STUDENTS’ ABILITY IN EXPRESSING GRATITUDE AND
APPRECIATION IN SPEAKING FOR THE SECOND YEAR
OF MA UNWANUL FALAH NW PAO’ LOMBOK
IN THE SCHOOL YEAR 2007/2008
See (pay attention) to what is told, but don’t see to whoever told you.
(Ali bin Abi Thalib)
This thesis dedicated to:
My beloved parents (Aq. Rusni, alm and Iq. Rusni),
brother (Ibrahim), family, relatives, and all my best friends,
who help me in writing this Thesis.
Rusniati. 2008. Students’ Ability in Expressing Gratitude and Appreciation in Speaking for the Second Year Students of MA Unwanul Falah NW Pao’ Lombok in the School Year 2007/2008. Thesis, Hamzanwadi College of Teacher Training and Education at Selong. Department of Language and Art in Education. English Language Program. Advisor (I) Usuluddin, M.Pd, (II) Munawar, S.Pd,
Key word: speaking ability, gratitude and appreciation
In Indonesia, English as foreign language or second language uses most of people, and English is a second language that should be mastered by language learners. In teaching English, four language skill such as; reading, speaking, writing, and listening should be taught integratedly to the language learners. Speaking is primary of language skill. The good teacher is able to find techniques in teaching and learning process. One of technique used in teaching speaking ability is express gratitude and appreciation. Gratitude is the general expression used to express thanking to people who gave us something. While appreciation is the feeling or showing gratitude to appreciate gift from people. Both of the expressions are extremely significant in teaching English especially speaking skill because can motivates and stimulates the language learners. Two research questions were formulated; (1) To what extent is students’ ability in expressing gratitude and appreciation in speaking for the second year of MA Unwanul Falah NW Pao’ Lombok in the school year 2007/2008? (2) To what extent is the achievement levels of students’ ability in expressing gratitude and appreciation in speaking for the second year of MA Unwanul Falah NW Pao’ Lombok in the school year 2007/2008?
This study was descriptive research. The target population of this study was all of the second year students of MA Unwanul Falah NW Pao’ Lombok in the school year 2007/2008. The number of population was 102 students. The researcher took 32 students as the sample. To collect the data, the researcher used speaking test. The speaking test was used to measure the speaking ability of the second year students in learning English speaking, and their score was analyzed by using descriptive statistic.
The result of analysis indicated that the speaking skill of students was 30.40 with standard deviation (SD) was 5.51. The highest students’ score on speaking test was 57 and the lowest score was 17. It means that speaking ability for the second year students of MA Unwanul Falah NW Pao’ Lombok are still low category.
Rusniati. 2008. Kemampuan Siswa dalam Menungkapkan Ungkapan Terimakasih dan Apresiasi dalam Berbicara Siswa Kelas Dua MA Unwanul Falah NW Pao’ Lombok Tahun Pembelajaran 2007/2008. Skripsi S-1, Sekolah Tinggi Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan (STKIP) Hamzanwadi Selong, Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa dan Seni, Program Study Bahasa Inggris. Pembimbing (I) Usuluddin, M.Pd, (II) Munawar, S.Pd,
Kata kunci: Kemampuan berbicara, ungkapan terimakasih dan penghargaan
Di Indonesia, bahasa Inggris sebagai bahasa asing atau bahasa kedua yang banyak digunakan oleh orang, dan bahasa Inggris merupakan bahasa kedua yang harus diketahui atau diajarkan kepada siswa. Dalam pengajaran bahasa Inggris, keempat keterampilan berbahasa seperti membaca, berbicara, menulis dan mendengar harus diajarkan secara bersamaan kepada siswa. Keterampilan berbicara merupakan keterampilan bahasa yang sangat penting. Gur uyagn baik harus bisa menemukan teknik-teknik di dalam proses belajar mengajar. Salah satu teknik yang digunakan dalam pengajaran keterampilan berbicara adalah mengekspresikan ungkapan terimakasih dan penghargaan. Ungkapan terimakasih adalah ungkapan umum yang digunakan untuk mengungkapkan rasa syukur kepada orang-orang yang telah memberikan kita sesuatu. Sedangkan apresiasi (penghargaan) adalah ungkapan yang menunjukkan rasa terimakasih untuk menghargai pemberian orang-orang. Kedua ungkapan tersebut sangat penting dalam pengajaran bahasa Inggris khususnya keterampilan berbicara karena bisa memotivasi dan memberikan rangsangan terhadap pembelajar bahasa. Penelitian ini merumuskan dua permasalahan; (1) sejauhmana kemampuan siswa dalam mengungkapkan “ungkapan terimakasih” dan “apresiasi” dalam berbicara siswa kelas dua MA Unwanul Falah NW Pao’ Lombok tahun pelajaran 2007/2008? (2) Sejauhmana tingkat ketercapaian kemampuan siswa dalam mengungkapkan “ungkapan terimakasih” dan “apresiasi” dalam berbicara siswa kelas dua MA Unwanul Falah NW Pao’ Lombok” tahun pelajaran 2007/2008?
Penelitian ini termasuk penelitian yang berbentuk deskriptif. Dengan populasinya adalah semua siswa kelas dua MA Unwanul Falah NW Pao’ Lombok tahun pelajaran 2007/2008. Populasinya berjumlah 102 orang. Peneliti mengambil 32 orang siswa sebagai sampel. Untuk mengumpulkan data, peneliti menggunakan tes berbicara dan tape recorder. Tes berbicara ini digunakan untuk mengukur kemampuan siswa kelas dua dalam pembelajaran berbicara, dan skor yang diperoleh oleh siswa dianalisis dengan menggunakan metode statistik deskriptif.
Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa nilai rata-ratanya (Mi) adalah 30.40, dengan standar deviasi (SDi) adalah 5.51. Nilai tertinggi yang diperoleh oleh siswa kelas dua adalah 57 dan nilai terendahnya 17. Ini berarti bahwa kemampuan berbicara kelas dua MA Unwanul Falah NW Pao’ Lombok dikategorikan masih rendah.
Alhamdulillah, this thesis has been completed with the Blessing of God, Allah SWT the Merciful, and shalawat and salam to our prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, who had taught us and guided us from the darkness into the lightness.
The writer wants to say thanks to the following people on their guidance and love:
1. Usuluddin, M.Pd as the first advisor and Munawar, S.Pd as the second advisor.
2. Drs. Muh. Suruji as the Dean of STKIP Hamzanwadi at Selong.
Furthermore, thank is also addressed to lecturers at English language program, the head of Department of Language and Art Education, the staff of English language program and also the headmaster of MA Unwanul Falah NW Pao’ Lombok and the English teacher of MA Unwanul Falah NW Pao’ Lombok. The second year students of MA Unwanul Falah NW Pao’ Lombok, for their participation as the respondents of this research.
Her lasted gratitude goes to her close friends, Eny Dompo, Zuh, Ika, Zi, Uswa, Dian, and many others whose names can not be mentioned one by one.
As there is not such thing quite perfect in the world, the writer honestly appreciates of the writing, hopefully, this thesis will be a useful contribution for further research, especially in English. May Allah SWT always bless us, Amin.
Pancor, 26 April 2008
1.1 Background of the Problem
Language has an important rule for human life, by using language the people will express their ideas, emotion, and desires, and it is used as a medium in interacts between one another to fulfill their daily need. English has been the most important language in international communication. The people all over the world speak the language when they meet one another in every international meeting, workshop, or conference. All countries in the world have set the language as one of the compulsory subject studied at school.
English has many function, one of them as stated in the 2004 curriculum that English is means for the students to develop science, technology, culture and art, and the final objective of teaching and learning process are the students are expected to master the four skills of language; listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Teaching and learning will be success if they are supported by some factors as the method that is used in teaching English, completeness of teaching facilitation, interesting media, and condition of school environment. So, environment plays an important role in improving students ability in learning language, especially speaking. therefore, this study tries to concern with the background of students’ environment in learning language, especially speaking.
Speaking is one of four language skill, which is basic function of language as communication instrument. It is important for the learners to practice their capability and their understanding, how to send idea, and how to spell word well. In this case the students’ motivation and interest are very needed to make the process of their understanding more easily. Some of figures also say that speaking is gold and silent is silver. Those expression showed us about the importance of speaking skill.
In teaching speaking, most teachers wish their students could speak fluently, but it is not as easy as they hope; it needs various ways in reaching the target. In this case, one of the ways of speaking is expressing gratitude and appreciation in conversation form.
According to Hariyono (2006: 92) gratitude is the general expression used to express thanking to people who gave us something. This expression often heard in our daily life. While appreciation is the expression used to appreciate gift of people, it is also often heard and often expressed to people in our daily life and it is not strange again for us (Hariyono, 2006: 93).
Those expression will make the students be motivated to study. The teacher who is able to present the material easily will be students’ idol. The teacher can use picture and dialog in teaching learning process to help the students’ understanding about the material that is explained.
So, to make the students have strong interest in teaching and learning process especially in learning speaking, the teacher should take the best approach, method, and strategies. Then, the teacher can use gratitude and appreciation in teaching of English language, both are used to help the students for speaking to make interaction between the students with students. Furthermore, the teacher has to prepare the interested technique before teaching learning process done.
Gratitude and appreciation must be able to increase the students’ motivation in learning English, especially in speaking English. Those expressions have to be able to manipulate, seeable, listenable, and readable. At last the teacher hopes that gratitude and appreciation can motivate his students to speak English to communicate their need, especially in the classroom and in their daily need in general.
The researcher is interested in investigating the students’ ability in expressing gratitude and appreciation in speaking ability because she wanted to know the students’ ability in expressing gratitude and appreciation in speaking. Gratitude and appreciation can be designed for foreign language teaching because she thinks that gratitude and appreciation can provide the students’ motivation and enthusiasms.
Example in conversation form:
Student : Excuse me, Sir.
Teacher : Yes, what can I do for you?
Student : I don’t understand this sentence. Could you explain me again?
Teacher : Certainly.
Student : Thank you for you help. You are very kind.
Teacher : I’m glad I could help.
Based on the above description the researcher decides to investigate this phenomena entitled “Students’ ability in expressing gratitude and appreciation in speaking”.
1.2 Statement of the Study
Based on the background of the problem above, the writer formulates statement of the problem are as follows:
1. To what extent is students’ ability in expressing gratitude and appreciation in speaking for the second year of MA Unwanul Falah NW Pao’ Lombok in the school year 2007/2008?
2. To what extent is the achievement levels of students’ ability in expressing gratitude and appreciation in speaking for the second year of MA Unwanul Falah NW Pao’ Lombok in the school year 2007/2008?
1.3 Objective of the Study
Based on background of the problem and statement of the problem above, the objective of the study can be stated as follows:
1. To know students’ ability in expressing gratitude and appreciation in speaking for the second year of MA Unwanul Falah NW Pao’ Lombok in the school year 2007/2008.
2. To know the achievement levels of students’ ability in expressing gratitude and appreciation in speaking for the second year of MA Unwanul Falah NW Pao’ Lombok in the school year 2007/2008.
1.4 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The researcher limited the study on the subject and object of the study as follows:
The subject of the study is the second year students of MA Unwanul Falah NW Pao’ Lombok in the school year 2007/2008.
The object of this study was limited on the students’ ability in expressing gratitude and appreciation in speaking.
1.5 Assumption of the Study
The assumption is a basic supposition about the research until the researcher formulates some of the supposition toward the research as follows:
1. Gratitude and appreciation will be more effective to increase students’ ability in speaking.
2. In teaching speaking, there are many various efforts to increase the students’ motivation which will be applied by the teacher.
1.6 Significant of the Study
This study is expected to be of any use in the process of teaching and learning theoretically and practically.
The result of this study are expected to be able to give the addition information toward the English teaching in general and teaching of speaking in particular by using expression of gratitude and appreciation. The results of this study are also expected to give motivation to the other researcher to do better research.
The results of this study are expected to be able to enrich the teachers’ knowledge and learners’ knowledge in expressing gratitude and appreciation in speaking. For example, conversation between a teacher and a student in classroom as follows:
Student : Can I borrow your pen, sir?
Teacher : Certainly.
Student : Thank you very much. That’s very kind of you
Teacher : You are welcome.
1.7 Definition of Key Terms
To avoid ambiguity, misunderstanding or misinterpretation of the terms used in this study, the following key terms or concepts are defined:
1. Speaking ability refers to the skill of the students to communicate or say anything orally in transferring their ideas by using English and which is emphasized on the students’ skill to use the target language effectively and appropriately which they are communicating.
2. Gratitude is the general expression used to express thankful. Or gratitude is one’s feeling of being grateful or the desire to express one’s thankful.
3. Appreciation is the expression used to appreciate gift of people. Or appreciation on one’s feeling to show gratitude in appreciating gift from people.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Reviewing some related literature is aimed at looking for some information of what have been done previously by some other researchers in this field. It is considered important to give an overview on the problems of the recent study. Hence, the answer of the problem can be accurately provided. Then the topic of discussion in this part is classified under the sub heading of speaking ability, relevant study, and theoretical frameworks.
2.1 Speaking Ability
Four language skills consist of listening, speaking, reading and writing. Speaking is the second skill that needs to be comprehended by the people chronologically in their life. In fact, the first time he comes to the world just proud of his ear to listen to his mother, subbing and surrounding. Then it tried to utter the guidance to the adults like his mother.
The ability to speak a second or foreign language well is very complex task if we try to understand the nature of what appears to involve. To begin with speaking is used for many different purposes and each purposes involves different styles. When we use casual conversation, for example our purposes may be to make social context with people, to establish rapport, or to engage in the harmless chitchat that occupies much of the time we spend with friends.
According to Richard (2002: 201) states that:
“When we engage in this discussion with someone on the other had, the purposes may be to seek or express opinion, to persuade someone about something, or to clarify information. In some situation we use speaking to give instruction or to get things down. We use speaking to describe thing, to complain about people behavior, to make polite request or to certain people with jokes and anecdotes. Each of these difference purpose for speaking implies knowledge of the rule that account for how spoken language reflect the context or situation in which speech occur, the participant involve and their specific rule and relationship and the kind of activity the speaker are involved in”.
This process comes through and continually all days, all night, or all times his life. For the reason, speaking is one of the language skill takes place effectively in orally form. Nation states “speaking skill is needed by learner in real communication to express any messages and information”. Based on the statement above, can be attracted the conclusion that speaking is as the fundamental media used to convey messages, knowledge, emotions, feelings, ideas, and opinions directly in interacting with another people.
In this parts, the researcher is going to describe about the meaning of speaking ability, the importance of speaking ability, the nature of speaking ability, the aspect of speaking ability, function of speaking ability, the factors effect of speaking ability, and the assessment of speaking ability.
2.1.1 The Meaning of Speaking Ability
Speaking ability consists of two words “speaking” and “ability”. Speaking is the capability to articulate the expression and delivering thought, opinion and wish (Tarigan, 1985: 21). According to Djiwandono (1996: 68) that speaking is the activity to deliver language and to communicate idea and thought orally.
Ability is a power in doing something, fitness for ability for being improved (Hornby, 1995: 78). Ability is capability or a power to do something physically or mentally.
Based on the explanations, it can be concluded that speaking is to utter the articulation of sound to express or state also deliver the opinion and wish. Therefore, if both speaking and ability are combined, so it means that capability to utter the articulation of sound to express or deliver thought, wish to other people to do communication task.
2.1.2 The Importance of Speaking Ability
The capability of human to speak well is take an important role in delivering message, wish and thought etc. in order the addressee can comprehend what the addressor talk about. Referring to the importance of speaking ability, Haryanto (1984: 26) says when human delivers a message and it is accepted by the communicant, communication had been occur between communication and communicant.
Furthermore, Nurhadi (1987: 21) says that speaking is a work constitutes a complex problem and so important. If the communicant does not understand what message conveyed is about, it will occur misunderstanding. The above opinion indicate that speaking ability is very important to everyone because of it is multifunction but remember, to master speaking well it needs more course and practice. As an information, since the normal infant was born he or she has a potency of speaking skill, it can be seen when the infant start to make sound. It is line to mentalists theory promoted by Haryanto (1984: 19) states that since infant was born she/he had supplied with language acquisition device (LAD) in which it can be seen when the infant start to make and differentiate sound.
2.1.3 The Nature of Speaking Ability
The nature of speaking refers to communicate in activities among two people to express orally any message of information. In this case Muhammad (2004: 4) states that “Communication derives essentially from interaction”. It means that in communication or speaking activities involves (loosely) interaction between the speakers and the listener or between the students and the receivers.
The discussion in this study talks about spoken language in term of speaking. Julia (1987: 17) defines speaking as the informal interchange of thought and information by spoken words. What we learn from the definition is that speaking is an interchange of thought and information. It means that speaking involves at least two persons, one as a listener and the other as a responder. So, it is two ways processes of interchanging of thought and information.
Breen and Candlin (1989: 89-112) state that the nature of speaking is also the nature of communication. Breen and Candlin further elaborate the nature of speaking or communication as follows:
1. Communication (speaking) is as the form of social interaction.
2. Communication needs a high creativity in the messages form.
3. Communication happens based on psychologies condition.
4. Communication happens in the discourse contexts and social culture in the actual use of language.
5. Communication always contains intention and purpose.
6. Communication involves authentic language.
7. Communication (speaking) can happen successfully that is proved with the real result.
2.1.4 The Aspect of Speaking Ability
The process of speaking is used to be able to speak well and right. Haryanto (1984: 26) says that a well speaking must be able to deliver right message and can be understood, familiar by other people or the listener. Referring to the aspects of speaking, Tarigan (1985: 42) states that speaking activity may be viewed from appropriate utterances, stress, choice of appropriate word of speaking target. The other opinion says that the aspect of speaking consist of utterance, grammar, vocabulary, fluency, content and comprehension. (Nurhadi, 1987: 23)
Furthermore, Richard (2002: 206) states that communicative activity include grammatical competence, discourse competence, sociolinguistic competence and strategic competence, which reflect use of linguistic system and the functional aspect of communication.
Based on the above opinion, it can be concluded that aspects of speaking ability are determined by utterance, grammar, vocabulary, fluency, content, comprehend, appropriate of word choice, familiar, placement of stress etc. However, not all of them will be described below, but, it will be focused on the some aspect of utterances, or pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar and comprehension.
1. The Utterance Skill
The ability of utterance is one of the important thing in order that message is acceptable. Referring to such thing, Tarigan (1985: 55) states in speaking process such as discussion, briefing, argumentation, chatting, interview, asking and answering, speech have to be uttered clearly in order the expression of thought delivered to audience can be understood easily. So, the utterance has to be uttered clearly and also appropriate words, simple sentence, effective in expression of pronunciation material. Haryanto (1984: 9) states that a good speaker should be able to choose and use words appropriateness of expression, sentence, voice and a good intonation as well.
In such thing the utterance skill is very often concerned to pronunciation skill, it means by pronouncing clear words the interaction will run smoothly and finally the speakers and listeners can understand each other. Because of it roles many linguists give additional about the important of pronunciation in language use or communication. Furthermore, Richards (2002: 183) point out that it is artificial to divorce pronunciation from communication and other aspects of language use. Richard (2002: 183) also chief tenets that language is bets taught when it is being used to transmit message, and this sentiment has been echoed in relation to pronunciation.
Based on the above opinion, it can be concluded that effective in utterance words, clear pronunciation, appropriate words, simple sentence and able to utter words or expression clearly and simply is some of the important things in speaking ability related to utterance skill.
Knowing approximately 3000 high-frequency and general academic words is significant because this amount will help the speakers to utterance words easily, fluently and good refers to the important of vocabulary to be mastered. Richard (2002: 259) found that knowing a minimum of about 3000 words was required for effective speaking, at the university level, whereas knowing 5000 words indicated likely academic success.
Grammar is one of the aspect in language, each language has different grammar such, (Richard, 2002: 141) defines grammar as grammatical competence which stated that Grammar Competency is an umbrella concept that includes increasing expertise in grammar (morphology and syntax), vocabulary and mechanics (sound of letter, syllables, pronunciation of word, intonation and a stress). Nurhadi (1987: 34) states that grammar covers phonology, semantic, morphology and syntax. Furthermore, he states that grammar is a group of paradigm of structure generally covers by segments of phonology, morphology and sentence.
In order to process of speaking subject can be accepted by the listeners, the speakers has to use selective words and able to choose the suitable and appropriate form in delivering any message, in order it can be accepted well by the others, such an idea and grammar. Referring to the important of grammar, Nurhadi (1987: 85) stated that the learner must able to determine whether the form or structure is suitable to the context or not.
2.1.5 Function of Speaking Ability
Speaking is described as an articulation of sound to express thought. Junaidi (2004: 7) says that, the skill of speaking is needed by the students in communication, while Crisper and Widdowson (1975: 12) also states that speaking has an important contribution in social interaction.
Speaking is as one of the language skills that has vital function to orally express any messages, ideas, opinions and emotions. Furthermore, Fraser (1970: 5) elaborates some functions of speaking as follows:
1. Representative function
In this function, speaking has an important role to make statement and for sending information about knowledge.
2. Directive function
In this view, speaking is used to express any suggestions and advices orally.
3. Evaluative function
In this case, speaking is used to know and to evaluate comprehension degrees of speakers and listeners about the substances of speaking.
Based on the function of speaking stated above, the researcher can conclude that the speaking skill is one of language skill that has important roles for human’s life.
2.1.6 The Factors Effect Speaking Ability
Speaking ability constitute one of language skills derive from learning result. Brown (1987: 75) states that, generally, there are two factors which affect the learning process and learning result that is internal and external factors.
1. Internal Factor
Broadly speaking, internal factor is element which affect learning process, such as entering behavior in which this element exist on the learner him/her self, there are some components which consist in internal factor, such as; age or maturational constraints factor; affective factor; intelligence factor; and talent factor.
a. Age or maturational constraints factor
Age is one of the most commonly cited, determinant factors of success or failure in learning second language or foreign language learning. Richard (2002: 205) argue that acquires who begin learning a second language in early childhood through natural exposure achieve higher proficiency than those beginning as adults. He also shows that man adults fail to reach native like proficiency in a second language. Furthermore, Oxford (1995) shows that the aging process itself may affect or limit adult learners ability to pronounce the target language fluently with native, even if they can utter words and sentences with perfect pronunciation, problem with prosodic features such as intonation, stress, and other phonological nuances still cause misunderstandings or lead to communication breakdown. Adult learners do not seem to have the same innate language-specific endowment or propensity as children for acquiring fluency and naturalness in spoken language.
b. Affective factor
The affective factors probably one the most important influences on language learning success or failure (Oxford, 1995: 140), the affective factors related to (L2) or foreign language learning are emotion, self-esteem, empathy, anxiety, attitude and motivation. L2 or foreign language learning is a complex task that is susceptible to human anxiety (Brown, 1987: 206) which is associated with feelings of uneasiness, frustration, self doubt or unconfident and apprehension. Speaking a foreign language in public, especially in the front of native speakers, is often anxiety provoking, sometimes, extreme anxiety occurs when EFL learners become tongue-tied or lost for words in unexpected situation, which often leads to discouragement and a general sense of failure.
c. Intelligence factor
Intelligence constitutes unique characteristic which possessed by person, it is already exist since the infant was born, intelligence factor take an important role in learning because it can influence the success or the failure in acquiring or learning the language. The other figure defined intelligence as the ability for making combination and as the ability to think abstractly. Furthermore, Thorndike quoted that intelligence as something that can be measured with uncompleted standard of possibilities in individual struggle life.
Based on the opinion above, it can be concluded that intelligence factor take an important roles in influencing the learner’s learning foreign language, more over in speaking ability process.
d. Talent factor
Talent is an ability of someone to finish his/her task well, without having a certain exercise and success in giving a good result for which they have done. For example, someone who never plays violin, but he/she tries to play it and he studies in art school, but he can produce a good tune. The above description indicates that, talent already exists since baby was born. The real fact that a person who never having certain exercises and he tries to play something he can do and produce something with good result. To know the person’s talent, it can be measured by special test. Suryabrata (2002: 161) defines aptitude as predictable achievement and it can be measured by specially devised test. Furthermore, Suryabrata (2002: 160) defines aptitude as a person’s capacity, or hypothetical potential, for acquisitions of a certain more or less well defined pattern of behavior in valves in the performance of a task respect to which the individual has had little or no previous training. Such a definition can be seen that talent may be grouped as achievement that constitute and actual ability, capacity that constitute potent ability and aptitude, that is quality which can be expressed through a test.
2. External Factor
External factor constitute a factor that comes from outside of the learner himself. Generally, external factors can categorized into non-social factor and social or sociocultural factor.
- Non-social factor
Non-social factor consists of whether, time either in the morning, in the afternoon or in the night inside or outside building and instruments that is applied to learning those factors is very determined in learning process.
- Social or sociocultural factor
Many cultural characteristics of a language also affect L2 or foreign language learning. From a pragmatic perspective communication occurs in the context of structured interpersonal exchange, and meaning is thus socially regulated. Richard (2000: 206) stated that “shared valves beliefs create the togetherness and are expressed in their language, thus, to speak language, one must know how the language is used in social context.
2.1.7 Concept of Speaking as a Language Skill
Previously, people conceived that language in daily terms is spoken. Certainly, it is a reality that spoken language dominated the communication activities in any field for a long time. It has been confirmed by Tarigan (1985: 24) that in teaching and learning activities, for example, the teacher need much talks to encourage their pupils to engage in genuine communication in the classroom, while student outside the classroom get large opportunities to communicate freely.
Among the fort integrated language skill (listening, reading, speaking and writing) speaking is the second skill that need to comprehend by the people chronologically in their life. In fact the first time he comes to the world just proud of his ear to listen to his mother, siblings and surroundings. Then he tries to utter the nearest word to him under the guidance of the adults (like his mother, father, siblings or babysitter). Such process some trough and continually all days, all night or all times along his life. Finally, he is permitted to recognize the symbol written by reading some printed materials and demanded to write them.
When discussion come to term speaking, the writer firstly, intern to come up what expression of the linguists that language is speaking and also speaking is language. Tarigan (1985: 4) states that speaking is closely related to vocabulary improvement which the students’ received from reading and listening activities it need to be realized that the skill needed in speaking activity it seems the same or at least similar for the sake of effective communication in other word, the sequence of integrated language skill and language elements are necessary to built up an effective communication orally.
2.1.8 The Assessment of Speaking Ability
The assessment of speaking ability discusses something about speaking test. Testing the ability to speak is the most important aspect of language testing. The following are kinds of speaking ability assessment:
1. Reading Loudly
Many present day oral test include a test of reading loudly in which the students are given time to glance through an extract before being required to read it loudly. The ability to read loudly differs greatly from the ability to converse with another person in a flexible, informal way. Test involving reading loudly is generally used when it is desired to assess the pronunciation and distinction from the total speaking ability. In order to construct suitable test for reading loudly, it is helpful in which the test maybe required to read loudly. For example, the following instruction relates to a situation in which a teacher or class monitor may be asked to read loudly. (Heaton, 1975: 87)
2. Conversational Exchange
This test is suitable for laboratory and can be served to focus on a certain aspect of spoken language, especially in those countries where English is taught as a foreign language and the emphasis primarily on the reading skills. However, several of the test items themselves are for communicative in any sense at all and do not allow for authentic interaction of any kind. (Heaton, 1975: 90)
The following is the example type of this test.
The testers are given a series of situation and are required to construct sentences on the lines of a certain pattern or group of patterns. Example: Mrs. Green lives in a flat. She doesn’t like living in a flat and would like to live in a small house with a garden.
3. Using Picture for Assessing Oral Production
Pictures, maps, and diagrams can be used in oral production test in similar ways to these descriptions in the previous unit in listening skills test. Pictures of single objects can be used for testing production of significant phonemes contracts, while a picture of a scene or an accident can be used to examine the total of oral skill.
The students are given a picture to study for a few minutes, they are required to describe the picture in a given time. Occasionally, the number of words, each students speak is counted by one examiner in the room, while the other examiner counts the number of error made. The score is thus obtained on the basis of the number of words spoken and the errors made. (Heaton, 1975: 92)
4. The Oral Interview
The scoring of oral interview is highly subjective and thus sometimes has only low reliability. In addition, performance of students are particularly may not accurately reflect his/her truth ability.
The oral interview should be scored only after the students have left the room. But it is still questioned how it should be scored. (Heaton, 1975: 96)
The conversion table of weighting table of the comprehensive
description of the FSI procedure
To assess students’ speaking ability, the researcher used oral test as instrument. Instrument of this study is in situations form as follows:
A. In the library happened conversation between Anto and Andi. Anto wants to get a book of health but he can’t get it. And he asks a help to Andi to get the book.
a. What will Anto say to Andi after getting the book of health?
b. What is Andi’s respond to Anto’s statement?
c. What will they do next?
B. In the party happened conversation between Widia and Lisa. Lisa gives a complimenting to Widia because she saw Widia’s clothes is very beautiful in the party. So that Lisa is proud of her.
a. What will Widia say to Lisa after she is given a complimenting by Lisa?
b. What is Lisa’s respond toward Widia’s utterances?
c. What will they do next?
C. In this case is Ayu’s birthday. She is given many prizes by her friends. One of them is Sinta. She has given Ayu an interesting prize. And Ayu accepts it happily.
a. What will Ayu say to Sinta after she is given an interesting prize by her?
b. What is Sinta’s respond toward Ayu’s statement?
c. What will they do next?
The researcher’s purpose selected the instrument above because she wanted to measure the skill, knowledge and ability of students. The statement in situations form was used to stimulate the subject to build their opinion. They changed the statements into the conversation form, then they practice the conversation with their partner, and they are recorded by using tape recorder.
Before doing investigate, the first researcher did observation at MA Unwanul Falah NW Pao’ Lombok, especially the second year students. She did the investigate based on the material of the second year students. So, actually gratitude and appreciation also learnt by the second year students of MA Unwanul Falah NW Pao’ Lombok.
2.2 Gratitude and Appreciation
Interesting and motivation of the learners are main factors importance in determining his/her achievement. In language learning, the teacher’s skilful may give each students’ feeling of success and achievement. Gratitude and appreciation might be used more effectively to develop and sustain motivation, to produce positive attitude toward English and reinforce language-learning skills.
In teaching English as foreign language, the teacher cannot detach from expressions as means that it is to facilitate teacher and students in teaching and learning process in classroom. As Wright (1976: 41) states gratitude and appreciation can help by providing a variety of context for the teaching items, which is son necessary at the manipulating stage. Also, if required, they can provide convincing representations and simulations of real life situation in which the language is to be manipulated.
In other hand, gratitude and appreciation can make in helping the students to communicate that is to understand, to speak, to read, to listen, and to write English. Furthermore, these expressions are as means to facilitate, and motivate students with presenting any skill of language in classroom activities.
This study discusses about definition of gratitude and appreciation, kinds and usage of gratitude and appreciation, function of gratitude and appreciation in language teaching, teaching speaking by expressing gratitude and appreciation, and gratitude, appreciation and speaking ability.
2.2.1 Definition of Gratitude and Appreciation
Teaching is an art, a teacher hopefully has creativity in teaching a material for the students. Moreover, as we know that many students have thought that English is bored and very difficult. To solve the problem, the writer used gratitude and appreciation in the teaching speaking, because the expressions are easier to be expressed especially in English speaking.
Gratitude is the feeling of being grateful of the desiring to express one’s thanks (Oxford dictionary). While according to Hariyono (2006: 92) gratitude is the general expression used to express thanking to people who gave us something. This expression often heard in our daily life. All of us also often use it every time when we got something from people.
Appreciation is the feeling or showing gratitude to appreciate gift from people (Oxford dictionary). The other opinion stated that appreciation is the expression used to appreciate gift of people, it is also often heard and often expressed to people in our daily life and it is not strange again for us (Hariyono, 2006: 93).
In this study, the researcher asked the students to express gratitude such as “thank you very much”, and appreciation such as “it’s very good of you”. After analyzed the students’ speaking ability, the students were able to express and respond those expression well especially in speaking English. Therefore, gratitude and appreciation can help the students in improving their mastery in communication, especially in speaking English.
So, gratitude and appreciation are the kind of expression used to express thanking to people and to appreciate their gift, we express it by using expression of appreciation (Hariyono, 2006: 97). He also stated that those expressions used when we got something from friends or people and we express by thanking and appreciation. Those expression are can used in the formal and informal situations.
The expression of gratitude used in the formal situation such as; thank you, thank you very much, thank you for your help, thank you for your tips, etc. Replying for gratitude in the formal situation such as; you are welcome, it was my pleasure, don’t mention it, etc. While the expression of appreciation can used in the formal and informal situations (Hariyono, 2006: 98).
While the expression of gratitude used in informal situations, such as; much obligated, I cant thank you enough, I can’t find words how to thank you. Replying for gratitude in informal situation such as, not at all, no problem, thank you just the same, okay, the same, and forget it (Hariyono, 2006: 98).
The formal situation is usually used by student with teacher, employee with Boss, student with advisor, younger with older, and patient with doctor. While the informal situation is used by student with student, friend with friend, husband with wife, etc. (Hariyono, 2006: 99).
Based on describing above, the researcher described formal and informal situations in conversation form as follows:
a. Formal situation
· Student with teacher
Student : Excuse me Sir, can I borrow your pen?
Teacher : Sure, but where is your pen?
Student : I’m sorry Sir, my pen is lost last time. I don’t know who is take it. I put it in my bag, but after I want to use it for writing suddenly I didn’t find it.
Teacher : Okay, I will lend you but you must be careful next. Here you are.
Student : Yes, Sir. Thank you very much. It’s very good of you.
Teacher : You are welcome.
· Employee with boss
Employee : I am sorry Sir. I want to ask about the meeting now. What topic our meeting now?
Boss : Why are you ask me now?
Employee : Because I absent yesterday.
Boss : I always hope that you always present everyday.
Employee : Once again I am sorry Sir. Can you repeat again.
Boss : Okay, our meeting now speak about building of hotel near beach.
Employee : Thank you for your information, Sir. You are very kind.
Boss : Don’t mention it.
· Younger with older (Young brother with old sister)
Young brother : Can you help me?
Old sister : Yes, what can I do for you?
Young brother : I want to buy a book of sport, but I can’t get it until now. My head very dizzy because I always looking for it.
Old sister : Why are you tell me now not yesterday?
Young brother : Because I thought very easy for getting.
Old sister : Okay my brother, I will help you. Let’s go now!
Young brother : Thank you so much my sister. You are very kind.
Old sister : I am glad I could help.
· Patient with Doctor
Doctor : What is your name?
Mr. Ahmad : My name is Ahmad
Doctor : What’s wrong wit you?
Mr. Ahmad : I feel very bad cold but my body is very warm. I ever to the other doctor, he said that I get typhus. I am very sad with my sick.
Doctor : I am sorry to hear that.
Mr. Ahmad : Thank you for your sympathy.
Doctor : Don’t be sad. I will give your medicine. I hope you will get better soon.
Mr. Ahmad : Thank you for your tips. You are very kind.
Doctor : It was my pleasure.
· Student with Advisor
Student : Sir, can you tell me to solve my problem? I am very confuse about that.
Advisor : Of course. What is your problem?
Student : I don’t understand about this sentences. Can you explain me again?
Advisor : Yes, I can. You must study hard about that. You must change the sentence into past tense sentence.
Student : Thank you, Sir. It’s very kind of you.
Advisor : You are welcome.
b. Informal Situation
· Student with Student
A : Good morning friend. How are you this morning?
B : Good morning. I’m fine. And you?
A : I am fine too. Where are you going?
B : I go to library. and you?
A : I go to library too.
B : I think you will go to canteen.
A : Friend, can you help me get book of health?
B : Sure. Let’s go now
A : Much obliged. You are very kind.
B : Forget it.
· Friend with Friend
A : What are you looking for?
B : I am looking for my bag.
A : Do you need help me?
B : Sure, thanks a lot.
A : This is your bag. I get it in the table near selves.
B : I can’t thank you enough.
A : Not at all.
2.2.2 Kinds and Usage of Gratitude and Appreciation
Gratitude used when we got something from people, and it was used to appreciate their gift.
According to Hariyono (2006: 92), the kinds and replying of gratitude are as follow:
The Kinds of Gratitude
· Formal form
- Thank you
- Thank you very much
- Thank you so much
- Thanks a lot
- I don’t’ know how to thank you
- Thank you for your help
- Thank you for your tips (advice)
· Informal form
- Much obliged
- I can’t thank you enough
- I can’t find words how to thank you
· Formal form
- You are welcome
- I am glad I could do it
- I am glad I could be of help
- Don’t mention it
- I am glad I could help
- Glad to be of help
- It was my pleasure
· Informal form
- Okay, the same
- Not at all
- Thank you just the same
- Forget it
Usage of gratitude are as follow:
- Thank you and thanks used in usual situation. Example someone give something by expressing “here’s your bag”. The other one will express “thank you” or “thanks”.
- Thank you very much, thank you so much and thanks a lot used if someone given something which very pleasure and very interest. She/he also can use them if someone got the something very valuable. Example: a teacher gave a good to her/his students, and they are must be express those expressions.
- Thank you for your help used if someone got help from people. Example: Mrs. Green can’t get her dog. She asked help to her old brother. Suddenly, her old brother got it in the old building. She expresses the expression to her old brother.
- Thank you for your tips (advice) used if someone was being advices or given suggestions by the other, such as: parent, teacher or advisor. Example: Mr. Danuarta was confused about his work, but his parent always give him suggestion or advice and motivation every time in order to always relax with his work. So, he is express thank you for your tip (advice) to his parent.
While, much obliged and I can’t thank you enough use informal form. Their usage are similar with formal form but used in different situation.
Besides the kinds of gratitude, also there are the kinds of expression which express about appreciation and used in formal and informal forms are as follows:
- It’s very good of you.
- That’s very nice of you
- That’s very kind of you
- You are very kind
- You are very nice
- I’m very much obliged to you
- I’m very grateful to you
- I’ll remember it forever
- I’m deeply indebted to you
- It’s very kind of you
(Hariyono, 2006: 94)
Gratitude and appreciation used when we got something from friends or people and we express by thanking and appreciation (Oxford dictionary). This is suitable to improve the ability of students in speaking. The researcher thinks that it is necessary for the learners to improve their speaking ability.
Gratitude and appreciation are especially popular expression used in speaking. By using both of the expression, the learners are easier to communicate with the other because the expressions are often used in daily life.
2.2.3 Function of Gratitude and Appreciation in Language Teaching
Several courses for teaching foreign language from beginning to more advanced levels are available. Dialogues or dramatic vignettes depicting some cultural situation are utilized, structure are repeated and manipulated some descriptions of word order and forms are given (Finnochiaro and Brumfit, 1987).
Gratitude and appreciation can be effective if they arrange in class co-operation, by the teacher and technician. They should aim at the providing supplementary material, bringing the teacher what he cannot give his class himself (pronunciation, grammar or glimpses of the countries life and civilization), through the mouths and foreign assistant or prominent people (Ruga, 2002: 14).
The unique contribution of gratitude and appreciation to teaching and learning are formulated as follow:
Communicate those expressions through the most direct to the mind and hearing. With motion are included color and sound, guaranteeing natural and sometime supernatural and stimulation of the holder.
These expressions can carry out some intellectual image to learning. they communicate rapidly that which other wise only a rich background of experience and a rich vocabulary might provide. These expressions also supply experiences upon which vocabulary can be built.
While, Ruga (2002, 15) says that scenario break through suplying a slightly of sequence o time, space taking, and viewer into the past, present and future into the word of imagination.
From some ideas above, the writer thinks that it is necessary for the learners to improve their speaking ability. Since gratitude and appreciation are the most expressions to improve their speaking ability.
2.2.4 Teaching Speaking by Expressing gratitude and Appreciation
Four language skills consist of listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Speaking is the second skill that be comprehended by people chronologically in their life. According to Tarigan (1985: 2) speaking is the capability to articulate the expression and delivering thought, opinion and wish.
Therefore, the second technique of teaching speaking is gratitude and appreciation. It is dramatic situation in which two speakers interact without any preparation. According to Hariyono (2006: 92) Gratitude and appreciation are specially popular activities in speaking club where groups have efficient time to study, and practice on the stage. This technique of course is suitable for advance learners that have enough vocabulary concerning with any find of roles. They will play it that technique provide a large opportunity for the students to use the target language freely without using the linguistic factors. The students may fairly judge their capability in the target language. This could be a good reason for them to improve their learning.
2.2.5 Gratitude, Appreciation, and Speaking Ability
In this study, the researcher describe about students’ ability in expressing gratitude and appreciation in speaking. Gratitude is the feeling of being grateful of the desiring to express of thanking (Oxford dictionary). While, according to Hariyono (2006: 92), gratitude is the general expression used to express thanking to people who gave us something. This is suitable to improve the ability of students in speaking. The researcher thinks that it is important for the learners to improve their speaking ability. To express gratitude in speaking, the researcher was not free of expression of appreciation.
Appreciation is the expression used to appreciate gift of people, it is often heard and expressed to people in our daily life and it is not strange for us (Hariyono, 2006: 93). While, according to Hornby (1995: 120) appreciation is the feeling which showing gratitude to appreciation gift from people.
Based on the explanation above, the researcher concluded that gratitude and appreciation are the kinds of expression used to express thanking to people and to appreciate their gift or expression who they express, we express it by using expression of appreciation. All of people in the world can express those expressions when they met one another in the international meeting, workshop or conference, in the school environment, etc.
In the international meeting, gratitude and appreciation have important role, especially in speaking. In the workshop or conference, and in the school environment, gratitude and appreciation also have important role in speaking. For example: employees with their boss. The boss gave his employees much salary, so the employees must be express gratitude and appreciation to their boss because they were given much salary. They usually express “thank you very much, thank you so much, I don’t know how to thank you, you are very kind, it is very good of you, that’s very good of you, that’s very nice of you”. After the boss heard those expressions, he will reply by using replying gratitude and appreciation such as; you are welcome, it was my pleasure, and don’t mention it (Hariyono, 2006: 96).
The next in the school environment, there are students and teachers. Interact between students and teachers something formal and informal, but the most always formal. Gratitude and appreciation in the school environment, especially classroom activity must be formal. For example, if the student express gratitude and appreciation to the teacher, so the student must using formal expression, because the teachers are must be respect.
Those expressions also can used in informal form. It is situation that do not require a high degree and usually involve persons in similar positions, example one student with the other student. While, formal form is situation that when a higher degree of formality, it is common use to people higher degree. The example of it was explained on the discussion above (Hariyono, 2006: 97).
In recent use years, much of the discussion relating to proficiency orientate instruction have focused on the development of oral skills. The emphasis on speaking proficiency can be attributed to a variety of factor, many of which traceable to the wide separate popularity of audio-lingual methodologies in the 1990’s (Richards, 2002: 8). Many students continue to take speaking ability as one of their primary goals of study; either because of their professional personal proficiency in a second language can be important asset for anyone whose speaking employment in business and industry in these decades.
However, the emphasis on speaking skills should not mean that the other skill out to be neglected in language curriculum. Ruga (2002) stipulates that appropriate teaching strategy for speaking skill depend on the student’s currents level and instructional goals in order to provide optimal speaking practice in given classroom, a long age teacher need to determine what range of levels, is likely to be attainable in the course of instruction. This range means the expectation of the students in a given course will be the same level of speaking skill at the end of instruction.
According to Ruga (2002) elaborates some principles of teaching and speaking. First of all in the teaching and speaking, opportunities must be provide for students for practice using language in range of context likely to be encouraged in the target culture. For example, the speaking practice they would likely conducted at the airport talking to the taxi driver or asking the police where to find a certain place. To this effectively, a language teacher should consider the following suggestions. Ruga (2002) the situation for oral practice activity should be relevant and immediately useful to the language. Lake to the contact should be reflected the level of students’ knowledge and their knowledge of the word. To some extent the language would the natural, expecting the student’s to produce natural response like native speaker of the target of language. Another consideration is that the response should be short enough for the students to remember.
The other principle is that opportunities should be provided for students to practice carrying out a range of functions (or tasks) likely to the necessary in dealing with other in the target culture. Function involved (1) judgment and education, (approving, disapproving, blaming, etc) (2) situation (inducement, compulsion, production, warming, managing, threatening, suggesting, and advise, etc), (3) agreement (concluding, conditioning, comparing and contrasting, defining, reasoning, verifying, etc).
According to Ruga (2002) says that English language teaching explains some ways in which these two principles can be handled.
First, a language teacher can use tape recorder dialogues. Next for intermediate and advance strategies, he can use scenario in which the student complete unfinished conversation. Then teacher can mine out stories and the students must tell the teachers’ action in telling jokes.
Speaking activity may be troublesome to some students. Therefore, conversation may provide invaluable helps to the students to speak out. Wright (1976: 14) elaborates that conversation can provide cues and context and topic as well, student are motivate material may provide with them some clear concept of contexts of discourse within which the same taken, conversation provide the students with information to use in speech activities will have meaning, including object, action, event relationship.
More importantly, the forth function of conversation for speaking activity is to provide the students with non-verbal cues manipulation work. And last, it could provide non-verbal response or prompt to dialogue invention. It is also important to note that bay the next existence of conversation the student’s concentration must be listening to the spoken model and then on the imitation of it. If conversation are to be used, their should be a minimum of distraction information in the scenario, of course, the teacher may be happy to risk a little distraction. If there is a gain in order ways; for example, through a flavor of the foreign culture. In this case conversation can be used for repetition activity of speaking class.
Whoever there is often the time when the teacher would like to the pupil’s concentrate to produce those sound himself. The teacher may present these a relative phonemes or in words, phrases or sentences. There is a wealth of published conversation available to help with this type of work. There is diagram showing mouth, tongue, and teeth position, sign showing intonation, and stress when speaking from a written text. There are films, picture, games, charts and flashcards with show text in picture or one of them would without another. However event though the emphasis is on attaining the students to distinguish new sound and produce them. There are no reasons why the meaning of the word should be ignored.
These days, furthermore, the students in language classroom, either dealing with grammatical, reading, listening, writing or even speaking demanded the students in order to be always in target language (English for most Indonesia student). the student should be able to create instruction with them, or their teacher, fear on event at outside the classroom my English freely and challengingly.
For example, in teaching learning process, especially in teaching speaking, the teacher ask the students in order to discuss one thing. In this case the students must be able to explore the material, talking about them. This particular type of teaching techniques is well known as SAL (Students Active Learning).
Relating to speaking or oral production test (Heaton, 197: 88) elaborates that testing the ability to speak is a most important but extremely difficult skill to test. Moreover, it is possible for a person to produce practically all the correct sounds but still unable to communicate his ideas appropriately and effectively. On the other hands, and person can make a numerous errors in both phonology and syntax and yet succeed in expressing himself fairly clearly.
2.3 Relevant Study
Some studies with speaking have been conducted by Muh. Hirsan (2006) investigated about “The Students’ Ability of English Speaking Skill Trhough Retelling Story for the Second Year Students of MAN Selong in the School Year 2005/2006”.
The research of the study was descriptive research. It was aim at finding some difficulties which derive from internal and external factor of students themselves. Therefore, students must be motivated using the story in the teaching learning process.
This study stated problem: to what extent is the students’ ability of the English speaking skill through re-telling story can improve the second year students language program of MAN Selong in the school year 2005/2006?
The study is categorized as descriptive research. The population of this study is the second year students of MAN Selong that the total number 235 students. While, the sample of this study is 40 students.
The mean score all of students’ speaking ability was 30.13. It was also found out that the highest students’ score on the English speaking test through telling a series of picture was 51 and the lowest score was 20. It means that English speaking ability for the second year students of MAN Selong were still low.
2.4 Theoretical Framework
Speaking is one of the components of language which function to express feeling, opinion, ideas, and the activity to deliver language and to communicate idea, and thought orally (Djiwandono, 1996: 68).
Teacher can determine the successful of the students in teaching English. In teaching learning process, teachers and students find out many problems. So, solving the problems for the teacher must have good approaches, method and technique in presenting a material for the students.
This study investigated about the students’ speaking ability in expressing gratitude and appreciation in speaking. Hariyono (2006) states that gratitude is the general expression used to express thanking to people who gave us something. While according to Hariyono (2006) appreciation is the expression used to appreciate gift of people, it is often heard and often expressed to people in our daily life and it is not strange again for us. Therefore, gratitude and appreciation can help the students in improving their mastery in speaking English. Gratitude and appreciation are followed by acting, it makes a good atmosphere in teaching and learning process. In this study, the result of theoretical give support for the teacher to use gratitude and appreciation in teaching learning process. And the practical application of the teacher is presention and interesting technique in teaching learning process.
This chapter describes about; research design, population and sample, instrument of data collection, technique of data collection, and technique of data analysis.
3.1. Research Design
In order to obtain the data systematically, it is necessary to plan and to arrange about the research design. This research is descriptive study in which the researcher tried to analyze the students’ ability in expressing gratitude and appreciation which are produced by students related to the oral production.
In this study, the researcher prepared or sets up communication strategies toward speaking fluency. For the students who were examined to answer speaking that would be tested. The idea concerned with the statement of Arikunto (1998: 67) says that by using an experimental design, the examiner intentionally revised appearance of the difference and then it was examined how the result was.
3.2. Population and Sample
Population is the number of people, which have the same characteristic (Arikunto, 1998). Moreover she states that a population is a set of collection, all elements processing one or more attributes of interest. Meanwhile, Arifin (2003: 6) states that a population is a number objects with a certain characteristic that are aimed at a field of investigation.
Based on the definition above, the researcher inferred that population was the entire subject of study which was examined. So, the population of this study was all of the second year students of MA Unwanul Falah NW Pao’ Lombok in the school year 2007/2008. The number of the second year students of MA Unwanul Falah NW Pao’ Lombok in the school year 2007/2008 consists of 102 students, which were divided into three classes.
The sample is a part of representative population examined or investigated (Arikunto, 1998: 109). Furthermore, Ary (1979: 163) defines a sample as the small group that was observed. Meanwhile, Arifin (2003: 6) defines sample as some of population that represent the whole population. Kind of sampling is used in this study was quota sample. it is not done base of the area, but based on number determined.
Arikunto (1998: 63) elaborates, “if the number of population was more than one hundred so the researcher takes 10-15%, 20-25%. But if the number of population less than one hundred so the researcher took the whole population as sample.
In taking the sample of this study, the researcher selected the sample from IPA program of students of MA Unwanul Falah NW Pao’ Lombok in the School Year 2007/2008, consists of 32 students. The number of the population of this study was 102 students, but the researcher took 20% as the sample. thus, the counting of 20% from 102 students is 32 students were taken as the sample of the study.
3.3. Instrument of Data Collection
Instrument takes an important role for collecting data. The accuracy of the result was very determined on how accurate the use of instrument.
Relating to research problem, the researcher used oral test as an instrument. Ary (1979: 216) states that a test is a set of stimuli presented to an individual in order to elicit responses on the basis of which a numerical score can be assigned. Moreover, Heaton (1975: 89) states that the test must be appropriate in terms of our objectives, it depends on the evidence provided and particular situation.
In order to avoid misunderstanding in the readers’ mind, the researcher informed the kind of test that used in this research was speaking test as an instrument. The aim of it was to measure the skill, knowledge, ability, etc. The statement in situation form was used to stimulate the subject to build their opinion and the subject changed the situations into the conversation form.
3.4. Technique of Data Collection
Data collection is one of the important steps in conducting research and this data was collected by taking the learning achievement through the test that was speaking test in the form of oral speaking. In order to get data, the researcher administrated the way of collecting data as follows:
- The writer prepared statement in situation form which focused in gratitude and appreciation.
- Then the students practiced the situations into conversation form with their partner. It means that they changed the situations into conversation form
- While, the students were doing conversation, the researcher recorded them by using tape recorder. Before practice the conversation, the students were given 15 minutes to study the situations, and practiced the conversation in 20 minutes.
3.5. Technique of Data Analysis
In analyzing the data obtained, the following procedures were used. First, the scores obtained from the test as the data were arranged from the highest to the lowest. Second, the mean of each test was computed to get the standard deviation of each test was determined. Finally, the frequency distributions were presented in the form of statistical calculation; these procedures were processed by using the descriptive analysis.
The data were described by using descriptive statistic in which it covers maximum score determination to the minimum ideal. Ideal mean (Mi) and ideal standard deviation (SDi) were derived from the formula mean (M) = ½ (ideal maximum score – ideal minimum score). (Netra, 1978: 78).
The data of the test result were described into three categories are as follows:
Mi + 1 SDi to Mi + 3 SDi = High
Mi – 1 SDi to Mi + 1 SDi = Average
Mi – 3 SDi to Mi – 1 SDi = Low
(Nurkancana, 1986: 5)
RESEARCH RESULT AND DISCUSSION
This chapter presents the result of research and discussions. The result deals with students’ ability in expressing gratitude and appreciation for the second year students of MA Unwanul Falah NW Pao’ Lombok in the school year 2007/2008. while, the discussion deals with the result of this research. It was discussed in some sub heading such as; the results of students speaking ability, and discussion.
4.1 Research Result
In this part, the research tries to present the result of the research that concern students’ speaking ability in expressing gratitude and appreciation for the second year students of MA Unwanul Falah NW Pao’ Lombok in the school year 2007/2008.
Students’ speaking ability in expressing gratitude and appreciation was measured by means of students’ conversation of MA Unwanul Falah NW Pao’ Lombok. The oral test was done by all of the sample of the study. The results of the responses of the subjects did conversation was clarified by the scores. (See appendix 03)
In this case, the results of the analysis test were 32 students who did the conversation test, the maximum score was 57. Whereas, the minimum score was 17, the mean score of their speaking ability to do the conversation was 30.40. The standard deviation was 5.51. Meanwhile, the ideal maximum score was 99.00 and the ideal minimum score was 16.00. So, the Ideal Mean score (Mi) gained was (M) = ½ x (99 + 16) = 57.50 and Ideal Standard Deviation (SDi) was 1/6 x (99-16) = 13.83.
The categories gained after calculating into the standard categories are as follows:
Mi + 1 SDi to Mi + 3 SDi = High
57.50 + 1 (13.83) 57.50 + 3 (13.83)
57.50 + 13.83 57.50 + 41.49
Mi – 1 SDi to < Mi + 1 SDi = Average
57.50 – 1 (13.83) < 57.50 + 1 (13.83)
57.50 – 13.83 < 57.50 + 13.83
43.67 < 71.33
Mi – 3 SDi to < Mi – 1 SDi = Low
57.50 – 3 (13.83) < 57.50 – 1 (13.83)
57.50 – 41.49 < 57.50 – 13.83
16.01 < 43.67
Since, the mean score obtained in this investigation was 30.40 and according to the above standard categories, it was categorized into low category rank.
In this case, the writer presented about the speaking ability and the achievement level of speaking ability test for the second year of MA Unwanul Falah NW Pao’ Lombok in the school year 2007/2008, which have been stated on the statement of the problem in this study. The problems are; (1) To what extent is students’ ability in expressing gratitude and appreciation in speaking for the second year of MA Unwanul Falah NW Pao’ Lombok in the school year 2007/2008? And (2) To what extent is the achievement level of students ability in expressing gratitude and appreciation in speaking for the second year students of MA Unwanul Falah NW Pao’ Lombok in the school year 2007/2008?. To answer the researcher’s question and to achieve the objective of the study, the research of the analysis are presented in the previous chapter.
Based on the results of the analysis are presented in the previous chapter, the writer concluded that the achievement level of students ability in expressing gratitude and appreciation in speaking was 30.40. Looking at this score and then conversed with the criteria of the level at the weighting table of the comprehensive description of the FSI procedure and the conversion table of weighting table of the comprehensive description of the FSI procedure.
The mean score of students ability was 30.40. According to the standard of performance (FSI procedure) adopted from the result of standard category and within the range of 16.01 to 43.67, English speaking ability in expressing gratitude and appreciation for the second year students of MA Unwanul Falah NW Pao’ Lombok in the school year 2007/2008 was low category.
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
The previous chapter presents the result and discussion. While this chapter presents the conclusion and some suggestions are proposed covering the students’ speaking ability in expressing gratitude and appreciation and suggestions for the next researchers.
Based on the discussion on the previous chapter, this study can be concluded that the students of MA Unwanul Falah NW Pao’Lombok were low in their English speaking ability. This is conducted from the results test that the average of English speaking ability for the second year of MA Unwanul Falah NW Pao’ Lombok was 30.40 with the standard deviation (SD) was 5.51. It was also found out the highest students’ score on the English speaking test through conversation about gratitude and appreciation in speaking ability was 57 and the lowest score was 17. It means that English speaking ability for the second year students of MA Unwanul Falah NW Pao’ Lombok were still low (based on FSI procedure).
The last, the writer want to say that from the spoken data analyzed, most of them made some errors covered with the pronunciation and structure.
Based on the research result, discussion and conclusion, the researcher would like to offer some suggestions as follows:
1. The students of MA Unwanul Falah NW Pao’ Lombok are suggested to study hard to develop their speaking ability, because speaking is very important for their classroom communication, especially in developing their speaking ability in expressing gratitude and appreciation in speaking.
2. The English teacher of MA Unwanul Falah NW Pao’ Lombok should find out some ways to improve the strategy used in the teaching learning process and teaching evaluation, so that English speaking ability for the second year students of MA Unwanul Falah NW Pao’ Lombok can be improved by expressing gratitude and appreciation in speaking.
3. The English teachers should ask the students to practice English commonly, gratitude and appreciation particularly when they speak to each others in order the students can speak English fluently.
4. The head master should motivate and support the school organization to make English course for students to increase their ability in English especially in speaking by expressing gratitude and appreciation in conversation form.
5. Finally, the researcher hopes to other researchers to be more motivated in conducting further investigation to find the main factors which can effect positive instruction activity.
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