KUMPULAN CONTOH PROPOSAL SKRIPSI BAHASA INGGRIS THE EFFECT OF THINK ALOUD STRATEGY TOWARD STUDENTS READING SKILL: STUDY AT 9TH GRADE SMP NEGERI 19 MATARAM IN ACADEMIC YEAR 2013/2014
This chapter presents the discussion on the background of the study, statement of the problems, objective of the study, scope and limitation of the study, significance of the study, assumption of the study, and definition of key terms.
1.1. Background of the Problem
Language is one of the most important things in communication and it is used as a toll of communication among the nations in all over the world. As an international language, English is very important and has many interrelationships with various aspects of life owned by human being. In Indonesia, English considered as the first foreign language and taught formally from elementary school up to the university level.
The most often become to complain is the teachers ability in applying appropriate approaches, methods, strategies or techniques in teaching or learning. So, many students are not interest in learning English. Therefore, the English teach suggested in order to be able mastering of method, such as, Nababan (1991: 4) notices that a qualified teacher is the teacher who is able to suit best method or technique to the material that is being taught.
In English, there are four skills that should be mastered, they are: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. The reading skill becomes very important in the education field, students need to be exercised and trained in order to have a good reading skill.
Reading is also something crucial and indispensable for the students because the success of their study depends on the greater part of their ability to read. If their reading skill is poor they are very likely to fail in their study or at least they will have difficulty in making progress. On the other hand, if they have a good ability in reading, they will have a better chance to succeed in their study.
One of the methods researchers uses to get a clearer picture of what learners generally do while reading in a foreign language is think aloud. This is one type of verbal reports, obtained from the readers during reading (Cavalcanti, 1987).
Think-aloud means that readers report their thoughts while reading, but they are not expected to analyze their behavior as in introspection (Cohen, 1987). By means of asking their subjects to say out loud whatever goes through their minds, researchers hope to get a more direct view of the mental processes readers are engaged in while reading (Rankin, 1988).
In order to master reading skill, a teacher as an educator have to use good method in teaching learning process. In this case, the researcher concerns with the effect of think aloud strategy toward students reading skill study at 9th grade SMP Negeri 19 Mataram in academic year 2013/2014.
1.2. Statement of Problem
Based on the background of study above, the problem of the study is as follows:
1. To what extent is the achievement of students’ Reading skill in study at 9th grade SMP Negeri 19 Mataram in academic year 2013/2014?
2. To what extent is the effect of think aloud strategy toward students reading skill study at 9th grade SMP Negeri 19 Mataram in academic year 2013/2014?
1.3. Objective of the Study
Based on the research statement, this particular study aimed at finding out:
1. The achievement of students’ Reading skill in study at 9th grade SMP Negeri 19 Mataram in academic year 2013/2014.
2. The effect of think aloud strategy toward students reading skill study at 9th grade SMP Negeri 19 Mataram in academic year 2013/2014
1.4. Significance of the Study
The result of the study is expected to be used theoretically and practically:
a. The result of this study is expected to be able to widen the skill of teachers in using think aloud strategy in order to improve student’s reading skill.
b. As a reference to other researchers who want to study think aloud strategy more intensively in teaching reading.
a. The result of this study is suggested to apply the think aloud strategy to increase the students’ competence in English reading skill.
b. The use of think aloud strategy in reading can make the students are more enjoyable in doing their tasks associated with the reading materials.
1.5. Hypothesis of the Study
A hypothesis is a statement of the research assumption about the relationship between two variables that the researcher plans to test within the framework of the researcher study (Kumar, 1993: 9).
The hypothesis of this study was prepared as a tentative answer for the research problem stated previously. In this case the alternative hypothesis as read follow:
“Think Aloud Strategy has effect toward Students Reading Skill ”
Because of statistical computation the alternative hypothesis need to be change into null hypothesis (Ho)as follow:
“Think Aloud Strategy has not effect toward Students Reading Skill ”
1.6. Scope and Limitation of the Study
The scopes of the study are limited to the subject and object investigated.
The subject of this study at 9th grade SMP Negeri 19 Mataram in academic year 2013/2014
The object of this study is the effect of Think aloud strategy towards students reading skill.
1.7. Definition of Key Terms
In order to clarify the key terms used in this study, some definitions are put forward.
- Think-aloud have been described as "eavesdropping on someone's thinking." With this strategy, teachers verbalize aloud while reading a selection orally. Their verbalizations include describing things they're doing as they read to monitor their comprehension. The purpose of the think-aloud strategy is to model for students how skilled readers construct meaning from a text. The think-aloud strategy asks students to say out loud what they are thinking about when reading, solving math problems, or simply responding to questions posed by teachers or other students
- Reading is a kind of activity in translating written symbols into corresponding sound. Reading skills enable readers to turn writing into meaning and achieve the goals of independence, comprehension, and fluency.
3. Reading skill is the capability of understanding or getting information from reading material.
According to Gony and Kingsmey (1974:12) the strategy is a process of individual behavior which modified or changed through practice or learning on the other hand.
5. Effect is words indicate things, which arise out of some antecedent, or follow as a consequence.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter presents about some related information topic of the recent study. It is intended to provide some theoretical concepts which could support this investigation. The discussion is presented under the following sub headings:
1) Theory of think aloud, 2) Using of think aloud, 3) The nature of reading, 3)Concept of reading, 4) Aspect of Reading Comprehension, 5) Comprehension Skill, 6) The related Study and 7) The Role of Background Knowledge in Comprehension, and 8) Theoretical frame work.
2.1. Theory of Think aloud
In this research, it was decided to implement the think-aloud strategy because it was used as an instructional approach, and also because this strategy helped readers to comprehend more easily what was being read by them. Afflerbach and Johnston cited by McKeown and Gentilucci (2007), claim that think-aloud serves firstly as a method of measuring the cognitive reading process, then as metacognitive tool to monitor comprehension. In that sense, the think aloud is appropriate for this study because through this strategy the students can monitor their comprehension process.
Another definition of this strategy is provided by Pressley et al. in McKeown and Gentilucci’s (2007) work: “think-aloud is one of the "transactional strategies" because it is a joint process of teachers and students working together to construct understandings of text as they interact with it” (p. 1). Through the interactions that think aloud promotes, a better understanding of the texts may emerge in the classroom. Think aloud is also a process in which readers report their thoughts while reading (Wade 1990). It helps students to reflect upon their own reading process.
In a similar way, Keene & Zimmerman, (1997) declare that “think aloud is a technique in which students verbalize their thoughts as they read” (p. 1). Thus, this strategy is useful because students are verbalizing all their thought in order to create understanding of the reading texts. Another illustration about think aloud is provided by Tinzmann in Teacher Vision website (2009), he says that:
When students use think out loud with teachers and with one another, they gradually internalize this dialogue [...] it becomes their inner speech, the means by which they direct their own behaviours and problem-solving processes. Therefore, as students think aloud, they learn how to learn, and they develop into reflective, metacognitive, independent learners, an invaluable step in helping students understand that learning requires effort and often is difficult.
This argument encloses all the issues that imply think-aloud in a reading process. Think aloud are also used to model comprehension processes such as making predictions, creating images, linking information in text with prior knowledge, monitoring comprehension, and overcoming problems with word recognition or comprehension (Gunning, 1996 in teacher vision). These sub-strategies will be defined in the ensuing sections.
The think-aloud is a technique in which students verbalize their thoughts as they read and thus bring into the open the strategies they are using to understand a text (Baumann, Jones, & Seifert-Kessell, 1993; Davey, 1983; Wade, 1990). Readers' thoughts might include commenting on or questioning the text, bringing their prior knowledge to bear, or making inferences or predictions.
These comments reveal readers' weaknesses as well as their strengths as comprehenders and allow the teacher to assess their needs in order to plan more effective instruction
2.1.1. Using of Think Aloud
How to use this strategy
a. Explain that reading is a complex process that involves thinking and sense-making; the skilled reader's mind is alive with questions she asks herself in order to understand what she reads.
b. Select a passage to read aloud that contains points that students might find difficult, unknown vocabulary terms, or ambiguous wording. Develop questions you can ask yourself that will show what you think as you confront these problems while reading.
c. While students read this passage silently, read it aloud. As you read, verbalize your thoughts, the questions you develop, and the process you use to solve comprehension problems. It is helpful if you alter the tone of your voice, so students know when you are reading and at what points you begin and end thinking aloud.
d. Coping strategies you can model include:
- Making predictions or hypotheses as you read: "From what he's said so far, I'll bet that the author is going to give some examples of poor eating habits."
- Describing the mental pictures you " see" : "When the author talks about vegetables I should include in my diet, I can see our salad bowl at home filled with fresh, green spinach leaves."
- Demonstrating how you connect this information with prior knowledge: "'Saturated fat'? I know I've heard that term before. I learned it last year when we studied nutrition."
- Creating analogies: "That description of clogged arteries sounds like traffic clogging up the interstate during rush hour."
- Verbalizing obstacles and fix-up strategies: "Now what does 'angiogram' mean? Maybe if I reread that section, I'll get the meaning from the other sentences around it: I know I can't skip it because it's in bold-faced print, so it must be important. If I still don't understand, I know I can ask the teacher for help,"
e. Have students work with partners to practice "think-aloud" when reading short passages of text. Periodically revisit this strategy or have students complete the assessment that follows so these metacomprehension skills become second nature.
2.2. The Nature of Reading
Reading is an active cognitive process of interaction with print and monitoring comprehension of establishing meaning which means the brain does not work in reading, the pupils get information by comprehending the massage and the teacher motivate the pupils to read (Lado, 1961: 65). Furthermore, Gloria (1988: 43) States that the definition of reading comprehension is most likely to occur when pupils are reading what they want to read, or at least what they see some good reasons to read.
Lado (1961: 56):
Reading in the foreign language consists of grasping meaning in the written language. In this case, reading foreign language is the grasping of full linguistics meaning of what is to read in subject within the common experience of the culture of which the language is a central part. He further maintains that linguistics means to include the denotation conveyed by language to all speakers of it is as opposed to meaning that are receptive only by those have specific background information not known by the other speakers in general. In other word, there are some purposes of reading such as reading for specific items of information, for general and detail information in a given field, etc. other types of reading, for example readings for literary appreciation are properly the real of reading in the native language.
Learning to read a new language, the pupils must read carefully, some aloud; moreover some questions are also important of the passages, as in the following statement by Berry (1956: 44):
There must be question on the text, this essential. The questions are to help the pupils understanding every detail on the passage, for example, the passage is about “hide and seek”. It means that the questions on the passage are able to facilitate the pupils understanding of the passage; the children are playing hide and seek in the playground, and the question are (1) who is playing hide and seek in the playground ? (2) What are the children playing in the playground? (3) What are they doing in the playground and where are they playing hide and seek?
Psychologists and the reading experts have been conducting extensive research in the nature of reading and the sequential development of language skill. Among discoveries of the researchers, as stated by Lewis and Sisk in Gerry (1956: 34) are:
(a) reading is not a single skill but an interrelated process of many skill, (b) reading is development process, in other words, reading comprehension develops sequentially as pupils nature, (c) there are developmental pattern from grade to grade and from year to year, but wide variations in reading ability exist among pupils in any grade or of any age, and (d) there are no basic reading comprehension which can be taught or learned once or for all, they are merely simpler or more difficult levels of reading proficiencies, which can be taught to pupils who are ready to learn.
2.3. Concept of Reading
Although, on the world wide level, the format of teaching reading skill may differ according to local circumstances, the 1994 English GBPP Stresses the implementation of teaching reading skill in an integrated skill unit. It means that reading is thought integrated with the other language skill. Such as, teaching vocabulary, grammar, punctuation and the way construct sentences, paragraphs and texts.
The development of reading skills mostly occurs in this stage. To be effective reader, the pupils should be able to (1) scan; (2) skim; (3) read between the lines; (4) read intensively; and (5) deduce meaning from the context.
2.3.1. Reading Process
In very real sense, reading process is a progress report. It means that a major reason for the lack of forward motion in attempts to develop more effective reading in striation was a common failure to examine and articulate a clear view of the reading process it self. Knowledge is non-cumulative in improving reading instruction largely because either ignore the reading process and focus on the manipulation of teacher or pupils behaviors of because they related reading as an unknowable mystery.
Goodman, in Long, H Michael and Jack C Richards (1988: 11) says that: “(1) Reading is what reading is and everybody knows that; usually this translates to ‘reading is matching sounds to letters’; (2)’Nobody knows how reading works’”. This view usually leads to a next premise; therefore, in instruction, whatever ’works’ is its justification.
Both views are non-productive at best and the worst seriously impede progress. Furthermore, the effort has been to create a model of the reading process powerful enough to explain and predicate reading behavior and sound enough to be a base on which to build and examine the effectiveness of reading instruction. This model has been developed using the concepts, scientific methodology, and terminology of psycholinguistics, the interdisciplinary science that is concerned with how thought and language are interrelated.
2.3.2. Reading as a Language Skill
From the four integrated skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing skill), the writer is interested to come up with a more elaborate description about reading skill as what Tarigan (1987) cited from Huda (2000) calls that reading skill as the third skill that the children have gained after speaking and before writing.
To the same extent reading should be stimulated when the students need to create the sense condition. In other words, the students will be guided to find the real answers of question they have in mind. Purposeful reading is encouraged by creating an interest in content, by trying in the new experience with personal background of the learning, by systematically extending the reading vocabulary (Betts).
Ying (2001) states that “reading is the process of recognition, interpretation and perception of written or printed material. Meanwhile Godman says reading is a psycholinguistic guessing game, consisting of cycle of sampling, predicting, testing and confirming.
Ying continues her statement that “reading is a process of hypothesis formation and verification, it is communicative act between a writer and reader. Consequently, the reader’s understanding is unlikely to be 100% accurate, as Wallace (1982) cited from Ying (2001) puts it: “The mother tongue speaker learns to be content with approximate meaning…. (H)e is satisfied with a meaning which makes sense of the context.”
According to Grellet (1981) reading may be classified as four simply categories, intensive reading, extensive reading, skimming and scanning (Cited in Ommagio, 1986) Suhirman (2002) further mentions as follows:
· Firstly, intensive reading is reading activity that is being related to further progress in language learning under the teacher guidance. In this type of reading, control from a teacher is compulsory and it will provide a basis for elucidation of difficulties of structure, and for the extension of vocabulary. To the same extent, Finnonchiro (1983) also glanced that the intensive reading when the student’s attention should be focused on all expression, nations sound, structure and cultural allusions will be unfamiliar to them in passage.
· Secondly, extensive reading is developed at the student’s own pace according to his individual ability (Rivers, 1968 and Suhirman, 2002). In this extent, the activity is not completely controlled by the teacher. The students have learner to read without the teacher’s role. The extensive reading activity is mostly concerned with the purpose of training students to read directly and fluently by his/her own employment, without the aid of the teacher. Structures in the test will be already familiar to him and new vocabulary will be introduced slowly in such a way that its meaning can be deduced from the context.
· The third is skimming
There are great many materials related to each professional area, the students must be taught to be selective. Skimming techniques will enable them to select the worth reading.
Method of Skimming
By previewing, the student can find out whether a specialist in a certain fields written book or article and whether it contains the information he/she is seeking.
In over viewing, the student can discover the purpose and scope of the material, and can find sections that are the special interest to him.
Through survey, the student will get the general idea of what the material contains.
In short, skimming is the skill that helps the students read quickly and selectively in order to obtain a general idea of the material.
· The fourth is scanning
Scanning helps the student search quickly of the specific information he wishes to get from the material, such as finding the meaning of a word in a dictionary, finding the heading under which required information appears an index, finding statistical information in tables, charts, or graph, and finding the answers to certain questions from the text.
The procedures for scanning are as follows. First, specific information must be located. Next the clues which will help to find the required information have to be decided, then, find the clues. Finally, read the section containing the clues to get information needed. In this technique, the students are trained to think of clues to help them find the specific information. These clues may be a word or words, punctuation, alphabetical order, numbers, etc.
From linguistics point of views, reading is recording and decoding process. Not like speaking which just involves an encoding process reading applies decoding process by which a reader must grasp and guess the meaning of written words used in writing scripts, reading the symbols to the oral language meaning (Anderson in Tarigan (1991) and Suhirman (2002)). In short, reading can be defined as “bringing meaning to and get meaning from points or written materials” (Finnochiro and Banama in Tarigan, 1987, and Suhirman, 2002). It is true by reading people get to know the other people scientific achievement, or some happening in other region of the country. Through reading we can improve our skill and enlarge our human development achievement.
2.4. Aspects of Reading Comprehension
According to Sheng (2003) reading comprehension questions measure student’s ability to read with understanding, insight and discrimination. This type of question explores the ability to analyze a written passage from several perspectives, including student’s ability to recognize both explicitly stated elements in the passage and assumptions underlying statements or arguments in the passage as well as the implications of those statements or arguments. Because the written passage upon which the questions are based presents a sustained discussion of a particular topic.
There are six types of reading comprehension questions. These types focus on these aspects.
(1) The main idea or primary purpose of the passage;
(2) Information explicitly stated in the passage;
(3) Information or ideas implied or suggested by the author;
(4) Possible applications of the author’s ideas to other situations, including the identification of situations or processes analogous to those described in the passage;
(5) The author’s logic, reasoning, or persuasive technique;
(6) The tone of the passage or the author’s attitude as it is revealed in the language used.
2.5. Comprehension Skill
According to Hilerachi (1983) most of the reading professional list three categories of reading comprehension.
· Literal comprehension has to do with understanding or with answering questions about what an author said.
· Inferential comprehension refers to understanding what an author want by what was said.
· Critical reading has to do with evaluating or making judgments about what an author said and meant. Edgar put it well when he referred to these three categories as “reading the lines ….reading between the lines…..and reading beyond the lines.”
2.6. The Role of Background Knowledge in Comprehension
Ommagio (1986) writes that cognitive psychologist in the late 1960s place great emphasis on the importance of meaningfulness and organization of background knowledge in the learning process. Ommagio (1986) quotes Ausubel’s (1968) views that learning which involve active mental process must be meaningful to be effective and permanent. In the second language comprehension process, at least three types of background knowledge are potentially activated:
Godman describes that reading as a “psycholinguistic guessing game” involving the interaction between thought and language. Efficient readers do not need to perceive precisely or identify all elements of the text. Rather, they select the fewest, most productive cues necessary to produce guesses about the meaning of the passage and verify the hypothesis as the process discourse further (In Ommagio, 1986).
Along with Godman’s idea, Ommagio (1986) also maintains that the efficient language users will take the most direct routine to their goal comprehension. He describes reading as a sampling process in which readers predict structures. Clearly, Ommagio (1996) included as in the comprehension process all three types of background knowledge: comprehenders make use not only of the linguistic information of the text, but also of their knowledge of the world and their understanding of discourse structure to make sense out the passage. In line with the above statement, as Ommagio (1986) cited from Kolers (1973) also maintains that reading is only incidently visual. Thus, the reader then contributes more information by the print on the page.
Finally, Ommagio (1986) presents Yorio’s statement who isolates the following factors in reading process, those are:
1. Knowledge of the language.
2. Ability to predict or guess in order to make correct choice.
3. Ability to remember the previous cues, and
4. Ability to make the necessary associations between the different cues selected.
2.7. The Related of Study
As the comparison of this research, here are some researches of The Effect Think Aloud Strategy Toward Students Reading Skill. The first researcher is Alexander Moreno cardenas ( 2009 ) with title “The Impact Of The Think-Aloud Strategy In The English Reading Comprehension Of Efl 10th Graders, he found that the students increased their engagement in the activities because of the think-aloud strategy. Through the use this strategy they could interact and construct meaning from the texts at once when they developed the reading tasks. Second, it is important to highlight that the role of the teacher as a guide was crucial in think-alouds because he could assist and foster students to use reading strategies such as predicting, visualizing, and prior knowledge in order to comprehend the reading texts. Being the teacher’s role only as a guide, students then are the main protagonists of the reading process. Third, another positive impact of the think-aloud strategy, is that students constantly mentioned that they had an enhancement in some specific aspects of English language such as: pronunciation, vocabulary, and listening skill.
2.8. Theoretical Frame Work
Based n the theoretical description and result of the relevant studies, the writer arrives at theoretical framework of this study.
In teaching and learning process, especially in English, many problems and activities face by the students and also the teachers. But, mostly the success of the students in learning the English should be determined by themselves. Beside the students study the English at the school, they should hard at home, that is by repeating again what they are getting at the school from the teacher to recognize or memorize the materials.
In English language teaching in Indonesian, reading is placed in high priority, we can see it from the curriculums. Senior high school curriculums, junior high school curriculum, even at elementary school emphasize the English language teaching on the reading comprehension ability.
Therefore, reading is the most important language skills for students t study hard, by reading the knowledge of the pupils will gradually increase, beside developing their ability in other language skills. But reading without comprehension is means nothing because reading comprehension is an active process to get the information from the text.
By teaching four language skill in interactively, that is involves reading, listening, speaking and writing. In this case is limited for the reading skills itself to involve the pupils in learning activities i.e.; (1) To expands the pupils knowledge and art; (2) to motivates the student to be a good personality in their country; (3) to expands the pupils social intercourse. So that in this case, the ability of the pupils will be increased by using textbook with are published by Depdikbud (Government) and Yudistira (Private Publishing Company).
3.1 Method of The Study
The recent study was an experimental research to find out the result of a certain technique. According to hadi (1988: 56) that is an experimental design is one of the precise methods to examine the cause and effect because of the fact, instruction toward a group and experimental sample. The instructional activity was designed only to teach reading skill students by using Think aloud strategy as a techniques toward the experimental group, the group of sample would have test to measure the effect that students get after treatment. The result of the test would be analyzed and compare using statistical computation.
This study tries to describe the effect of treatment of two distinction, Think aloud strategy and reading skill, the research design is pre-test and post-test. Therefore, the design is called a pre-test and post-test control group design. The study design is adopted from Ary, et.al (2002: 308).
Table 3.1 Randomized group, pre-test and post-test
E = experimental group
C = control group
Y1 = pre-test
X = treatment on the experiment group
Y2 = post-test
This research design will present several characteristics; (1) it has two groups of experimental subjects or treatment group and control group; (2) the two groups compared with respect two measurements of observation on the dependent variable; (3) both groups will be measured twice, the first measurement serve as the pre-test and the second as the post-test; (4) measurement on the dependent variable for both groups will be done at the same time with the same test; and (5) the experimental group manipulated with particular treatment.
3.2 Population and Sample
Population is represent entire/all subject research. Nawawi ( 2003) in Iskandar ( 2009 : 118) population is grand total of subject research which can be consisted of by the human being, object, animal, flora, symptom, assess the test or event as data source owning certain characteristic in a research. While according to Sudjana ( 2005 : 74) population is totality of all value which possible, result of counting/calculating or measurement, quantitative and also qualitative hit the certain characteristic from all clear and complete corps member is which wish learned by the nature
In this study, the population of the study includes all nine grade students of the SMPN 19 Mataram in the academic year 2012/2013. there are as the population and for observation the samples are only 40 students consist of 2 classes namely experimented class and control class SMPN 19 Mataram.
Sample is shares or proxy from accurate population ( Arikunto, 2006 : 87). While in big dictionary of Indonesian, sampel is an used by example of from the lion's share. While according to Sugiyono ( 2003 : 56) sampel is " some of amount and characteristic owned by population, As for becoming sampel of at this research is all student of nine grade class.
Suharsimi (2006) stated that if the subject is less than one hundred it is better to take the entire subject. Furthermore, if the subject is more than one hundred it can be taken between 10-15% or 20-25% or more that it. in this research the writer take 40 students as the sample. 20 students is students who join who experimental group and 20 students as a control group.
In any scientific research, instrument for collecting data was absolutely important. The accuracy of the result of research was mostly dependent on how accurate the use of instrument. Before research carried out, the instrument for the data collection should be well prepared.
Related to the research problems, the writer used reading test as an instrument. Ary (1979: 216) states that a test is a set of stimuli present to an individual in order to elicit responses on the basic of which a numerical score can be designed. Moreover, Heaton (1975: 89) states that the test used must be appropriate in term of our object, the dependable in the evidence provides, and applicable to our particular situation. In this case, the researcher gave the students reading test in using Think aloud strategy.
This study aimed at knowing the students achievement in Reading skill, where the students was asked to tell by using Think aloud Strategy was used to make the students achievement in reading skill (Nurgiantoro, 1995: 229).
3.4 Technique of Data Collection
The method of collecting data for this research is used testing. A test is a group of questions, tasks or exercises for measuring individual or groups skill. The contents or the reading task include factual question, determining a title and determining the main idea.
The test of those three aspects of reading comprehension was compiled by the writer herself collecting information about the subjects, which are learned at SMPN 19 Mataram. For those reason, the writer has compiled 25 items of multiple choice and 10 items of essay question taken from various sources. Those choices from multiple choice questions are as follows:
a. Factual questions : 16 items
b. Determining a title : 4 items
c. Determining the main idea : 5 items
Every question is valued at 4 points, thus a total of 100 points.
So, the essay questions are described a follows.
a. Determining a title : 4 items
b. Determining the main idea : 6 items
There are 4 band scales to measure reading comprehension test in essay questions described by Lucky Prang, an Australian PhD candidate (2003), the are as follows:
4 - Suitable title of reading passage given
- Idea of the text understood
3 - Title of reading passage suitable but not perfect
- Some difficulties in understanding some of the passage
2 - Title of reading passage is not very fitting
- Difficulties in connecting the different passage
1 - Not able to create a title
- Main idea of the text lost
3.5 Technique of Data Analysis
The technique of data analysis, will be used here is statistical analysis that is descriptive analysis.
3.6 Hypothesis Testing
Before hypothesis testing, the researcher got the students scores of the experimental and control group. The score check for the pre-test and post-test. The first step was the researcher calculated the mean score of experimental group. For the purposes, to test the hypothesis, it was used t-test with the level of significance 0.05 (5%).
Before testing the proposed hypothesis, the writer took students’ score of experimental and control groups, which is the score for pre-test and post-test. Thus, the writer calculated the mean score of the experimental group. For the purpose, the following formula is used:
M = the mean score of experimental group
X = the deviation of score pre-test
N = the number of sample
= the sum of (sigma)
(Arikunto, 1998: 124)
Then, the formula that was used for the control group as follows:
My = the mean score of control group
Y = the deviation score of pre-test and post-test
N = the number of sample
= the sum of (sigma)
(Arikunto, 1998: 124)
The mean score that obtain through the above formula was analyzed and interpreted. Finally, the writer computed the hypothesis significant. It was to know whether the Ho was accepted or not. For the sake of computation, it was used formula recommended by Arikunto (1998: 300), the formula was as follows:
M = mean deviation of each group
N = number of subject
X = deviation between pre-test and post-test (the experimental group)
Y = deviation between pre-test and post-test (the control group)
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