USING COOPERATIVE LEARNING TECHNIQUE IN READING SKILL OF STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT IN CLASS XI OF MA ANNAJAH YAYASAN PONDOK PESANTREN AL-HALIMY SESELA GUNUNGSARI WEST OF LOMBOK IN ACADEMIC YEAR 2011/2012.
1.1 Background of Study
One of learning strategy which can be applied in teaching learning process is cooperative learning strategy. Cooperative learning has been developed through scientific research in ever country in the world, so that systematically it can be applied in all kind of educational level, materials and every class activities including English activities. According to Kagan (1994), cooperative learning is a successful teaching strategy in which small teams, each with student of different levels of ability, use a variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject. Each member of tea is responsible out only for learning what is taught but also for helping teammates learn, thus creating an atmosphere of achievement. Student work through the assignment until all group members successfully understand and complete it.
Cooperative learning is a learning method when the students learn and work is small group which collaborate their members that consist of four or six student, by the group structure having the teacher of heterogenic (Slavin in Solihatin, 2007: 4). And the four or six students have different ability in English, it is certainly in each groups have some student who good at reading. The good students are expected to help their friends who are weak in the reading skill. To solve their problems, the teacher has to assist the student to recognize the word and apprehending the text cooperatively among them.
The research has been studied by several researchers before. The firs by Suherman (2009), he found that the cooperative learning technique in improving students’ reading comprehension was inappropriate to apply. This was indicated by the student’ t-score that the students who obtained good marks in reading skill based on post-test of the firs eyelet after using cooperative learning technique were 48 students (92%0 and 34 student (66%) on the cycle 2 was out of 52 student. On the pre-test there were 4 students (8%) who obtained poor marks in the firs and 18 student (34%) in the second cycle. The second researcher by Satryawan (2010), he stated that SQ4R is effective for improving reading ability. This is proved by the mean of experiential group which is higher them control groups, there are 32.3 for experimental group and 17.8 for control group. The different score for both group were caused of the experimental groups has been given tenement by using SQ4R, the student who were though using SQ4R were able to find more information from the text given. The third researcher by Sri Wahyuni (2010) as the result, cooperative learning Strategy was effective to improve students’ ability in English Language. We can see from the result of the post-test were 34 (100%) passed the passing grade and from the deviation we may know that 44% students’ English achievement wore increase after using cooperative learning strategy.
This study aims to measure the improvement of student reading skill by using a cooperative learning method, and this study is conducted at the second year student of MA Annajanah Yayasan Pondok Pesantren Al-Halimy Sesela Gunungsari West Lombok.
1.2 Statement of Problem
This specific study is mainly conducted to provide proper responses to the following proposed questions:
1. Does cooperative learning technique can improve the students’ learning achievement especially in reading skill?
2. What factors may improve the students’ learning achievement especially in reading?
1.3 Purpose of the Study
According to problems presented on the previous section, this study is aimed at:
1. To know whether cooperative learning technique can improve the students’ learning especially in reading skill.
2. What factors may improve thee students’ learning achievement especially in reading.
1.4 Scope of Study
In accordance to important of the study, the scope of study is more scientifically restricted on process of using cooperative learning technique in reading skill of students’ achievement in class XI of MA Annajah Yayasan Pondok Pesantren Al-Halimy Sesela Gunungsari West of Lombok in Academic Year 2011/2012.
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The hypothesis of this research is applying cooperative learning method in reading class can improve student reading skill. By this research student are expected to increase the achievement standard as studded in the performance indicator and students learn to make better groups than previous study.
1.6 Definition of Key Terms
To avoid misunderstanding about the terms that are used in this thesis, the writer gives some explanations as follows:
1.6.1 Reading Skill
Reading skill is the competence of a redder to interact ability, background of knowledge language knowledge, cultural values and beliefs with the text of author’s thought (Mekule ck in Nasrullah, 2008: 5).
Reading in this study is the process of constructing meaning from written texts by using cooperative learning method. It is a complex skill ruining the coordination of a number of interlaced sources of information.
1.6.2 Cooperative Learning Method
According to Deutsch (1962) in Johnson & Johnson (1989), cooperative learning is creating some small groups of students to work together in order to maximize their ability and learning each other. While, they receiving instruction from the teacher previously.
Cooperative learning is a successful teaching strategy in which small teams, each with student of different levels of ability, use variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject. Each member of a team is responsible not only for learning what is taught but also for helping teammates learn, thus creating and atmosphere of achievement. Student work through the assignment until all group members successfully understand and complete it.
2.1 Reading as Language Skill
Reading and language learning are important. In this case reading can make someone successful in study and also by reading someone knows the world. In the class room every teacher usually asks the students such as how many times they have read something, but you may never have given much thought to haw words, sentences, and text mean. In the daily life, we understand of what we heard and read while other things we doubtless do not understand. However, we may seldom reflect upon the how or why of comprehension; we may never have constructed from our own experience a theory about how a language means.
The ultimate purpose of reading is to arrive at meaning, but there are differing views about what is involved in learning to read, most reading instruction is based, implicitly if not explicitly, on one of the three following views:
View 1. Learning to read means learning to pronounce words.
View 2. Learning to read means learning to identify words and understand their meaning.
View 3. Learning to read means learning to bring meaning to a text in order to get meaning from, or understand a text.
Smith in Heinemann (1988: 15)
2.2 Teaching Reading
Reading is a fluent process of readers combining information from a text and their own background knowledge to built meaning. According to Nunan (2003: 68), teaching reading usually has at least two aspects. First, it can refer to teaching learners who are learning to read for the very first time. A second aspect of teaching reading refers to teaching learners who already have reading skill in their first language.
Reading consists of two related process of perceiving how written symbols correspond to one’s spoken language. Nunan (2003: 74), state that there are eight principles for teaching reading;
1. Exploit the reader’s background knowledge.
A reader background knowledge can influence reading comprehension (Carrel, 1983, Carrel and Connor,1991). Background knowledge includes all of the experiences that a reader brings to a text: life experiences, educational experiences, knowledge of how text can be organized rhetorically, knowledge of how one’s first language and the second language works, and cultural background and knowledge.
2. Build a strong vocabulary base
Basic language should be explicitly though and second language reader should be thought to use context to effectively guess the meanings of less frequent vocabulary.
3. Teach for comprehension
In many reading instruction programs, more emphasis and time may be placed on testing reading comprehension than on teaching readers how to comprehend. Monitoring comprehend is essential to successful reading. Part of that monitoring process includes verifying that the prediction being made are correct and checking that the reader is making the necessary adjustments when meaning is not obtained.
4. Work on increasing reading rate
One focus here is to teach readers to reduce their dependence on a dictionary. Skill such as scanning, skimming, predicting, and indentifying main ideas gets students to approach reading in different ways.
5. Teaching reading strategies
To achieve the desired results, students need to learn how to use a range of reading strategies that match their purposes for reading. Teach them how to do this should be a prime consideration in the reading class room (Anderson, 1991; Chamot and O’malley, 1994).
6. Encourage readers to transform strategies into skills
An important distinction can be made between strategies and skills (Kawai, Oxford, and Iran-Nejad 2000). Strategies can be defined as conscious actions that learners take to achieve desired goals or objectives, while a skill is a strategy that has become automatic. For example, guessing the meaning of unknown vocabulary from context can be listed as both a strategy and a skill in reading texts.
7. Build assessment and evaluating into teaching process
Assessing growth and development in reading skills from both a formal and an informal perspective requires time and training. Both quantitative and qualitative assessment activities should be included in the reading classroom.
8. Strive for continues improvement as a reading teacher
The quality of the individual teacher is integral to success of second/foreign language readers. Reading teachers need to be passionate about their work. They should view themselves as facilitators, helping each reader discover what works best. Integrating the key principles discussed above can lead to more effective reading instruction in the second language class room.
2.3 Cooperative Learning Method
This section is going to discuss teaching reading by using cooperative learning method. The detail explanation is as follows:
2.3.1 Teaching Reading Using Cooperative Learning Method
Concerning to the problems of teaching reading in the class, the writer will teach reading using cooperative learning method to improve the students’ skill in learning English, especially in reading skill. As my poin of view, the students have no bravery to ask the teacher what they do not understand about the lesson which is given by their teacher. Because the students are still doubt and shy to ask the teacher about what they do not understand and the teacher has known about that. To solve he problem, the teacher will use other technique like cooperative learning, in order to make the student enjoying the lesson and the student brave in giving their ideas to his or her friends. By using the cooperative learning method, each student in a group can help each to find the information in the passage. The students who are poor in reading possibly learn many things from their groups, such as analyzing the words and using dictionary.
18.104.22.168 Types of Cooperative Learning
1 Jigsaw, Groups with five students are set up. Each groups member is assigned some unique material to learn and then to teach to his groups members. To help in the learning student across the class working on the same sub-section get together, to decide what is important and how to teach it. After practice in these “expert” groups, such as analyzing the words and using dictionary.
2 Think-Pair-Share, Involve a there step cooperative structure. During the first step individuals think silently about a question posed by the instructor. Individuals pair up during the second step and exchange thoughts. In the third step, the pairs share their responses with other pairs, other teams, or the entire groups.
3 Three-Step Interview (Kagan), each member of a team chooses another member to be a partner. During the first step individuals interview their partners by asking clarifying question. During the second step partners reverse the roles. For the final step members share their partner’s response with the team.
4 Round Robin Brainstorming (Kagan) Class is divided into small groups (4 to 6) with one person appointed as the recorder. A question is posed with many answers and students are given time to think about answers. After the “think time” members of the team share responses with one another round robin style. The recorder start and each person in the groups in order gives an answer until time is called.
5 Three-minute review, Teachers stop any time during a lecture r discussion and give teams minutes to review what has been said, ask clarifying question or answer question.
6 Team Pair Solo (Kagan) students to problems firs as a team, then with a partner, and finally on their own. It is designed to motivate students to tackle and succeed at problems which initially are beyond their ability. It is based on a simple notion of mediated learning. Students can do more things with help (mediation) than they can do alone. By allowing them to work on problems they could not do alone, first as a team and then with a partner, they progress to a point they can do alone that which at first they could do only with help.
7 Circle the sage (Kagan) – First the teacher polls the class to see which students have a special knowledge to share. For example the teacher may say ask who in the class was able to solve a difficult math homework question, whose had visited Mexico, who knows the chemical reactions involved in how salting the streets help dissipate snow. Those students (the sages) stand and spread out in the room. The teacher then has the rest of the classmates each surround a sage with no two members of the same team going to the same sage. The sage explains what they know while the classmates listen, ask question, and take notes. All students then return to their teams. Each in turn explains what they learned. Because each one has gone to a different sage, they compare notes. If there is disagreement, they stand up as a team. Finally, the disagreements are aired and resolved.
8 Partners (Kagan), The class is divided into teams of four. Partners move to one side of the room. Half of each team is given an assignment to master to be able to teach the other half. Partners work to learn and can consult with other partners working on the same material .teams go back together with each set of partners teaching the other set. Partners quiz and tutor teammates. Team reviews how well they learned and taught and how they might improve the process.
22.214.171.124 Factors that Promote Cooperative Learning
There are there factors that influence cooperative learning method in teaching learning process (Sri Wahyuni, 2010). They are:
1 Teacher Factor
The teacher to collaborate the cooperative learning method in improve student ability, teacher has to combining various modes of learning. Below are the issues that may the teacher raise when they undertake or even contemplate undertaking the method (Cohen, 1994).
a. Difficulty level
Difficulty level of activates may be the largest stumbling block to successful CL use. Especially when beginning with CL, the task should be an easily doable one, so that students can feel comfortable and content working into groups. Ideas to consider here c include starting CL with easy tasks, carefully clarifying procedures so that students know what they will be doing, providing examples of what groups are being asked to do, and monitoring groups so that teachers can provide help when needed.
b. Sponge activities
Often some groups or group members will finish before other. It may be useful for teachers to be prepared wit extra activities to “soak up” this extra time, in a way similar to that in which a sponge soak up extra water. Some ideas include doing homework or extensive reading, heeling other individuals or groups who have not yet finished, comparing answer with other who have finished and doing an enrichment activity such as creating similar tasks as is done in question and answer pairs.
c. Groups that don’t get along
Cooperative Learning groups are often selected by the teacher to promote heterogeneity. Thus students may initially feel uncomfortable with their groups mates who they might not have known before or who perhaps they knew and did not like as. A result, group mates may not get along with each other. Some ideas for addressing this include helping groups enjoy initial success, explaining the benefits of heterogeneity, doing teambuilding activities to promote truss and to help students get to know each other, and teaching collaboration skills.
d. Noise level
Some teachers worry that the nose level may be higher than acceptable during cooperative learning activities. Some ideas to consider in this regard include accepting “good” noise, arranging the room so that students sit close together asking students to monitor the sound level, and using writing instead of speaking.
2 Student Factors
a. Positive interdependence
· Student must fully participate and put forth effort within their groups
· Each group member has a task/role/responsibility therefore must believe that they are responsible for their learning and that of their group
b. Face-to-face primitives interaction
· Member promote each others success
· Student explain to one another what they have or are learning and assist one another with understanding and completion of assignments
c. Individual Accountability
· Each student must demonstrate master of the content being studied
· Each student is accountable for their learning and work, therefore eliminating “social loafing”
d. Social Skills
· Social skills that must be taught in order for successful cooperative learning to occur.
· Skills include effective communications, interpersonal and groups skills
3 Material Factor
The material has to relevant by students’ ability and intersecting to the student
Generally, Stahl & Slaving said in (Silohatin, 2007 : 10) there are four steps of using cooperative learning in improving students’ motivation which an be operationally explained as follows
1. The teachers have to design the lesson plan. In this step, teachers have to consider the teaching target which will be reached by the student in learning process.
2. In implicating this method of learning the teachers have to make an observation sheet that will be used to observe student activity in learning together in small groups.
3. in implementing the observation of the student activity the teacher refers and guides student for understanding the materials about students attitude and behavior whether in groups in or individuals during the learning process in class
4. The teachers give a chance to student in each group to present their work result. In the class room discussion, the teacher responds as a moderator and a facilitator.
It’s aimed at guiding and correcting the students comprehension or understanding towards given material.
In teaching reading using cooperative learning the teacher have other techniques to improve their students one of them is SQ3R Method “Survey Question, read, erective, and review” (Robison in Burs 1984 : 266a ). The additional explanations for the SQ3R Method can be seen bellow:
1. Survey: As the teachers approach reading assignment, the teacher should notice chapter title main headings, read introductory and summary paragraph, and inspect any visual aids such as maps, graphs, or illustrations. This initial survey provides a framework for organizing the fact the teacher later drive from reading.
2. Questions: the teacher formulates a list of questions that he expects to e answered in the reading. The headings may give him some clues.
3. Read: the teacher reads the selection in order to answer the questions he has formulated. Since this is purposeful reading. Making brief notes may be helpful
4. Recite : the teacher has read the selections, tries to answer each of the questing that has formulated earlier without looking back at the material
5. Review ; the teacher rereads to verify or correct he has recited answer and to make sure that he as the main points of the selections in mind and that he understand the relationship between the various points
Using the method such as SQ3R will help a student remember the content of material better than simple reading method. Consequently it is worthwhile to take time in class to show pupils how to go through the various steps. The teacher should have groups practice season on SQ36R, or any study method, before he or she expects the children to perform the steps independently.
Any instructional method that used by a teacher has advantages disadvantages, and requires some preliminary preparation. Often times, a particular teaching method will naturally flow I to another, all within the same lesson, and excellent teacher have developed the skill to make the process seamless to the students (Adprima, 2010) .
2.4 Previous Study
Before the writer will begin to discuss about students’ learning especially in reading skill in detail, the writer will explain some researches as the references for the readers in order the readers can investigate the similarity and differences between those researches and the research that will be done by the writer.
Improving students’ Reading Comprehension by using cooperative learning Technique A study at the second year student of MTs Negeri 2 Mataram in Academic Year 2019/2010, (Suherman 2010). The researcher used a class room action research to the positive effect of using cooperative learning technique, and he found that the cooperative learning technique in improving students’ reading comprehension was inappropriate to apply. This was indicated by the students’t-score that the students who obtained good marks I reading skill b based on post-test of the firs cycle after using cooperative learning technique were 48 students (92%) and 34 students (66%) on the cycle 2 was out of 52 students. On the pre-test there were 4 students (8%) who obtained poor marks in the first cycle and 18 students (34%) in the second cycle
The effectiveness of SQ4R in teaching Reading At the Second Year Student of SMAN 7 Mataram in Academic year 2009/2010, (Satriawan 2010). The researcher used an experimental research method to find out the effectiveness of using SQ4R in teaching reading. The study describes the relationship between two variables or more to find out the influence of one variabel to another. And he found that the method was effective in teaching reading. This is proven by the mean of experimental group which is higher than control group.
Improving students’ speaking ability by using cooperative learning strategies at the second year student of MTs Nurul Haramaen Putri Narmada in academic year 2009/2010 (Sri Wahyuni, 2010). The research was used and class room action research to find out how cooperative learning strategis can improve the students’ speaking ability. As the result cooperative learning Strategy was effective to improve students’ ability in English Language. We can see from the result of the post-test were 34 (100%) passed the passing grade and from the deviation we may know that 44% students’ English achievement were increase after using cooperative learning strategy.
The previous research and the research that will the writer do have the similarity that is to improve students’ learning especially in reading skill but by the different method.
In this chapter, the writer will explain the research method that is used in this study. It consists of: Research Design, Research Site and Participant, Data Collection Procedure, and Data Analysis Procedures.
3.1 Research Design
This research adopts a quasi experimental study. This research design is called a nonequivalent control groups design or more properly a nonequivalent group design (the name comes from the fact that the groups were no randomly sample). This design is not as strong as the true experiment designs because it lacks randomization (David Nunan, 2009).
The writer had divided the samples into two groups namely: experimental groups (XI PS-A) and control group (XI PS-B). The experimental group had been taught by using cooperative learning method in teaching reading and the control groups was imply observed by the researcher. The design of this research could be shown on the table below:
Table 1 Research Design
EG : experimental group
CG : Control group
T1 : the points before treatment
T2 : the point after treatment
X1 : treatment for experimental group
X2 : treatment for control group
Based on the pattern above, the researcher will give the students of both experimental and control groups a set of pre test. The treatments were given for experimental group to stimulate the students to understand more about English Reading by using cooperative learning method. Meanwhile the control group will simply observed. After giving treatment, bot of the groups were post-tested by using the test that will use for the pre-test.
3.2 Research site
This study will be conducted at the second year students of MA Annajah Yayasan Pondok Pesantren Al-Halimy Sesela Kecamatan Gunungsari West Lombok, in Academic Year 2011/2012. This school is chosen because of several reasons. Then, the writer is familiar with The Head Master and the teacher; this school also was there writer did the PPL (Teaching practice). Therefore the writer knew the facilities of the school and the school and the teacher itself, as well as this school was the nearest school from the writer’s that’s the writer wouldn’t spend much time to reach it.
3.3 Population and Sample
The specification of the population will e needed to make a research valid (Yusra 2006). Dealig with that the population of this study was the second year students of MA Annajah Yayasan Pondok Pesantren Al-Halimy Sesela Kecamatan Gunungsari West Lombok, in Academic Year 2011/2012. the second year students of MA Annajah Sesela consist of 50 student (2 classes) 25 student each class
The writer will takes both of classes as the sample: the samples were divided into two groups namely: class XI PS-A experimental groups and class XI-PS-B as control group. Each of which consisted of 25 Student, thus the total sample of this study was 50 students.
3.4 Data Collection Procedures
This study employees two data collection techniques, namely test and questionnaire.
The researcher give the students of experimental and control groups a set of pre-test post-test. The pre-test consist of twenty multiple choice items in order to know the students previous knowledge in reading.
Having given the students pre-test, the researcher gives treatments’ for students in the form of applying cooperative learning method in teaching English reading the treatments give three time for experimental group.
The interview is and efficient data collection technique to know for certain variabels to be measured by giving a set of oral questions to respondent to answer.
In the interview the researcher takes semi structured interview because the researcher does know exactly the information will get Esterberg (2002).
This interview will involved 6 respondents; 2 respondents are taken of the students who have high level achievement in English, 2 respondents are taken of the students who in the middle level achievement of English, and the other are taken of the students who have the lowest level of English. The Respondents asked to indicate the factors that influence cooperative learning method in teaching learning process.
3.5 Data Analysis Procedure
To analyzed data gained the researcher will employed t-test. After collecting the student’s pre-test pos-test, the writer will compute the student’s scores of pre-test and post-test between experimental group and control group by using the following formula:
S = is the score
B = is the right answer
20 = is the total number of the test items
Then, the writer compute man score of both experimental and control group by using the following procedures:
M = is the mean score of experimental group
X = is the deviation score of pre-test and pos-test
N = is the number of the samples
∑ = is the sum of
While the formula have been applied for control group is as follows:
M = is the mean score of experimental group
Y = is the deviation score of pre-test and pos-test
N = is the number of the samples
∑ = is the sum of
The next step was the mean score had been obtained trough above formula was analyzed and interpreted. Finally, the writer computed the correlation. Coefficient of the two means score in once to know whether it was significant or not. The formula that can be used as follows:
Mx : is the mean score of experimental group
My : is the mean score of control group
N : is the number of the sample
Nx : is the sampel of the experimental group
Ny : is the sample of the control group
: is the sum of……..
(Arikunto, 2002: 280).
The researcher use a researcher takes semi structure interview to know what factors that influence the successfulness of using cooperative learning method in teaching learning me process. The researchers interviewed the respondent more flexibly to know the problems by open minded, Esterberg (2002).
The researcher will ask some questions to 6 respondents who are taken of the students that classified by their achievement; high level achievement, middle level achievement, and lowest level achievement. All of the questions are about the factors that influence their successfulness in learning English reading by using cooperative learning method. While the interview the researcher use an audio recorder to record the interview process.
At the end of research the researcher will take some conclusions about the factors that influence the student achievement in learning English reading by using cooperative learning method.
LIST OF INTERVIEW
- Apakah anda merasa cocok/nyaman dengan patner anda dalam belajar reading dengan metode cooperative?
- Apakah anda bekerjasama dengan patner anda dalam hal bertukar informasi tentang materi yang telah diberikan?
- Apakah materi yang diberikan sesuai dengan kemampuan anda?
- Apakah guru memberikan instruksi/perintah yang jelas tentang apa yang akan anda lakukan saat materi diberikan?
- Apakah kelas menjadi ribut/tidak terkontrol saat belajar dengan metode ini
- Apa yang menyebabkan kelas menjadi tidak terkontrol/ribut?
- Apa yang biasanya dilakukan oleh guru anda saat kelas menjadi ribut?
- Apakah ada murid yang menyelesaikan materi sebelum batas waktu yang ditentukan?
- Apakah guru memberikan tugas tambahan bagi siswa yang selesai lebih awal?
- Apakah anda menikmati belajar dengan metode ini?