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KUMPULAN ARTIKEL BAHASA INGGRIS 2013 TERBARU IMPROVEMENT ABILITY TO MAKE ENGLISH SENTENCE

IMPROVEMENT
ABILITY TO MAKE
ENGLISH SENTENCE

 

 
Abstract. Teaching Quantum Concepts says "Bring their world into our world and deliver their world to our world." In this study, the authors chose a learning strategy that can bridge between the world view of the student teacher, called strategy or Chain Card Game Card Games Chain. This strategy is used in order to improve students' English writing grade 4 Muara District 2 junior high Kelingi, Musi Rawas. After holding for three cycles of treatment, it appears that students' ability to make English sentences gradually increased. It can be seen from the average test scores that have been implemented. In preliminary tests the average value of the ability of students to make sentences is 4.10; at test 1 (t-1) obtained an average value of 4.46, the test 2 (t-2) obtained an average value of 4.88 and at the end of the test cycle 3 (t-3) obtained a mean value of 5.40 + ra. In this study, the most exciting by using strategies Chain Card Game is a growing passion of student learning.
 
INTRODUCTION
 
Classroom Action Research Activities is done because of the multiple problems faced by both teachers and students in learning English. In general in learning English students must master the four language skills, namely: listening skills (listening), speaking (speaking), reading (reading) and writing (writing), but in this study only focused on the problems that arise in writing activities, especially in making simple English sentences.
  
Data from the field indicate that the ability to make English sentences or very poor students remains low, the average value of 4.10 after allowing for the initial test students' skills in making English sentences (tO).
 
Low ability students in making English sentences is certainly influenced by several things, among others: the lack of training provided by the teacher, the implementation of the teaching and learning activities in the classroom are less variable and lack of tasks assigned by the teacher. Therefore, this study aims to improve students' skills in English sentences give depth view using a strategy or Chain Card Game Card Games Chain.
  
That meant the ability to make a simple English sentence is students' ability in expressing an idea or ideas in sentences. In making the sentence needs to pay attention to two things, the substance of the results of the writing (ideas expressed) and the rules of grammar are correct (gramatical form and syntactic pattern).
Make a sentence included in the activities for writing skills, because it makes the phrase also means expressing ideas and communicating with others through language symbols (Harris, 1988).
  
Sentences can be made of the simplest sentences containing only two words in a sentence positions, namely the subject and verb (S + V), subject, verb and object (S + V + O) or the complete sentence, namely: subject, verb, object, and statements (S + V + O + Adv).
  
Games by Carrier (1982) has a very high value for teachers of foreign languages, because the game provides the opportunity for students to use specific language skills with a situation that is not too formal. Meanwhile, according to Hadfield (1984), the game is an activity that has the purpose and elements of pleasure.
  
Chain Card Game is a free  Card Games Chain. The player plays this card is just like playing cards. In this game, players are assigned to arrange the cards held to be a sentence or play cards to pass the opponent sentence unfinished, could be at the beginning or at the end of the arrangement of the card.
  
This game can be played by four players or more, the number of cards 60 pieces each. This amount may be increased or reduced. On each card is written in the vocabulary of the English language, which is a sentence fragments that have been set up so that if the card is played correctly will form a correct English sentence.
  
The cards were made of cardboard with a size of 5 x 8 cm. These sizes can be adjusted to taste the card maker.
 
This research is expected to benefit the students, especially in enhancing the passion to learn English, and for teachers to be able to add insight to apply the new strategy, as well as adding additional scientific references.
  
METHODS
  
Classroom Action Research was conducted at the State Junior 4 Muara Kelingi, Musi Rawas, especially implemented in the second semester of first grade school year 2002 to 2003. The school is located on the outskirts of District, have three classes, namely: class 1, 2 and 3. The road condition is still concern as to get to the site must go through a red dirt road as far as approximately 7 kilometers. Student residence is approximately between 1 to 3 kilometers, they come to school by walking and cycling. The number of reference books in English lessons still felt lacking.
  
Before the study was conducted, first conducted preliminary tests (tO) to obtain the supporting data are accurate so as to have a sound basis for carrying out research. The next step is to prepare all the equipment to be used during the study, such as the creation of learning tools, Learning, Student Worksheet for each meeting, and several other instruments such as sheet tests, observation, analysis, interview, field notes and cards Chain Card Game .
 
The research was conducted in three cycles during the first semester. The first cycle performed in 3 sessions, with subjects with sub subject Sport Kinds of Sports and Sports Equipment. The second cycle performed in 3 sessions, the subject of Health and sub subject Our Body, Diseases, and Medicine. The third cycle performed in 4 meetings with the subject and sub subject Clothes Buying some materials, Making Clothes, Fashion Show, and a variety of clothes, thus totaling 10 meetings.
  

As described above, this requires that the research supporting instruments such as tests, observation sheets and interview guides.
  

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

CYCLE I

Plan


To support the implementation of this classroom action research, they invented everything needed such as: Learning Device (RP), Student Worksheet (LKS) Mini Chain Card Game card by 5 sets, and some of the supporting instruments such as tests, observations and interviews.
  
Implementation
  
Learning conducted covering all the language skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing). Teaching begins of activities, listening, speaking, reading and writing.
  
Treatment with Chain Card Game performed at the time of writing skill activities (writing), such as the following steps: Teachers begin the teaching of listening skills, followed by speaking activities, and then reading (reading). Allocation for the third time this skill is 45 minutes. Entering activities writing skills, strategies Chain Card Game is done. Beginning with an explanation of steps and rules of the game, then the teacher asks the students to form groups to play. After handing the cards, the teacher asks the students to start playing for 15 minutes, then asked the representative of the group to carry cards that have been finished and finished writing the sentence on the board. Discussion of the sentences carried out in the classical style. The final step is to ask the students work individually to mini LKS
writing skills section. Then be a discussion of the results of the exercise has been done.
 
Discussion of the results of the exercise performed in the classical way to correct students together. Teachers provide the correct answers and students check the truth of the answers on worksheets that have been exchanged with LKS friends.
  
Treatment Chain Card Game in the first cycle was given to three meetings, the subject of Sport and sub subjects Kinds of Sports and Sport Equipment. During the treatment progresses, collaborators observed learning activities using observation sheets and record everything that happens during the learning progress. The findings obtained are recorded in the pages of field notes. After three meetings over, conducted this test I (t-1) to measure the student's ability to make the English sentence, and as the data to be compared with the initial test data (tO) so that researchers can find all the development that has occurred.


 
Observation
  
From the observations made collaborators, the data obtained during the first cycle that lasts 15 descriptors appear on the first meeting, 12 descriptors in the second meeting, 13 descriptors in the third meeting. Average of all three descriptors that appear perterman is 13.33. Based on the effectiveness of the strategy table, figure 13.33 effective entry into the category.
  
To see more effectiveness Chain Card Game strategy in improving students' skills in making English sentences, then held test 1 (t-1), with the following results: students whose value increases totaling 28 of the 40 students (70%). After comparing the data value of the initial test, it turns out the average increase in value of the students' writing ability of 0.45 (1 1.2%).
  
The results of interviews conducted for 5 students in the sample of respondents, it can be concluded that the students really enjoy playing Chain Card Game and passionate students in learning English increased. These results were obtained from the question nomor5 guidelines, namely: If you use Chain Card Game, Can you learn to make English sentences of more than 1 hour? All respondents were able to answer.
  
Reflection
  
During the first cycle of descriptors that have emerged include: students are not afraid to ask questions, students were asked more questions, the students do the work faster, the communication between teachers and students more smoothly, more teacher identity memorized by students.
  
While the descriptors that have emerged, such as the teacher using the method of administration tasks, using various teaching aids, students learn the skills to prepare and make sentences, use grammar correctly, cooperation among students increased, and no longer dominate teaching.
  
From some indikatordi above, there are some problems that can be recorded during the study, such as: class of rowdy, less representative playground setting, many students make mistakes in play, and less time to discuss sentences that formed during a game.
  
To alleviate these problems, the second sikius the action, among other things: provide an understanding of the students that they play in order to learn, arrange a place to play better, write the rules of the game on the board, adding cards to 80 cards, and add time to discussion of sentences formed during game progresses.
  
CYCLE II
  
Plan
  
Before the second cycle executed, there are some things that need to be prepared, among others: Lesson Plans, worksheets, teaching aids, Chain Card Game cards, observation sheet, sheet 2 test and interview guides.
  
Implementation
 
Based on the reflection on the first cycle, the second cycle is given understanding to the students to play quietly, preparing to play better place by arranging chairs suitable for play, write down the steps on the board game, add cards widened 80 per setnya, 60 cards distributed to students and the remaining 20 cards remain in the pile as jit, as well as the learning activities have been compiled in the Lesson Plan. Step-by-step lesson begins with students distributing mini worksheets, activities listening (listening), followed by speaking activities (speaking), reading (reading), and
writing activities (writing). On entering the writing activity, Card Games Chain strategy implemented by the following steps: First, the teacher gives the students the sense that they play in order to learn so that should keep the peace of the class during the play. Second, teachers help students make up chair so the game runs fine. Then the teacher wrote down the rules of play on the board so that students do not make the mistake again in play. Next the teacher dealt the cards and ask students to play, students play 60 cards, 20 cards while the other remains in a heap as jit cards.
  
Having to add time to the discussion of sentences that formed during a game, then it is time to play minus student. Reduction in time to play the game is done by cutting the students when they're busy playing. This is done to get the psychological effects of child feel that they are not satisfied, so that  at the next meeting of students still want to play.
 
After stopping the game, the teacher asked the representative of the group to write sentences that are formed in the game. Then teacher discusses the sentences classically to find mistakes that occur. The teacher asks the students doing  tasks contained in the mini LKS individually. Five minutes before the end, halt teacher student activities, and a discussion results in the classical exercises. Students exchange their work with other students.
 
The second cycle is done for 3 times meeting to the subject of Health and the sub-subjects Our Body, Diseases, and Medicine. After three meetings, held the second test to be compared with the results of test 1 (t-1) to obtain certainty whether the treatment in the second cycle can improve students' skills in writing English.

  
Observation
  
From the observation during the second cycle, the data obtained among 13 descriptors appear on the first meeting, 12 descriptors in the second meeting, and 14 descriptors in the third meeting, so that the average descriptor that emerges is 13. Based on the effectiveness of the strategy table, then the number 13 into the ineffective category.
  
To see more effectiveness Chain Card Game strategy in improving students' skills in making English sentences, then held test 2 (t-2), and get the data, the following: Students whose value increases totaling 35 (87.5%). When the data were compared with the test value is 1, then the average value of the ability to make English sentences students increased by 0.42 (9.4%). The results of interviews with 5 students as a sample of respondents who differ with the first cycle, it can be concluded that the students liked the strategy of Chain Card Game, and the more exciting the game is to survive student learning to make English sentences in a relatively longer time, more than one hour. Thus it can be said that the desire to increase student learning.
  
Reflection
  
In the second cycle, there are several descriptors that have not appeared, among others: descriptor number 4 students are not afraid to ask, descriptor number 11, 15, 17 and 18.
  
From some of the descriptors above, there are other things that can be recorded by collaborators, among others: the atmosphere is still somewhat rowdy class, students are more capable look still less patience in dealing with students who are less proficient, children are less capable still sluggish in play, and still encountered errors using the verb in the sentence. From the inventory of the events above, strived to third cycle does not happen again, by the way: randomize the play, students who like to fuss combined with the silent group of students; students who are proficient grouped with less skilled groups; cards marked with the letter, the letter S for the card that contains the subject, V for verb cards, letter 0 for object and letter cards for cards Adv adverb. Meanwhile, to minimize the occurrence of errors verb usage, the teacher gives an explanation of the use of verbs that relate to the material being discussed, before students play.
  
CYCLE III
  
Plan
  
To support the implementation of the third cycle, researchers prepared Unit Study, Lesson Plans, worksheets for each meeting, drawings, 5 sets Chain Card Game Card 80 cards each. The cards are marked with the letter S for subject cards, letter V for verb cards, letter 0 for objects, and letters Adv. for the adverb. Instruments are prepared test 3, observation sheet, interview and field notes.
 
Implementation
  
Step-by-step lessons starting from the listening, speaking, and writing. The exercises for the third skill is contained in the prepared mini LKS. At the time of writing skills into action the strategies Chain Card Game is done,
  
Starting from a reflection on the second cycle, the third cycle teachers group students by skill level are relatively balanced, who likes a fuss combined with the quiet students, and marks cards to be played with the letters as described in the above planning . The number of cards still remain 80 pieces each setnya: 60 cards distributed to students and 20 remain pinned as jit card. Marking on the card is intended to help students who are less proficient, so the game can run fast. The next step is to explain some of the use of verbs that relate to subject students to suppress error in using the verb.

Once the game goes 15 minutes of teachers stop the game, and ask students to write sentences that are formed during the game on the board. The teacher then discussed together with the grade.
  
Next the teacher asks the students to do the exercises for writing skills on the worksheet provided. Then be discussed by the teacher in the classical style, the previous exchange student for his work on his check.
  
In the third cycle, the treatment for 4 meetings with Highlights Clothes and sub subjects Buying Some Making Clothes, Fashion Show, and A variaty of cIothes. After four meetings over, then held test 3 (t-3) to measure the student's ability to make English sentences. The test results are then compared with the results of test 2, to produce some changes or improvements.
  
Observation
  
Data obtained from the observation that at the first meeting of 13 descriptors that appear, in the second meeting by 12 descriptors, 14 descriptors in the third meeting and the fourth meeting of 14 descriptors. The fourth meeting of the obtained average descriptors that appear as 13.25. According to the table-effectiveness figures, 13.25  into categories.
  
To support the above qualitative data, conducted the test 3 with the result that the child whose value increases totaling 34 students (85%). Average language ability of students to make sentences increase  of 0.52 (66%).
  
The students of five respondents were interviewed, five 5 students answered happy with Chain Card Game, and the interesting is that the game is very popular Card Game Chain of students in learning English.
 
Reflection
 
From the observation during the last three cycles, obtained following conditions: learning to walk more fun and more varied, the more enthusiastic students in the game, the peer tutor, several groups of students borrow cards to play in moments of leisure, student language easier to learn sentence UK. Negative things that successfully recorded include: classroom atmosphere is a bit noisier.

  
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
  
Based on data analysis has been done, it can be concluded that the Chain Strategy Card Game can be used to improve students' skills in making English sentences. This strategy can also increase students' desire to learn English.


REFERENCES

1)    Carrier, M. 1982. Game and activities forthe language learner. London: Harrap.
2)    Deporter, B., Reardon, M. & Singer-Nourie, S. 2001. Quantum teaching. Bandung: Kaiffa.
3)    Harfield, J. 1984. Elementari communication games Thomas Nelson and Son Ltd.
4)    Harris, D.R 1988. Testing English as a second. New york: McGraw-Hill Book Company.
5)    llyas, 1. 200. Upaya Meningkatkan kemampuan siswa kelas 2 SLTP Negeri 30 Palembang dalam memahami teks lisan melalui strategi 'DICTOGLOS'.
6)    Hasan, Z. M; Sukaryana, 1. W. & Waioedy. 1997. Penelitian tindakan (Action Research). Jakarta: Deparemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.

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*) Andreas Suwarno adalah Guru Bahasa Inggris SLTPN 4 Muaro Kelingi Kabupaten Musi Rawas Sumatera Selatan.

Sumber : Buletin Pelangi Pendidikan (Buletin Peningkatan Mutu Pendidikan SLTP) Volume 6 No. 1 Tahun 2003
 

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