CONTOH TREATMENT ACTIVITY DALAM PENELITIAN PROCEDURE TEXT
a. Treatment activity
First, the teacher encourage students to participate in class activity and give them awareness about the advantages and the important of English speaking. He always give many motivation and ask them to spirit for study.
Second, teacher design the picture to be more comfortable for teaching and learning activities in order to support the process of instructions. The teacher used the picture about farmer tools, because in communicative approach method have to connecting a dialogue with the experience of learning situations in daily life, the students should be more active, creative, and brave in expressing feeling and ideas. All students have chance to participate in guessing the hidden pictures, this activity is very interesting and create the students to be more active to open their mind and help to memorize the material for the next session. After that, teacher asked the students one by one to telling about the parents job in front of class.
b. Post activity
In post activity the teacher gave the students some task about the activity discussion before, teacher gave different pictures about steps in rice planted and asked students to rearrange the pictures, but before the activity will conducting, the first, teacher explain what the meaning of rice, rice is a grass and was originally grown on dry land. It was discovered that flooding produced many more grains of rice than its dry land counterpart. Rice is the only cereal plant capable of growing in water. The word paddy means rice growing in deep water. The plant will stretch its roots to the muddy bottom and reach upward above the waterline for air and the height of the plant can be regulated by the depth of the water. Rice can grow as much as 10 inches in a day in order to keep up with rising water.
Second, the teacher explain about steps in planted rice until harvest, teacher explain nine steps in planted rice as follows:
Position the wading pool or pond liner in a location that receives full sun The ground should be level where you place the wading pool so that when you add water to the pool or pond liner the water level will be the same across the entire growing area. Fill the wading pool approximately one-half full of top soil and add at least 3 inches of compost to the top of the soil. Use the hand spade to work the compost into the top soil so that the materials are well mixed.
Soak the rice seeds in room temperature water for approximately 36 hours prior to planting.
Create rows in the pool or pond liner with the trowel. Make the rows 6 inches apart and make a small planting hole every 6 inches along the rows. Place five grains of rice in every hole and cover the rice with about ½-inch of topsoil. Add a very light layer of mulch over the newly planted rice and water the rice daily while it is germinating. Watch for the rice seedlings to emerge within a week.
Thin the rice seedlings so that one rice plant is growing every 3 inches along the rows when the rice seedlings are approximately 5 inches high.
Add water to the pool or pond when the seedlings are well established and have several leaves. Add water so that at least 1 inch of water stands above the soil level. As the rice plants grow add more water; you may have as much as 8 inches of water above the soil level by the time the rice is finished growing. Add more water to the pond or pool over the growing season to keep the water level at least 1 inch above the soil.
Drain the pool or pond liner when the rice plants are approximately 15 inches high. Siphon off the water with a long plastic tube and then add fresh water to the pool or pond liner.
Watch the rice for indications it is ready to harvest. When the rice plants begin to bend and the rice ripens to a golden color, it is time to siphon off the water from the pool or pond liner again. Allow the rice to continue to grow without water for two additional weeks until it turns a deeper shade of brown.
Harvest the rice by cutting it off immediately beneath the rice clusters. Gather the rice clusters and place them in a single layer on a baking sheet. Bake the rice clusters at 180 degrees F for 60 minutes. Remove them from the oven and cool them to room temperature.
Roll the rice clusters between your hands to remove the rice from the plants. Separate the rice kernels from the rice husks and discard the husks. Store the rice in an airtight container.
Third, after all of explanation has done, teacher asked students to begin rearranges the pictures based on explanation before and gave score to students actively participated in the instructional process such as gives a special rewards for them. In this case, some of students still did not involve in class activity, so that teacher asked students to made pair work. Next, the teacher asked some students to conclude the lesson carried out on that day’s instructional process of communicative approach in increasing the students’ speaking skill.
The teacher also gave the students a chance to ask some questions concerned the material and activities. After that, the teacher together with the students concluded the lesson materials that had been learned. If there was a mistake either in the lesson activities or the students’ behavior along the teaching and learning process the teacher gave the students a direction, correction, and justification. Finally, the class was closed by praying and greeting.
1.1.1 Using pictures and games in classroom
a. Using pictures in classroom
There is no question that pictures are a good source of teaching material, from data observation, the writer saw that the teacher preparation some pictures in teaching material, here, he used the farmer tools as picture media and explained the pictures one by one to all students, After the students listened to the explanation, then the teacher asked the students to re-explain to their own in turns. After that, for the task, the teacher asked the students to make a short dialogue based on the picture that had been provided. The discussion result was presented in front of the class.
In speaking class, as many would agree requires the students to be more highly-motivated than any other classes. This is probably because the questions are boring, or understand the article itself demands a lot of patience from the readers. For this reason, delivering an inspiring lesson is a hard task and requires a great deal of effort from teachers.
By providing a wide range of contexts, students can meet a range of situations and experience that will equip them for real life communication. Specifically, pictures contribute to interest and motivation and a sense of the content of the language.
b. Techniques for Using Pictures
As mentioned earlier, pictures can be used in many ways. Here is a closer look at some of the different techniques that can benefit from using pictures.
Pictures as Motivators
Before handing the students the text itself, the teacher used a good warm-up activity is to give them a handout containing several pictures related to the main idea of the article. The Students can work in groups and try to identify who the people or what the objects in the pictures are. By so doing, the students will be more attracted to the topic of the reading and get involved in some speaking as well.
An alternative would be to present pictures of people or objects that think are very important in speaking, for example, the teacher used pictures about farmer tools, such as hoe, farmer hat, tractors and many more, the teacher also asked the students to make connections between all the pictures through short dialog, students try to guessing the pictures and connecting the relationship between the pictures. There are Five reason primary principles of using pictures in class such as :
a. Easy to prepare
b. Easy to organize
d. Meaningful and authentic
e. Sufficient amount of language
1.1.2 The teacher application using communicative approach in teaching
From the data observation, there were three application of communicative approach provided by the teacher.
The first is application offering the explanation about materials. In general, there are three kinds of explanation, such as declarative, procedural, and conditional knowledge, the data show that there are two kinds of explanation implemented by the teacher, such as declarative and procedural knowledge. Discussion of declarative knowledge can be identified particularly by game, when the teacher explained what was being learnt, such as give guessing pictures. Furthermore, explaining how to apply procedural knowledge, he mentioned some equipment associated with the pictures. The teacher also describe what tools often used by the farmer and asked the students to communicate with their friends and give the answers each other, based on that explanation, especially about how to apply procedural knowledge, according Ellis in Huda (1999) the development of communicative competence is the combined result of the learner’s effort and their speaking partner in the form of an interaction between the two parties.
The second is procedures, to implement this procedure, the teacher gives students the chance to guessing the hidden pictures from the teacher, He gives students the opportunity to speak freely one by one. The teacher also gives some idea from the pictures, Brown in Huda (1999) states that communicative competence that enables us to convey , interpret messages and negotiate meanings interpersonally within specific context. other activities that students had been given more opportunities to speak and answer or guess the picture based on their proficiency level, the goal of this method is to create students to be more active in teaching learning process and create students to be enter into the matter and develop their ideas based on material that has been explained before. Richards and Rodgers (2001), CLT starts with a theory of language as communication, and its goal is to develop learners’ communicative competence.
The third application arouse students’ participation. In this activity, the teacher asked to each student for tell about their parents job and students explain orally in front of the class. After that, the teacher rewrite their explanation on the white board. Next, the teacher verifying and clarifying are students understand or focus to the materials or not. The teacher checked students understanding or focus by asked what the meaning of the picture and if students make a mistake for their interpretation teacher will be clarify. This method can also develop students' ideas as well as explore speech and language skills they use. After that, the students answer placed individually then locked the students' answers if correct and fixed students answer if not correct by writing on the white board and read the answer and spelling it .
Next, The teacher given different pictures and create students more enthusiastic, there are four pictures, the students asked to rearrange the picture based on the theme about steps of rice planted until harvest, for examples, there are five steps from it, such as, wet soil by the water, hoe the soil, average the soil after hoed, create a lines for rice seeds, and select a good rice seeds. The teacher instruction must be clear and pay attention by all of students , so that they are more easier to work the assignment. The teacher given a time limit for students to avoid a waste of time, so that time used is more effective for study. The teacher also read the item text for upgrading students listening skill, and he also motivated students by give instruction for students who can answer the question for rise hands, the teacher wrote each the students answer on the white board , then the teacher asked the students for look up in dictionary meaning of those words and how to pronounce them.
Next, he asked the students for connecting the text with their previous knowledge because this material talking about procedures text. Relating to this view, Walqui ( 2006:171) explain that a common bridging approach is to active students’ prior knowledge.
This study also documented schema building of the teacher provide communicative approach in teaching speaking. The schema building is very essential because students must have a general knowledge of the board pictures before studying the details” ( Walqui, 2006:174 ). The teacher asked students to preview the material when preparation for speaking, in this way, the students begin for guessing the picture . Then, the teacher provided relevant pictures with the students’ general knowledge, so that the students understand the important information in also, content communicative approach in teaching speaking when teacher provided communicative approach. For support schema building of the teacher, the researcher saw there are three characteristics of communicative approach provided by the teacher in teaching speaking.
1. An emphasize on learning communicative through interaction in the
The teacher create a good situation in the class, so that can involve in learning activity, the teacher presents material related to the tools used by farmers in rice field, basically just a simple image such as a hoe, farmer hat, hangings and many more, teacher asked students to guess the pictures by using English, it’s more create students interested and more cerate the students spirit for study, so that give stimulating students to interact and communicate by using English (Berns, 1984: 5).
2. The introduction of authentic texts into the learning situation.
To create students more understand of the topic, the teacher provided a different pictures, where there were four pictures and students asked to rearrange the pictures about how to planting a good paddy until harvest and the teacher asked them for discussed the pictures together , it’s a good way of develop their communication and their knowledge each other. Next, The teacher gives opportunities for students to shared their experience through situation aspects of the social context of the target language through activities such as brainstorming: listening and talking to other speaking relevant material , in this case the teacher tried to introduce of authentic texts into the learning situation, David Nunan (1991:279).
1. The provision of opportunities for learners to focus, not only on the language but also on the learning process itself.
Here, the teacher read the questions text for increase students listening skills, the students are expected for more focus on listening towards explanations material given by the teacher, then motivate the students by given instruction for students who can answer the question for rise hands, and the teacher wrote the answer on white boards, from this activity, students will be more concentration and focus on material presented at the beginning until the end of the meeting.
4.2. The students’ response toward the way teacher provide communicative
approach in teaching speaking.
This section will present and discuss the finding with regard to second sub research problem based on the observation data. From the situation data observation and data obtained from one English teacher and six students answer through interview method, the researcher can concluded that students really respond to the way teachers teach speaking by using communicative approach. Because they are very spirit for learn English, especially in speaking English, Students in communicative approach classrooms are supposed to participate in classroom activities that are based on a collaborative rather than individualistic approach to learning. They are very active in the language learning process. Therefore, CLT change the role of the teacher. Also, CLT as a methodology has much to do with interaction. It uses communication as a means to reach the goal, which is also communication. Accordingly, it would be wise to claim that teacher’s and students’ roles in CLT classroom have a dynamic feature, and thus they tend to vary all the time. Six interviewees stated that students’ willingness to develop their communicative competence is essential for CLT practice. According them, they are really spirit in study English especially speaking English by using this method and want to improve their English abilities by communicative approach method, from observation the researcher saw that, they are try to do the best to understand their teacher explanation, and very active for participate in teaching and learning process, so that from all of interviewees, can be concluded that communicative approach method provided by the teacher is very interesting and give them motivation for learning English especially in speaking English.