THE INFLUENCE OF USING LANGUAGE GAMES
IN LEARNING ENGLISH GRAMMAR FOR THE SECOND YEAR STUDENTS OF MTs. NW DAMES LOTIM
IN THE SCHOOL YEAR 2008/2008
1.1 Background of the Study
English is undoubtedly becoming increasingly important nowadays, it also an important part the curriculum of Indonesia school and taught to students from the fourth grade of primary school. People realize how important to learn language and they hope can use whenever need basic of their further study in university level.
To have a good English, student have to master the four basic language skills. They are listening, speaking, reading and writing. Beside four skills, they have to master the grammar property. Grammar is need even in communicative ways.
Grammar should be taught appropriately because the basic element of a language without the proper knowledge of grammar, the learners will find many problem to build up sentences to express their ideas for communication activities. By using communication activities in learning grammar, the student manipulate grammar in communication with proper understanding by using the grammar, the student will feel confident in communication.
In reality learning, English grammar is boring for some student. The technique use in the teaching learning process. As we know the one of the purpose of learning English is how the student can communicate in real context.
In order to solve learning English grammar make the students boring is by using game and songs. By using games in learning English grammar student will have fun and relax.
From the background above, the writer is interest in searching about the effectiveness of using language game in learning English grammar at MTs. NW Dames Lotim.
1.2 Statement of the Problems
Base on the statement above, the writer formulate his problem as follow:
“Is there any influence of using language games in learning English grammar for the second year students of MTs. NW Dames Lotim?”
1.3 Objectives of the Study
There are many techniques are need to transfer the teaching points to students such as: demonstration, discussion, lecturing, exercise and game.
Game as one of teaching technique can be applied in teaching English grammar and the writer will focus this study at language game.
1.4 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The scope and limitation of the study are limit to the subject and object of research.
1. The research subject is limited to the second year student of MTs. NW Dames Lotim in the school year 2008/2009.
2. The research object is limited on using language games in learning English grammar for the second year students of MTs. NW Dames Lotim in the school year 2008/2009.
1.5 Significances of the Study
The findings of this study, can provide information about the influence of using language games in learning English grammar in class, especially in learning simple present tense and present progressive. It is expect that those findings can contribute to the headmaster, the English teachers, and further researcher as an input and consideration toward and improvement in the future.
1.6 Assumption of the Study
In this case, the writer states the assumptions are:
a. The teacher in teaching and learning process, especially teaching English grammar to the Junior High School applies various techniques to increase students motivation in learning English grammar.
b. The second year students of MTs. NW Dames Lotim are interesting in learning English by using language games in learning English grammar and the may motivate and entertain the student in learning English.
1.7 The Hypothesis of the Study
The alternative hypothesis (Ha) of this study as follows: “There is effect of using language games in learning English grammar for the second year students of MTs. NW Dames Lotim in the school year 2008/2009.
1.8 Definition of Key Terms
To avoid misunderstanding and misinterpretation among the readers, it is necessary to clarify some of the terms used in this study.
1. The influence of using language is how to play in productive vocabulary by student develop skill spelling and reading of words.
2. Teaching English vocabulary is the method of teacher in learning the students by using writing program.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
In this chapter, the writer will discuss about the principle of using language game for Junior High School. Function of game and kinds of language game, the advantages and disadvantages of using language game, the factors that should be considered in designing the game the purpose of learning grammar, the role of grammar in language learning and theoretical framework.
2.1 The Principle of Using Language Game
In using a language game in learning English grammar effectively and successful. We as English teacher should think carefully about the language game selection a head of time before working out our lesson plan. On the other hand, we have to consider principles of language games.
According to Wright (1982) there are five essential criteria of language game. they are: (1) easy of preparation; the time and energy required to make the game is realistic, (2) easy of organization; using the game is easy and/or worth the effort, (3) intrinsic language; language must be use to play the game successfully and that same language must be useful in other situation, (4) density of language; while chess, for example, is a wonderful game, it requires so little language that its virtually useless in the language classroom (Rixon, 1981) and ® likelihood of interest for the learner.
The statement above have told that in using language game, the language teacher should look in principles of language game, so that if game is used in teaching-learning process. It will be successful, and give the students enjoyable creative-active, and give opportunity the students to express their own meaning in the communicative real life. In this case, the teacher should plan and choose the game so the activities will avoid the student from getting bored in learning English.
2.2 Function of Game and Kind of Language Games
A. Function of Game
After know what a game is the writer would like to study the expert’s idea about function of a game in teaching learning activities. One belief about language teaching and learning should be fund and this motivation can be enchanged by these of selected games in the classroom.
It seem that, make the learning activity fun and the teaching technique will create the student interest to take part in teaching learning activities. We have to select suitable technique to transfer the material to the students.
Using game in teaching activities seem that there is no problem whether we are going to teach English to an adult class or to children class. Games can be used at all levels in a language syllabus and with all type of pupils from primary school children to adult.
Game can help the students in learning English grammar more communicative and avoid the technique with make the student boring. By using language games in learning English grammar. It means that we given an opportunity to the students to be active, creative and communicative in their lesson. In fact, many teachers still feel that the game is less important and they only use games for a short time, or in a part time, and some teachers are never interesting to implement it as a medium of education and they think that games is only frivolous activity.
Sandar J. Savignon has three reasons why games have to be used in learning foreign language. They are:
1. The very structure of games provides an opportunity for learners to practice vocabulary and grammar, specific language functions, and other language art skills. The tasks orientation of the games requires that the student use rather than merely practice language for real and immediate communicative goals. On the other hands, require constant, meaningful interaction among the players.
2. They create relax atmosphere. This lowers the anxiety level or effective filter that often keeps students from learning. Games accomplish this in two ways. First, games focus the learners attention on the immediate goal, that is, succeeding at the game itself, rather than in the responsibility of language learning (Stok, 1982). Second, whether the game is competitive or not, it requires a cooperation. This contribute to the development of a sense group that led in turn to a feeling of support and security among the group members. As the result, the learners are less anxious and more open and able to communicate.
3. Game offer strategy for dealing with problems that may arise from code implication. Teacher to provide communication at a level the learners can understand often uses code implication.
B. Kind of Language Games
Language game that the writer uses in this research are:
1. In common
2. The individual and the group game
3. Act it out
4. Picture sentence
(the form of the games can be seen in appendix)
2.3 The Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Language Game
A. The Advantage
Games have the following advantages:
1. They allow more variation of classroom activity.
2. Students participate actively in the lesson and do most of talking.
3. Students will get use to working together in small groups or teams.
Thus facilitating the introducing of other group work.
B. The Disadvantage
Beside the advantage, language games as one of the alternative teaching techniques have disadvantages or limitation. The writer assumes it is difficult to use the language games, and choosing the suitable of language games. The class be plan so that there is a minimum of formal drilling and a maximum of activities according to Drs. Soeparno, the disadvantages of langue games:
1. Generally, if the student numbers is too much, it will surface a difficult to involve all of the students in that games, a students whom don’t involve will disturb the process.
2. Not all materials of study can communicate by game.
3. Games usually make a noise.
4. Most teacher game only for a part time.
2.4 The Factors that be Consider in Designing the Game
According to Bumpass, “A game is a form of activity which is enjoyable and fun. The activity not be too long don’t wait until the students become boring”.
It be better to stop the activities of a game before the children get boring. If we know the activity was quite long, we are to be aware of the situation whether the students are still paying attention or not.
Furthermore, a game does have particular rules to be follow. Those rules be very clear and not too intricate idea, Bowen syas, the rules correspond and the player’s behavior during the game.
Additionally, Dobson says, “keep the game under control. Even though you want your student to a good time, establish a pleasant but firm tone. In order that the games can both amuse and teach these student. Be sure to follow the rules exactly.
We could conclude that the rules and the game have to a easy one to explain, easy to understand by the students, and the rules are too long as well.
2.5 The Purpose of Learning Grammar
Many linguists and researchers have given support to grammar instruction in ESL and EFL language teaching and learning. Grammar is viewed as one component of communicative competence. Without grammar, learners can communicate effectively only in a limited number of situations. In addition, Hannah (1989) strongly support the teaching of grammar. According to Hannan, “Grammar is highly valuable as an important part of study of language, of idea and of writing”
From the statement above, that the purpose learning English grammar is to support and develop four language skills, by learning grammar, the students are easier to understand the four language skills.
2.6 The Role of Grammar in Language Learning
According to Celce-Murcia (1991), “grammar instruction should be content base, meaningful, contextualize and discourse base rather than sentence-base.
According to Michale Canale (1985) communicative competence consist four competence, they are grammatical competence, sociolinguistic competence, discourse competence and strategic competence. Grammatical competence deals with mastery of verbal and non verbal of linguistic codes. Its include mastery of vocabulary, words, sentences, and pronunciation. This competence use to interpret and convey literal meaning of utterances. Sociolinguisitc competence deals with ability to choose and use suitable linguistic from for a certain context of communication. Discourse competence 1 concerned with ability to combine grammatical form and meaning in order to produce unified oral and written expression. Finally strategic competence is ability to use verbal and non verbal communication strategies to fill gaps and improve effectiveness of communication.
From the statement above, grammar aspect is very important in communicative competence.
2.7 Theoretical Framework
The writer starts thinks base on assumption in teaching and learning English grammar has many problems and activity face by right.
A. Games Teaching Learning Activities
In teaching learning activities of a foreign language, there are many available techniques to transfer the teaching points to students such as: demonstration, discussion, lecturing, exercise game and the like.
As we know that one of the purpose of learning English is how the student can communicate to each other. In this case, game has the role in learning English especially in learning grammar.
To determine exactly what is meant by game it is useful to consider one available definition. According to Gibbs game are activities carried out by cooperating or competing decision make, seeking to achieve within a set of rules, their objectives.
First, a game should include an activity to be done or a form of play to be performed. Second, a game should have particular rules to be followed. Third, a game should have objectives to be achieved.
The activity should be enjoyable, comfortable and interesting for the students, usually the enjoyable situation will invite the student to take part in learning activities. After getting involved in learning activity seriously, the student will succe in learning the subject. The rules should be very clear, easy to explain and easy to understand by the student.
The component of a game is equipment and student. The equipments include room, table, chair, blackboard, chalk, and the like. These quipements should not be expensive to buy but the ones available in our environment.
It is clear the component of game an activity which is enjoyable to be done, particular rules to be followed, specific objective to be achieve and some equipments and students to be performed.
This chapter presents the description and discussion about the research methodology employed in this study. The discussion includes research design. Population and sample of the study, the instrument of research, try-out instrument, the validity of instrument, the research reliability of instrument, techniques of data analysis, technique of data description and hypothesis testing.
3.1 Research Design
The method will be use in this study is an experimental design. It means that the writer will investigate and analyze the data which will be obtained after giving the treatment to the subjects. In this case, the writer will analyze the influence of using language games in learning English grammar the Junior High School students.
The experimental research design is use in order to be easier to solve the problems or to test the hypothesis. In this case, a writer will use pre and post-test design, which is shown in the following table.
Table 3.1: Formula of Research Design (pre and post-test)
E : Experiment group
C : control group
X : treatment
Y1 : pre-test
Y2 : post-test
(Ary, 2002: 308)
3.2 Population and Sample of the Study
The whole student of second year of MTs. NW Dames Lotim are as the population and for observation the samples are only 40 student consist of 2 classes namely experimented class and control class.
3.3 The Instrument of Research
The technique of data collecting is done by giving a test. The test is done for getting the objective data of student’s achievement in teaching English grammar both using game and dialogue technique base on book text.
The writer applies two kinds of test namely pre-test and post-test and the result will be taken to complement the data.
3.4 Try-Out of the Instrument
Before the researcher administrates the test to the number of sample, the try-out of instruments will be conducted to determine the validity and reliability of the test.
The kind of test is an objective test. It consisted of 25 items. The score will be given to each number of items test; score 1 for the right answer on each items and score 0 for the wrong answer for each items. The research will conduct try-out instrument out of the sample. In this case, another sample that are considered having similar characteristics.
3.5 The Validity of Instrument
According to Nurkencana (1996: 129) he says that a test belong to the validity test whether content validity if the material of the test really representative toward what is measure. In this case, the researcher will use content and construction validity.
The instrument design for this research will use content and construction validity. The instrument design for his research will be taken from textbook for elementary school level.
In this study, the validity of instrument is wished to measure the validity of test content. To know the validity of test items, the writer will use the following formula:
R: number of students who get items right.
T: the number of students who try to answer the items.
Then, the formula use to analyze the discriminating power is as follows:
RU : the number of the student in upper group who get the right answer.
RL : The number of the student in lower group who get the right answer.
½ T : half of the students number which include in analysis of item.
3.6 The Reliability of Instrument
The reliability testing indicate the stability of the score that is use, an instrument can be called reliable if it is testable at a time or more. In his research, the researcher will use the formulation of KR-20 such as:
r11 : the reliability of instrument
k : the number of item test
m : means score
t : total variance
(Arikunto, 2002: 164)
3.7 Technique of Data Analysis
In analyzing of the data, the writer use the comparative technique. The comparative technique is an analysis technique evaluate hypothesis concerning with the differences between two variables that examined statistically.
In the comparative technique, the variables are compared to know whether differences are very significance or they are only happened by chance. The writer uses t-test to find out the difference score of student’s achievement in teaching learning English grammar using games and dialogue technique base on book text.
The formula of t-test is:
M1 : mean of post-test of experiment class.
M2 : mean of post-test of control class.
Sx12: sum of square deviation score in experiment class.
Sx22: sum of square deviation score in control class.
N1 : number of student of experiment class
N2 : number of student of control class
x1 = x1 – M1
x2 = x2 – M2
df = degree of freedom
df = N1 + N2 - 2
3.8 Technique of Data Description
Technique of data description will be used in this research is descriptive statistics. It is used to determine the data into high, average, and low categories.
For the purpose, the following is use:
Mi + 1 SDi to Mi + 3 SDi = high
Mi + 1 SDi to < Mi + 1 SDi = Average
Mi + 3 SDi to < Mi – 1 SDi = Low
(Nurkencana, 1996: 89)
3.9 Test of Hypothesis
To prove the hypothesis, the data obtained from the experiment class and control class are calculated by using t-test formula with assumption as follows:
If to > tt the alternative hypothesis is accepted. It means there is significant difference between teaching English grammar using language games and dialogue technique based on book text.
If to < tt the alternative hypothesis is rejected. It means there is no significant difference between teaching English grammar using language games and dialogue technique based on book text.
From the result of calculation, it is obtained the value of the to is 8.12. The degree of freedom (df) is 78. In this thesis, the writer uses the degree of significance of 5% and 1%. In the both of significance, it can be seen that on the df = 80 and on the degree of significance of5% and 1%. The value of the degree of significance are 2.64 and 1.99. Comparing the two with each value of the degree of significance. The result of tt significance 5% = 1.99, so to : tt = 8.12 > 1.99, and the result of tt significance 1% = 2.64, so to : tt = 8.12 < 2.64. It means that ha (alternative hypothesis) of the research is accepted and ho (null hypothesis) is rejected. Or there is significance difference between teaching English grammar by using language games and teaching English grammar by using other technique in this research.
J. B. Gunawan, The Teaching of Grammar in a CLT. Oriented Environment, Teflin Journal. Volume VII. P. 34
Sandar J. Savirgnon and Margie S. Berns. Initiatives in Communicative Language Teaching 11. (Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, New York, 1987). P. 209.
Rodgers and Teodors S. A Framework for Making and Using Language Teaching Games. Singapore, 1981. P.1
Arikunto, Suharsimi 2002. Prosedur Penelitian: Suatu Pendekatan Praktek. Edisi Revisi IV. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.