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THE EFFECT OF USING FLASH CARD IN TEACHING VOCABULARY
FOR THE SECOND YEAR OF SMA 3 MATARAM
IN ACADEMIC YEAR 2012/ 2013



CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
1.1  Background of Study
Learning English in early ages has advantages from both biological and psychological point of view. Based on those advantages, Indonesian government through 1994’s Primary School Curriculum has introduced English as “local content”, starting from grade four at primary school. In ten years of its application, English in primary school still has a number of problems that need solutions (Sujana and Narasintawati, 2006).
With the status of local content, which subjects the idea of ​​local content is to meet the local needs of a society, what is to be achieved in the subjects of English? Is it to meet the needs in the field of tourism, to continue their studies or have other purposes? If the purpose of continuing studies directed to this end it must be consistent with the purpose of teaching the next level (SMP) is to enhance the ability of all four language skills. If the purpose is to meet local needs, where NTB became one of the destinations, the objectives and learning materials aimed at the introduction of vocabulary and expressions related to tourism. It seems too early. Or, if the objectives are to improve mastery of English by giving these subjects before puberty, it is necessary to think about teaching that can lead students to achieve perfection of English usage such as the accuracy of pronunciation, suprasegmental elements and others. These learning objectives will be easily formulated if there is clarity of the status of English subjects in primary schools, especially the local content of this label. It seems that the translation "local content" in this context as a kind of autonomy of schools to give lessons in English as elective subjects in school depending on school readiness. The long term goal is to learn English so that students can speak English confidently, correctly and fluently. But in teaching English to children do not need to be imposed to achieve the target due to meet that goal they have at least 60-10 years to learn. In designing learning, to consider the scale of priority objectives those are tailored to their age and their learning patterns. And no less important is the review of the goals of higher learning (Sujana and Narasintawati, 2006).
The failure of English language teaching in Indonesia has made policy makers to always make changes. One of the changes made is to start introducing English at an early age is starting 4th grade elementary school, although still limited to local content in the Basic Education Curriculum 1994. The main purpose the introduction of English at an early age, among others, to improve the quality of output and input of more (Huda, 1999; Sutarsyah 2004 in Sujana and Narasintawati 2006). The rationale underlying this change is that language learning in children has several advantages. The age factor started to learn the language (age of onset / AO) is one determinant of success in learning the language. Learning the language will gain perfection that began at the age before puberty because at this age are biologically brain has a high level of elasticity that allows a person to learn the language faster (Lennerberg in Sujana, 2006). Besides learning the language in childhood will be more successful because the children psychologically liberated from shame and fear of such an experienced adult language learners.
The preposition is one of the eight parts of speech1 in the English language. A preposition indicates a relationship between persons, places or things mentioned in a sentence. There are approximately 80 to 100 prepositions categorized into several classes, such as spatial, comparative, and temporal, depending on the kind of relationship denoted by the preposition. English preposition is one of the items of English grammar that has differences from Indonesian preposition. So it is possible if the teacher in teaching English preposition faces difficulties. They are caused by the differences between them. English proposition has been called the biggest little words in English” (American Book Company 1986: 288). They have important function in sentences and different preposition can make different meaning for the sentence.
In learning English, Grammar is one significant component to mediate the system of written symbol that cannot be avoided. Tenses, preposition, to be, and articles are some aspects of grammar. Preposition is one of the important things in grammar. Even though preposition looks small, short and insignificant look but it is enough to change the meaning of the sentences entirely. It means, studying preposition seems easy for the students, but many students are often confused in applying it in almost English skill. Therefore, the students should be careful to use preposition in every sentence that they make. Considering the importance of using English preposition, this study is intended to investigate the ability of the fifth year students of SDN 30 Ampenan, in using prepositions.
It is a great pleasure for teachers of English as a foreign language to have a student who speaks and writes English correctly. This has been the dream of all EFL teachers, but especially those who teach students who begin their foreign language studies after the age of eleven, as they are well aware of the difficulties these students encounter in learning English.
1.2  Research Question
The following questions are the central of issues on this research:
1.    What is students’ ability in using English preposition?
2.    What are the problems faced by the students in using English preposition?
1.3  Purpose Of the Study
This study is aimed at finding:
1.    The ability of the fifth year students’ of SDN 30 Ampenan  in using English preposition.
2.    The problems of the fifth year students’ of SDN 30 Ampenan in using English preposition.
1.4  Scope of Study
This study focused on investigating the students’ ability in using English preposition of place at the fifth year students’ of SDN 30 Ampenan in academic year 2010/2011.
1.5  Significance Of the Study
Theoritically, the result of this study is intended to have contribution for English teaching theory on English preposition. This study can be used as reference by next researchers who are interested in studying about this matter.
Practically, the results of this study can be used: first, as reference in English Preposition. Second, the result of this study can be used by the teachers in teaching learning process to improve students’ ability in mastering English Preposition.
Finally, this study hopefully would be the basis of the English teachers to determine what method they should use in teaching English preposition.
1.6  Definition of Key Terms
In order to avoid misunderstanding and misinterpretation of the key terms and the content of this study, it was necessary to define the key terms as follows:
1.6.1 Ability
·      The quality or state to being able to; power to perform, wether physical, moral, intelectual, conventional, or legal; capacity; skills or competence in doing; sufficiency of strength, skills, resources, etc.
·      Ability is mental or phiysical power to do something: “to make a fortune some assistance from fate is essential. Ability alone is insufficient”(Saikaku).
·      Ability is the quality of being able to perform; a quality that permits or facilities achievement or accomplishment (google.com).
1.6.2   Preposition
·      A preposition is a part of speech that introduces a prepositional phrase. For example, in the sentence “ the cat sleeps on the sofa”, the word “on” is a preposition, introducing the prepositional phrase “on the sofa”. In English, the most used prepositions are “of”, ”to”, ”in”, ”for”, ”with” and ”on”. Simply put, a preposition indicates a relation between things mentioned in a sentence. Many style guides instruct that prepositions should not be placed at the end of a sentence unless it is necessary to maintain sentence structure or avoid awkward phrasing (wikipedia).


CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 The Nature of English
The English Language has numerous irregularly spelled words. Filipino children whose first language has a reasonably consistent spelling system find it very difficult to become accustomed to multiple value for a single symbol or many symbols for a single sound. It confuses them that a sound is written in several ways or that the same group of letters may represent different sounds, with no hard and fast rules to tell when to use one kind of graphic symbol and when to use another. Take the letter sequence ough. How many sounds does it represent? Note the following sound values:/O/ as in thought, bought, sought; /of/ as in though, thorough; /ap/ as in hie-cough. But the difficulty does not end there. Not only does one symbol present many sounds but one sound can be represented by many symbols. The sound /O/ is found in words like faucet, low, chalk, soft, broad, caught, bought, and water. Other sounds are represented by an equal or greater number of symbols which made it difficult or writers. For example; there are many ways to spell the long I /i/ sound: notice the following spellings of this sound: pie, sigh, buy, kite, white and bye. A basic sight vocabulary needs to be developed by pupils pertaining to words which do not follow a rather consistent sound/symbol relationship (Canare, 2011).
English has been the mother tongue of travelers, conquerers and traders for centuries, and this is responsible for its widespread use and acceptance. It has been compared to a large and absorbent sponge, that is ever growing and expanding. It is a language that was spawned in relative isolation and allowed to amass, and blend together many choice elements of other languages (Reed, 2010).
As the British became a world power, they spread their language far and wide. With the influences of Chaucer and Shakespeare, English further evolved, and began its quest to be the global language. The printing of the Bible gave it even greater refinement and exposure. Due to the ever increasing British empire, many corners of the world absorbed the tongue. This same exposure allowed the language to adapt and change, and incorporate the original dialects of the conquered and settled lands. So, like a sponge, the language absorbed and grew, cleansed itself around the world, and absorbed some more (Reed, 2010).
As civilization moved into the 20th century, English found the perfect vehicle for greater exposure and absorption. Hollywood, through television and the motion picture industry, introduced the rest of the world to the English language. These mass media devices further entrenched it as the accepted, globally practised tongue. English has become the language of the global economy and as more and more people immigrate to countries where it is the native dialect, its use becomes more widespread (Reed, 2010).
2.2 English language learning
An English language learner (often capitalized as English Language Learner or abbreviated to ELL) is a person who is learning the English language in addition to their native language. This can refer to any learners of English as a foreign or second language, but more often the term is used to refer to learners of English as a second language in mainstream schools where English is the language of instruction. The instruction and assessment of students, their cultural background, and the attitudes of classroom teachers towards ELLs have all been found to be factors in ELL student achievement. Some ways that have been suggested to assist ELLs include bringing their home cultures into the classroom, involving them in language-appropriate content-area instruction from the beginning, and by integrating literature into the learning program (wikipedia).
Some reports portray English language learners as a new and homogenous population. Actually ELLs are a highly heterogenous and complex group of students, with diverse gifts, educational needs, backgrounds, languages and goals. Some ELL students come from homes in which no English is spoken, while some come from homes where only English is spoken; others have been exposed to or use multiple languages. ELL students may have a deep sense of their non-U.S. culture, a strong sense of multiple cultures, or identify only with U.S. culture. Some ELL students are stigmatized for the way they speak English (Furman, et al 2007).
2.3 Learning Grammar
Grammar is an aspect of language about which learners have different opinions. Some learners are very interested in finding out or learning grammar rules and doing lots of grammar exercises. Others hate grammar and think it is the most boring part of learning a new language. Whatever opinion you have, however, you cannot escape from grammar; it is in every sentence you read or write, speak or hear. Grammar is simply the word for the rules that people follow when they use a language. We need those rules in the same way as we need the rules in a game. If there are no rules, or if everybody follows their own rules, the game would soon break down. It is the same with language; without rules we would not be able to communicate with other people (Shoebottom, 2011).
Language is never apart from grammar. This thing produce big issue in studying a language about the best way to learn grammar. People can learn the rules of a game by simply playing the game. They will certainly make mistakes and they may even get hurt. Eventually, however, they will know how to play. Of course, the rules of a language are very much more complicated than the rules of any game, but in fact this is exactly how people learned their own language. Nobody taught us the rules of our mother tongue as we were growing up but now we almost never make a grammar mistake (Shoebottom, 2011).
Most people learning a new language do not have so much time and such an ideal situation; So, the best way to learn English grammar is unfortunately not easy to be answered. There are just as many different opinions about teaching grammar as there are about learning grammar. Many teachers believe in the importance of grammar lessons devoted to a study of language rules and lots of practice exercises. Other teachers feel that grammar is best learned by doing different language activities without focussing so directly on the rules (Shoebottom, 2011).

2.4 Preposition
English sentences can be divided according to the function each word has in the subject- predicate relationship. Each of these functions is classified as a different part of speech. The words that form the central core of the sentence around which all the other words “cluster”-are the part of speech known as nouns (or pronouns) and verbs; the words that modify the central core words are the parts of speech called adjectives and adverbs; the words that show a particular kind of connecting relationship between these four parts of speech are called prepositions and conjunctions.
Before giving further explanation, the writer would like to present some definition of preposition as follow:
a.       Longman contemporary English, 2003
Preposition is a word that is used before a noun, pronoun, or gerund to show place, time, direction etc.
b. Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, Merriam (2003)
Preposition is a function word that typically combines with a noun phrase to form a phrase which usually, expresses a modification or predication.
c. The Macquarie Dictionary, 1988
(In some languages) one of the major form- classes, or part of speech, comprising words placed before nouns to indicate their relation to other words or their function in the sentence. By, to, in, from are prepositions in English. Any such word, as by, to, in, from. Any word or construction of similar function or meaning, as on top of (=on)
A preposition is a (FUNCTION) word used to relate a NOUN PHRASE which it precedes with another part of the SENTENCE, the whole forming a prepositional phrase. It expresses meanings of space, time, position, etc (ref...).
Prepositional phrases commonly function as ADJUNCTS or ADVERBIALS in clause structure; and many preposition are formally identical with adverbs:
e.g. up, down, on, off, in, over.
The preposition is classified as a part of speech in traditional grammar. However, prepositions as well as conjunctions differ from other parts of speech in that:
1.    Each is composed of a small class of words that have no formal characteristic endings.
2.    Each signals syntactic structures that function as one of the other parts of speech.
Prepositions are part of the grammar of every language. In English some of these are used to denote the placement of people and objects. In this case, this is called a preposition of place. Even native English speakers have difficulty with this concept on times, so it should not come as a surprise for students of English as a second language when they have problems depending on their mother tongue. This is due to the fact that there are not many rules for using prepositions in English sentences.
There are rules, however for using some of the prepositions of place, especially the prepositions and the word refer to an object or person being inside something, such as a room. In this sentence, sleep in a bedroom the preposition shows that the person sleeps inside a room. If you want to say that there is an object inside a box, you also use the preposition so that a sample sentence could be he gift is in the box.
Refers to the surface of an object and is outside the object. In the sentence the plate is on the table? the preposition you that the plate is laid on the table. It is sometimes problematic for English language learners because it denotes a place in general, such as it a meeting it the airport or it school Sometimes it means that same thing if you substitute in for it in examples (Articopia).
 According to Hendricks, “These difficulties are compound­ed by the loose grammatical rules governing the use of English prepo­sitions. For example, one rule states that the prepositions at, on, and in are used to designate expressions of time. However, these very same prep­ositions also designate expressions of place and location, which often makes the selection of a preposition a matter of guesswork (Hendricks, 2010).  
2.5 Types of Preposition
It is mentioned previously that “a preposition expresses a relation between two entities, one being that represented by the preposition complement” (Quirk, et al 1973: 143).
A)      Form: Simple and Complex Preposition
According to Frank, “a preposition may be composed of one, two, or three parts. For example: one part – of, on, by. Two part because of, according to three parts – by means of, with regard to (Frank, 1972: 181).
Further, Quirk et al (1973), in their book “A University Grammar of English” state that the most common English preposition such as at, in and for are simple, i.e. consist of one word. Other preposition consisting of more than one word, are called complex (Quirk, et al 1973: 144-145).
B)      Prepositional meaning
“The various types of meanings – those of place and time are the most prominent and easy to identify. Other relationships such as instrument and cause may also be recognized (Quirk, et al 1973: 143).
The following is the illustration for the relationships that preposition expresses place, position, time, means, instrument and purpose.
(1)   Place
To indicate place, Leech (1972), in this book, “A Communicative Grammar of English” distinguish some types of preposition as follows:
a.       At – type preposition, which indicates a point such as: to, (away), from, away from.
Examples:
We went to the school
We stayed at home
We came (away) from the bus stop
We stayed away from the home
b.       On – type preposition, which indicates a line or surface, such as: on, (to), on, off, across, over, a long, through.
Examples: We turned off the main road
We walked along the riverbank
Memphis is on the Mississippi
He looked through the windows
c.       In – type preposition, which indicates an area or a volume such as: in, (to), in, out, of.
Examples: I have a house in the city
The food is in the cupboard
He ran into the house
(2)   Position
Here are some words, to indicate preposition of position: Over, under, in front of, above, below, behind, beneath, behind, by, beside, between, among, on top of, underneath, below, over, under, expresses relative position in vertical direction whereas; in front of and behind represent it in a horizontal direction (Quirk, et al 1973: 148-149).
Over and under as place preposition are roughly synonymous with above and below respectively.
Above and below may mean simply that one object is on a higher or lower level than the other. Underneath often means that one object is actually touching the other. In this respect it is the opposite of on the top (Leech, 1972: 83).
(3)   Time
Quirk points out that:
at, on, during, in as prepositions of “time – when” are to most extent parallel to the same items as the positive prepositions of position, although in time sphere there are only two ‘dimension type’, viz ‘point of time’,’ period of time’ (Quirk, et al 1973: 154). At is used for point of time (chiefly-clock time), for examples:
At ten o’clock, at 6.30 p.m., at noon. Also, idiomatically, for holiday season, e.g. at the weekend, at Christmas and for the phrase at night, at the/that time.
On is used with phrases referring to days (on Monday), on may (the first: otherwise in or less commonly, during is used for indicate period of time; in the evening, during the holy week, in August, in the months that following, in summer, in 1969.
(4)   Means, instrument: by, with
Means is expressed by a prepositional phrase introduced by ‘by’ (Leech, 1973: 92), or phrases of means and instrument answer the question ‘How…….?’ (Quirk, et al 1973: 159).
For example: I usually go to work by bus/train/car/boat’. ‘We managed to sale the house by advertising it in the paper’.
With on the other hand, expresses instrument meaning, e.g., ‘He caught the boat with his left hand’. Someone has broken the window with the stone’.
(5)   Purpose, intended destination: for
Examples:          
He will do anything for money
Everyone ran for shelter
He died for his country
According to Quirk et al (1973), the use of ‘for’ illustrated above has in common of ‘purpose’. And to express intended destination ‘for’ is used with verb such ‘run’, ‘star’, ‘head’, ‘leave’ and ‘set out’: e.g. ‘he set out for London’ (Quirk, et al 1973: 157).
2.6 Studies on the use of preposition of place in English Language Learning
A Final Project that had done by (Yuliyanto, 2009) analyze the students errors on the students’ ability in using preposition on Cerdas Ceria Course Sragen.  The purposes of this research paper are classifying the types of errors and the dominant types of errors done by the students of Cerdas Ceria course in Sragen. The data are taken from the erroneous preposition of the test given by the researcher to the students of Cerdas Ceria course in Sragen that consists of 16 students. In analyzing the data, the writer takes document as technique of collecting data. The writer finds types of error preposition and also counts the percentages of errors in the form of table to determine the dominant types of errors. Finally, the writer analyzes the source of errors. After analyzing the data, the researcher finds 229 errors preposition. They are preposition in (54 or 23.6%), preposition at (41 or 17.9%), preposition for (35 or 15.3%), preposition on (31 or 13.5%), preposition to (25 or 10.9%), preposition with (22 or 9.6%), preposition by (18 or 7.9%), preposition behind (3 or 1.3%). It is caused the students do not understand the question, they do not understand the differences of each preposition. In this research, the writer finds errors caused by interlingual transfer. It is the errors caused by the mother tongue influence.


CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHOD
3.1 Method of Research
Research method employed in this research is descriptive method. As Suharsimi (in Suherman 2009:23) said, if the researcher wants to know how, how many, and how long of thing, we use descriptive method. It is used to gather and analyze significant data or information needed in quantitative research. Cohen and Manion (1985:140) also said that surveys are the most commonly used descriptive method in educational research and may vary in scope from large scale governmental investigations through to small carried out by a single researcher.
3.2 Population and Sampling
3.2.1. population
The population of this study is the fifth year students’ of SDN 30 Ampenan. There are 75 students and registrated in the first year and they are divided into two classes of VA and VB year 2010-2011
3.2.2. Sampling
Arikunto (1991:107) states “if the population of a research is below 100, the researcher has to take all of them as a sample. But if the population is over 100, the researcher can take only 20%-25% of them. Since the number of the sample less then 100, the writer would like to take all numbers of students’ class 5th as what suggested”.
The samples of this study were two classes (students of the fifth grade of SDN. 30 Ampenan). The samples were from grade VA and VB with total of 75 students all together. 
3.3 Data Collection Procedure
To obtain the data needed for this research, the writer uses writing test and give the students some questionnaire to obtain what problems that students make when using prepostions of place, as follows:
1.      Test
a.        Material and question
The test is composed by adapting and selecting materials that giving to students as a text book by the Eglish teacher in clasroom interaction in this study a textbook used is LKS. The writing test consists of 50 items, include 15 multiple choice, 25 filling the gaps based on the pictures and 10 gap filling with appropriate prepositons. 
b.      Time 
The time allocated for this test is 60 or 2 x 30 minutes


c.       Scoring
                                         Right answer
Individual scores =                                         X 100
                          Tot. Number of test items
2.      Questionnaire
The questionnaire consists of 7 questions based on the students experience when they study about prepositions.
3.4 Data Analysis
To analyzing the data the writer uses qualitative and quantitative procedure. Quantitative process is done by allocating the students’ ability in using preposition of place and the writer calculates the individual score. Then, analyzing the mistakes made by the students’ in answering the question given does qualitative procedures.
In analyzing the data, the following steps were applied:
1.      Inserting the students’ score into the table of data
2.      Finding the mean score (M)
          
                        Where:
                                    M         : Mean score
                                             : Sum of
                                    X         : Score
                                    N         : Number of sample
                        (Arikunto, 2006: 275)

According to Pedoman Penyelenggaraan Pendidikan in FKIP UNRAM (2004 p:32) that the equivalence scores of the qualitative data into quantitative score as follows :
Table 3.2. Table the Percentage of Qualification of the Study.

No
Quantitative score
Qualification
1
80 – 100
Very Good
2
66 – 79
Good
3
56 – 65
Fairly Good
4
46 – 55
Low
5
0 – 45
Very Low






CHAPTER IV
RESEARCH FINDING AND DISCUSSION
4.1. Data Analysis
In this chapter, the researcher presents the analysis of the data related to the ability of using preposition by the fifth year students’ of SDN 30 Ampenan in Academic Year of 2011.  Based on the research conducted by the researcher, it was found that the most of the students has low ability in using preposition.
4.1.1 Students’ Individual Score (N)
In calculating the students’ individual score the formula below was used. Formula of students’ individual score:
           Right answer
Individual score =                                          X 100
          Tot. Number of test items
Example:
The students got 20 items right , menwhile the total number of items were 50 questions items, so it would be:                   
Individual score 

The table below clearly shown the students’ of both class VA and VB individual score on using preposition.
Table 4.1. Students’ Individual Score V (N)
No  
Name
Right answer
score
1
NH
32
64
2
MM
26
52
3
MY
28
56
4
AW
33
66
5
I
17
34
6
IW
26
52
7
M
38
76
8
M
25
50
9
RA
15
30
10
A
26
52
11
AQ
40
80
12
BNS
26
52
13
BHH
17
34
14
DAN
17
34
15
DR
30
60
16
FAK
34
68
17
CA
28
56
18
IRH
33
66
19
ISA
9
18
20
KR
33
66
21
LA
28
56
22
LKNH
24
48
23
MFA
36
72
24
MNR
25
50
25
MAF
25
50
26
MFH
15
30
27
MSG
34
68
28
MAJP
26
52
29
IM
30
60
30
MRG
24
48
31
N
32
64
32
NYR
24
48
33
RMH
30
60
34
SM
39
78
35
TS
33
66
36
YH
36
72
37
YHR
26
52
38
ZA
9
18
39
ZAA
32
64
40
T
30
60
41
SD
30
60
42
GR
24
48
43
SA
40
80
44
AA
15
30
45
SHS
33
66
46
TN
17
34
47
HG
36
72
48
ARR
42
82
49
AH
32
64
50
BA
24
48
51
DAI
28
56
52
DPH
38
76
53
EVN
25
50
54
FF
17
34
55
HP
30
60
56
JJT
24
48
57
KMM
38
76
58
LPAGP
25
50
59
MMA
21
42
60
MZM
36
72
61
MAS
32
64
62
MU
25
50
63
MR
15
30
64
MZ
34
68
65
MH
25
50
66
NLZI
21
42
67
SM
15
30
68
TPS
33
66
69
TS
17
34
70
AM
24
48
71
RZ
15
30
72
AR
21
42
73
OZAS
36
72
74
JPD
15
30
75
MI
25
50
TOTAL
2019
4036
Mean
26.92
53.82
Highest
42
82
Lowest
9
18

From the table obove, it was elaborated that the total number of the students of class VA and VB were 75 (Seventy five) students who were active in the process of English teaching and learning especially for the discussion of prepostion.
It was found that the total number of the right answers that all students of class VA and VB got was 26.92, it was also shown that the highest score was 82, menwhile the lowest score was 18. The total score of the students in class VA  and VB was 4036.    
4.1.2 Finding the students’ mean score (M)
After having the data, the writer analyzed the data by knowing the students’ mean scores for both classes VA and VB as shown on table 4.1.
The test result of mean scores for both classes VA and VB, it was found that the mean scores of the fifth year students’ of SDN 30 Ampenan in Academic year 2011/2012 was 53.82.

         Number of Student 
Percentage =                                       X 100
         Total Respondent
For example:
         20 
Percentage =            X 100 = 26,67 %
         75

Based on the table above, it was shown that there were 21 students (28%) students who were categorized into good and very good level ability, there were 15 students (20%) who were categorized into fairly good level ability, and 39 students (52%) who were qualificated into low and very low level ability.
Thus, from the result  it is clearly shown that the most of the students were categorized into low level ability that were 39 students (52%).
4.2 Result from Questionnaire
In collecting the data, the researcher gave questionnaire in Indonesian language to simplify the questionnaire process. It was intended to know the students problems in using prepositions. In this research, the researcher gave the questionnaire for all of the students with 7 questions. The tabulation bellow elaborates the students’ responds on the questionnaires given.
No
Questionnaires
Number of Students
Percentage
Yes
No
Yes
No
1.
saya sulit memahami penggunaan preposisi karena tidak sama dengan bahasa indonesia.
65
10
86%
13.3%
2.
saya sulit menggunakan preposisi in, on, at karena memiliki dua fungsi yaitu untuk ,menyatakan waktu dan tempat.
70
5
93,3%
6,6%
3.
saya sulit menggunakan preposisi on karena memiliki arti yang sama dengan above.
33
42
44%
56%
4.
saya sulit membedakan penggunaan preposisi beside dan near karena memiliki arti yang sama.
34
41
45,3%
54,6%
5.
saya sulit menggunakan preposisi under karena memiliki arti yang sama dengan below.
67
8
89,3%
10,6%
6.
saya sulit membedakan penggunaan preposisi in dan at yang menyatakan tempat karena memiliki arti yang hampir sama
71
4
94,6%
5,3%

From the tabulation above its clearly shown that there were ___ of the students (%) who got difficulty  in understanding the usage of preposition for it different usage from Bahasa Indonesia. There were also ____ students (%) who got difficulty in using prepostion of on,in,and at because they have two functions for time and place.  It also found there were ____ students (%) who got sdifficulty in differenciate prepostion usage of beside and near for their similar meaning. For the questionnaire number 5 it found there were _____ students (%) who got difficulty in using of preposition of under for it similar meaning as below. The last questionnaire it found there were ____ students (%) who got difficulty in differenciating of preposition of place usage in and at for their similar meaning.
In supporting more detail data, in this case the reasearcher also gave one more questionnaire which asked students’ opinion of the other difficulties that could be found by them. The reseacher categorized students’ opinion or answers into three categories as follow; (1) Most students do not understand had lack of vocabulary (2) several students do not interest enough in the discussion prepostion (3) views of the students do not have answer. The tabulation bellow will clearly discuss.
Number of Students
Category 1
Category 2
Category 3
53
17
5
70,6%
22,6%
6,6%

The table above shows there are 53 students with the percentage 70,6% who had lack of vocabulary, there are 17 students the percentage 22,6% who do not interest enough in the discussion prepostion  and there are only 5 students 6,6% who do not have answer.
4.3 Discussion
Based on the statistical analysis of the data obtained, the researcher would like to interpret and discuss the result.
Based on the research conducted by the researcher dealing with the ability of using prepostion by the fifth year students of SDN 30 Ampenan in academic year 2011-2012, it was found that the total number of the students of class VA and VB were 75 (Seventy five) students who were active in the process of English teaching and learning.
For having some data to answer the reasearch questions of this research, the reseracher used some test to measure the students’ abilty on using the prepostion. The test composed by adapting and selecting materials from their English text book. The writing test consists of 50 items, include 15 multiple choice, 25 filling the gaps based on the pictures and 10 gap filling with appropriate prepositons. Meanwhile, The Questionnaire consists of 7 questions based on the students experience when they study prepositions.
Based on the test given, It was found that the total number of the right answers that all students of class VA and VB got was 26.92, it was also shown that the highest score was 82, menwhile the lowest score was 18. The total score of the students in class VA  and VB was 4036.    
After having the data, the reseacher analyzed the data by knowing the students’ mean scores for both classes VA and VB. The test result of mean scores for both classes VA and VB, it was found that the mean scores of the fifth year students’ of SDN 30 Ampenan in Academic year 2011/2012 was 53.82. This result guides to the conclusion that the students’ abilty in using preposition is categorized as low as classified by Pedoman Penyelenggaraan Pendidikan in FKIP UNRAM (2004 p:32).
The result shown that there were 21 students (28%) students who were categorized into good and very good level ability, there were 15 students (20%) who were categorized into fairly good level ability, and 39 students (52%) who were qualificated into low and very low level ability. Thus, from the result  it is clearly shown that the most of the students were categorized into low level ability that were 39 students (52%).
In collecting the data, the researcher gave questionnaire in Indonesian language to simplify the questionnaire process. It was intended to know the students problems in using prepositions. In this research, the researcher gave the questionnaire for all of the students with 7 questions. The tabulation bellow elaborates the students’ responds on the questionnaires given.
From the tabulation above its clearly shown that there were ___ of the students (%) who got difficulty  in understanding the usage of preposition for it different usage from Bahasa Indonesia. There were also ____ students (%) who got difficulty in using prepostion of on,in,and at because they have two functions for time and place.  It also found there were ____ students (%) who got sdifficulty in differenciate prepostion usage of beside and near for their similar meaning. For the questionnaire number 5 it found there were _____ students (%) who got difficulty in using of preposition of under for it similar meaning as below. The last questionnaire it found there were ____ students (%) who got difficulty in differenciating of preposition of place usage in and at for their similar meaning.
In supporting more detailed data, in this case the reasearcher also gave one more questionnaire which asked students’ opinion of the other difficulties that could be found by them. The reseacher categorized students’ opinion or answers into three categories as follow; (1) Most students do not understand had lack of vocabulary (2) several students do not interest enough in the discussion prepostion (3) views of the students do not have answer.
The result shows there are 53 students with the percentage 70,6% who had lack of vocabulary, there are 17 students the percentage 22,6% who do not interest enough in the discussion prepostion  and there are only 5 students 6,6% who do not have answer.
This data leads the reseracher comes to the argumemnt that the students found the difficulty in distinguishing the function of preposition of in, on, and at whether each is classified as the preposition of place, or preposition of time. Moreover, there are also some matters of prepositions above, under, and below for determining position. Instead of finding the problems as have been mentioned, Thus, the result found by the researcher significantly shows the abilty of the fifth year students of SDN 30 Ampenan in using the prepostion is in low classification supported by the data found and the questionnaire given. The resarcher also found other students’ problem in using preposition of place  as Yuliyanto (2009) found  that errors mostly emerge due to the intervention of the first language or Interlingual error, where students frequently transferring the usage of Indonesian preposition of place into English structure.
In comparison to the identical study, this research was supposed to find the levels of students’ ability about preposition of place of elementary school students by looking up the students’ mastery. In other study of preposition of place by Yuliyanto (2009) concerned on the type of preposition of place error that occur to students of private English course at the same age. Both results of the studies indicate that students mastery is categorized “low” in using preposition of place. Even though Yuliyanto (2009) specified his study on which preposition of place  error are dominantly occur, but he again determine that students were having “low” ability by referring to the percentage of error made.
Theoretically, the “low” achievement students have may be caused by the implication of teacher instruction when running the class, sort of; the delivery method, tools, step and so forth. As the focus of the teaching is aimed to students of the early age, it deals with how a teacher delivers materials, whether the teaching held in fun or not. The tools used also take a great responsibility in taking students interest. For instance, presenting teaching process using picture, game or drill would be efficient (Blom, 2007).
Moreover, the rules of a language are much more complicated. An error caused by this reason is conventionally classified as an Interlingual error, where an error emerges due to the complexity of the language learned. This is may be estimated as the most crucial case for young learners in learning second or foreign language, especially if the language learned is not officially used in the community (shoebottom, 2011). The simple structure in the mother tongue transferred to the target language. This matter is commonly occur as a result of transferred as part of interlingual error where the procedure of constructing sentence or phrase refers to the first language system.  Somehow, this type of error frequently disappears as the learner treated with more information’s about how a certain phrase or sentence should be expressed in the language learned. The instruction and assessment of students, their cultural background, and the attitudes of classroom teachers towards ELLs have all been found to be factors in ELL student achievement (Furman, et al 2007).


CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND SUGESTION
5.1 Conclusion
From the analysis above it is concluded that:
1.      The fifth year students of SDN 30 Ampenan are low level ability to use preposition in writing sentences. This can be prove that the percentage of the most students or 39 students who got score 0-55 (52%) categorized as Low. There are 21 students got score 66-100 (28%) categorized as good.
2.      The problems that the students face in using English prepositions are:
a.    Most of the students influnce by Bahasa Indonesia interference in understanding preposition because
b.    Most of the students are confused in using the proposition of in, on, at in particular which often indicate preposition of place and time and other prepostion like above and on, near and beside, under and below
c.    Most students had lack of vocabulary in understanding prepostion
d.   Several students do not interest enough in the discussion of prepostion  
5.2 Suggestion
To maintain the students ability in using prepositions in writing English sentences and to improve other student who didn’t have ability or still have difficulties in using prepositions, the writer would like to offer some suggestions both for teacher and students as follows:

To the English teacher :
  1. The teacher should inform the students about the importance of the English preposition.
  2. The English teacher should apply appropriate methods and techniques in presenting certain materials in order that the students are facilitated to understand and master the lesson taught. It enables students to comprehend and understand the teaching materials well.
  3. The English teacher should give the assignments to the students in the form of English exercise.
To the student:
  1. The students should practice themselves by doing a lot exercises and developing themselves by reading any other sources to increase their ability in using English preposition.
  2. The students have to study hard and always pay attention  to use English preposition.
  3. The student should communicate by asking some problems dealing with their difficulties in using English Preposition.


BIBLIOGRAPHY
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1 Response to "Download Contoh Skripsi Bahasa Inggris Terbaru THE EFFECT OF USING FLASH CARD IN TEACHING VOCABULARY"

  1. trimakasih contoh skripsinya.
    ini bisa dibuat referensi

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