple English text to be translated from English into Indonesian. In this procedure of data collection the writer does some steps as follows:
In this study, the data means all information that was directly gathered from the subject. The data are the items obtained from the students after doing the test given to them. These data will be obtained through test pertaining with the students' skill.
The first method of data gathering will be given to the participants is a set of test as a pre-test which aimed at knowing whether or not the students understand about the question tags, and the test is held by the writer.
In the first step, the student was being given incomplete sentences orally and then students will answer directly and orally. If the students can answer without getting mistake, it means that the students able and well and if there are students who can not answer, it means that the students not able, so the writer need another way to make students understand.
In process of collecting data, the writer need to different treatment for the sample, in this research of the collection was held two times. The writer teaches and explains deeply about the structure, in teaching process, the student was taught about translation.
The third method of data gathering is Post-test; the post test was conducted after getting the data from pre-test that inform the writer about score of students' skills. The aim of this test is to compare whether the treatment can improve the students' skill or not. The performance of this skill used assignment as the data to collect. The translation test is used to know the students’ achievement in translating simple English text into Indonesian is treated with English glossary. The test supposed to be finish in 90 minutes. After that the writer gives the scores to the students’ translating by two criteria as follow:
a. Giving score
There are two criteria used by the researcher to give score to the students’ translation: “Writing” is scored 2 (two) it is the most important element in the criteria since it is demonstrated the student’s ability in translating English text into Indonesian. The second criteria is “Word adjustment” score 1 (one) this is demonstrate to know whether the student can make any adjustment in their writing or not after treated with English glossary.
b. Correcting the students’ works as the data needed
Moreover, the scoring system is based on the following guidelines (Heaton, 1975).
Grammar refers to the sentence structure used in writing scripts. Vocabulary refers to the lexical items appearing in them. Mechanics denote the ability to write or to used correct-ly those convention particular the written language such as punctuation marks and spelling. (Heaton, 1975: 75)
To score the writing scripts the writer uses subjective scoring based on the following consideration:
5 = if the writing scripts use complete and perfect grammar.
4 = if they contain random mistake in the uses “verb be” form nouns and adjectives.
3 = if they contain random mistake in the form of verbs.
2 = if they reflect Indonesian structure but still understandable.
1 = if they meaningless.
The scores of the vocabulary and based on the number of words, the scores are as follows:
5 = if they more than 100 different words.
4 = if they 80-99 words
3 = if they 60-79 words.
2 = if they 40-59 words.
1 = if they less than 39 words.
The scoring in mechanics is based on the spelling and punctuation, the scoring is:
5 = if the spelling and punctuation are perfect.
4 = if they contain random mistakes in the use of punctuation marks.
3 = if they contain random mistakes in the spelling of words.
2 = if they contain random mistakes in the spelling and punctuation.
1 = if the writing unreadable and meaningless.
d) Fluency and Relevance
The scoring on fluency and relevance is based on the unity and cohesion, the score will be:
5 = if the writing is fluent and relevant enough to the topic.
4 = if there is a slight shift of topic between sentence but does not disturb cohesion.
3 = if there is a lack of cohesion.
2 = if there are some random mistake in sentence orders.
1 = if there is a lack of unity.
Based on the guidelines above, the lowest and the higher possible scores of the skills would be 4 and 20 respectively
In this step the writer do the interview to the teacher and students as shows in appendix.
3.4. Data Analysis Procedure
To analyze the data, the writer uses statistical analysis through the following procedures:
1. For the sake of identifying the students’ individual sample writing raw score, the score is based on the following formula:
X = X1 + X2 + X3 + X4
Y = Y1 + Y2 + Y3 + Y4
X = is the writing score of individual samples in the experimental group.
X1 = is the students’ score from grammar.
X2 = is the students’ score from vocabulary.
X3 = is the students’ score from mechanics.
X4 = is the students’ score from fluency and relevance.
Y = is the writing score of individuals sample in control group.
2. To get the individuals writing final score, the writer draws the following formula:
P x 9
FS = is the students’ individual final scores.
P = is the amount of individual obtained raw scores.
9 = is the maximum possible final score.
20 = is the maximum raw scores.
(Carroll, et al. 1985: 81)
3. After getting those data on the score arranged, the analysis is continued to the computation on the mean score as follows:
Mx = the mean score of control group
My = the mean score of experimental group
X = the student’s score in control group
Y = the student’s score in experimental group
N = the number of sample
∑ = the sum of ….
4. After finding out the mean score of two groups later the writer applied the following formula to calculate the value of t-test.
∑X2 is obtained from ∑x2 -
∑Y2 is obtained from ∑y2 -
Ny : the number of student in experimental group
Nx : the number of student in control group.
(Arikunto 1992: 169)