THE FORMATION OF COMPOUND WORD IN
SASAK NGGETO-NGGETE DIALECT
In this first chapter, the writer give general information of this study. It discussed some sub heading as: background of the study, statement of the problems, objectives of the study, scope and limitation of the study and definition of key terms.
1.1 Background of the Study
Language plays a very significant role in human culture and history. Beside used for communicating, language is also used to record the history and science discovery. Therefore, in our languages, according to Daniel Nettle and Suzzane Romaine, (23: 2002) language the accumulates knowledge of humanity. So it is evident that language extinction, is really a great tragedy for human culture and scholarship. But unfortunately many of the world languages are near extinction. It is indicated by linguists, David Crystal (14: 2002) that the number of the loss languages may have accelerated recently, but it is hardly a new problem. He then cited that in the 19th century there were more than 1.000 Indian languages in Brazil, many spoken in small isolated villages in the rain forest. Today there are a mere 200, most of which never been written or recorder.
Learning from the fact and figure presented above, the writer believes that we can pass it down the intellectual heritage. Hence the writer decided to his own mother tongue, Sasaknese for the believes that any language can be endeared and Sasaknese is no exception.
reader’s conception thoroughly. To discuss the subject more detail and focus, the writer has decided to establish few points that will be investigated. The points are presented in question forms, which will be answered by the writer herself by applying library research method on the following chapters. The points are as follows:
1. What are the meaning of compound words in Sasaknese nggeto-nggete dialect?
2. How compound words in Sasaknese nggeto-nggete dialect are formed?
1.3 Objective of the Study
This research are expected to be able to prevent Sasak language from vanishing because henceforth young Sasak speakers will be interested in learning more about Sasak and speak it in a more proper way. Or at least, it can generate more old Sasak words which is about to die out, to be used as the diction again.
More specially, this research expected to be able to stress on the analysis of Sasak compound words to signify a point in a conversation of a discourse. The writer illustrates the significance role played by compound words in Sasak carefully supported by strong scientific arguments on chapters II and III.
The data and information about Sasak language is not complete yet, therefore, to collect and to get complete information about it, as revealed of the study, this research is aimed at :
1. Finding out the meaning of compound words in Sasaknese nggeto-nggete dialect.
2. How compound words in Sasaknese nggeto-nggete dialect are formed?
1.4 Significance of the Study
Beside the writers hopes that the research will give advantages for the readers and also will help the researchers to carry out the field of compound word and to develop Sasaknese language itself, the writer also offer two significance of this study, that is: theoretical significance and practical significance.
a) Theoretical significance
The writer decides to investigate how compound word are formed in Sasaknese language based on several reasons such as personal interest of the writer to study Sasak language because she speaks Sasak as her mother tongue in the daily life. In addition, the writer also feels necessary to actively contribute in linguistic study of Sasak language. By doing so, Sasak people will be more interested in speaking their own mother tongue more properly. This research also expected to contribute linguistic knowledge of the writer to the readers.
b) Practical significance
Besides requiring to achieve the theoretical aims presented above, the writer also wishes to accomplish some practical significance as shown on the following.
1. This research are expected to be able to influence the general public and to the academic life about Sasak compound words.
2. This research expected to be able to influence the decision maker’s policy on Sasak language teaching and research.
3. This research expected to prevent Sasak words or language from extinction.
2. Compound word
Compound word is a group of word which formed from a noun plus another noun, a verb plus another verb, a adjective especially, in nggeto-nggete Sasaknese dialect.
Sasaknese is a local language which is used of Sasak people especially in Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara province.
Nggeto-nggete is dialect is used by people around Suralaga, Wanasaba, Sembalun Lawang, Sembalun Bumbung villages which are located in East Lombok.
Dialect is a language varieties that used in different regencies related to different geographic.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter discusses the following topics as: a structural linguistics, morpheme, word and compounding.
The structural linguistics is pioneered by Ferdinand de Saussure. His conception about linguistics can be found at the book under title “course de linguistique generale” (1916). Related to the linguistics, there are some basic concepts exposed by the Saussure. Those concepts are (1) synchrony and diachrony; (2) la language, la parola and la langage; (3) signifiant and signifier, and (4) sytagmatic and paradigmatic (Ferdinan de Saussure in Abdul Chair).
Synchrony is the study of language at one period of time; Diachrony is the study of language about a change or changes that look place two periods of time. So, the distinction among them refers to the fact that language exists at any time or over period of time (Wardough, 1977: 11).
Related to this, in this study we are more concern with synchrony rather than diachrony because of studying language at one period at time or without referring to the previous historical stage of the language.
The distinction between la language, la parole, la langage can also be made. La language is the phenomena of language in general. Meanwhile, in language itself, it differentiates between la language and la parole.
La language is the system of certain language; la parole is the individual use of language or individual utterance.
However, the feature of language cannot be determined without analyzing the structure of la parole (Dick and Kooij, 11: 1994).
Signifiant and signifier also distinctive in dichotomy. As it is stated that language is the system of symbol and thus symbols are combination between signifiant and signifier. Signifiant is the form of language (sound), while signifier is the meaning to which the form refer (Pateda, 35: 1997). Thus language is systematic in that is contains two system of sound and system of meaning (Wardaugh, 3: 1997).
Also Ferdinan de Saussure differentiates two types of relation in language, that is sintagments and paradigmatic. It specifies the combination of element into comples form; paradigmatic relation among the element of language system (Bierwisch, 19: 1971 in Pateda, 36: 1990). In other words syntagmatic relation is linear or horizontal; paradigmatic is vertical (Aridawati, 7: 1995) or sytagmatic relationship combinations morphemes, words, and caluses, while paradigmatic relationship are associative.
Morpheme is constructed by two Latin words namely “morpheme” that means “form” and “ema” that means of containing meaning (Yohanes, 15: 1991). So, from this two Latin combination words we can state that morpheme is the form that containing certain meaning.
In discussing about word, we can also distinguish between content word and “function word”. Content word is word that seems to have meaning as independent word. This category includes noun, verb, adjective and adverb. In contrast, function word is an isolated word, and it seems to have some grammatical function either in a phrase or in sentence. It includes conjunction, article, demonstrative and preposition (Akmajian et al, 65: 1969).
in many languages, a new word can be formed from an already existing word through a process know as compounding. Through this process, individual words can be joined together to from so –called compound word. (Akmajian, et al, 76: 1968).
Compound word consists of two morpheme. The two morphemes may be combination of two base morphemes (root and root), combination of root and bound, or combination of base morpheme and unique morpheme (Ramlan, 76: 1986).
In Sasak, there are several features that can determine whether or not the combination of word is compound word. One of them is that compound word build new meaning. It mean that meaning of each element before combining is different from that of the result of the compounded word. For example, compound word in Sasak /paok/ “mango” /madu/ “honey, after combining the two elements, the meaning is rather different. The new meaning built is “ a kind of a fruit”.
The second feature is that one of two elements of compound word is bound base. For example, the word /lisung/geneng/ “rice mortar” consists of two element; /lisung/ and /geneng/. /lisung/ is a free morpheme; /geneng/ is bound base in that it does not have lexical meaning and it is category (part of speech) cannot be determined (Aridawati, et al, 1995: 116).
The next feature is that element of compound word is unique morpheme, e.g. /pait paket/ “too bitter”. In this compound word is unique morpheme and /paket/ is unique morpheme in that it is always bound morpheme so that, it does not have lexical meaning and its never goes trough affixation (Aridawati, et al, 1995: 177).
This chapter presents and discusses about population and sample, method of the study, data collecting method and method of data analysis.
3.1 Population and Sample
In this study, the population is all Sasak that speak nggeto-nggete dialect. They spread widely in east Lombok Regency. Villages in the regency that use nggeto-nggete dialect are Suralaga, Gapuk, Wanasaba, Karang Baru, Pesugulan, Sembalun Lawang, Sembalun Bumbung, Kembang Kerang, Dasan Borok, Dasan Baru, Dasan Bantek, Bagek Payung, Gege, Reriu, Kerongkong, Sukamulia, and some other villages in east Lombok Regency. (Aridawati, et, al, 1995: 10).
Because of the width of the population location, the writer decides to use sampling method: random and quota sampling method. The application that two combined methods is by taking only four villages of those mentioned villages. Two of four villages are taken from Suralaga and Gapuk villages and two other are taken from Anjani and Wanasaba villages. In every villages the writer takes two correspondents. Henceforth, we have 8 correspondents in total.
In choosing the eight, the writer uses the “purposive sampling” method. By so doing, the writer presents among the correspondents for the investigation purposes. Based on the method above, the requirements of a correspondents are as follows:
- The correspondent is a native speaker of nggeto-nggete dialect.
- The correspondent masters his language well;
- The correspondent has normal organ of speech;
- The correspondent is about 20 – 60 years old;
- The highest education of the correspondent is a Senior High School or SMU; and
- The correspondent rarely sails from one inlet to another.
Besides those criteria, the correspondent also take from both male and female sexes, from different occupations like fisherman, farmer, state officer, trade and so on. Thus its truly expected that data collected quite valid, reliable and representative.
3.2 Method of the Study
In this study, the writer used descriptive method. By so doing the writer can describe the phenomena of language related to the data collected. This method is classified into two procedures, that is; data collecting method and method of data analysis.
3.3 Data Collecting Method
In this method the writer uses some techniques that is revealed in the following section:
a. Elicitation an In-Depth interviewing technique.
This technique is applied by using catch questions or direct provocation. Those questions are aimed at getting some expression or sentences that contain compound word and those related to compound word either inflectional or derivational ones.
b. Additive National
This technique is to note data that emerge suddenly either the collected data and usual usage of language from native speaker of Sasak. This is conducted to eliminate the ambiguity of the collected data.
3.4 Method of Data Analysis
According to Mohamad et al. (171: 1993) data analyzing plays very significant role in scientific research method because by applying the method, the writer can solve the problem or process the collected data to make a conclusion or new hypothesis. Therefore, in writing this thesis, the writer has analyzed an ideas thoroughly. However, in doing so the writer encountered several problems, and to solve it the writer applied two data analysis method.
In this study, the analysis method used is distribution method. This method analyzes the lingual unit of language systems based on the features as well as the distribution of those units (Subroto, 1992: 64).
Meanwhile, the discussion of this study uses informal method (inductive method). To avoid monotonousness, the writer also employs the deductive reasoning method; describing general case followed by special cases.
Akmajian, Andrian, Richard A. Demars and Robert M. Harnish, 1986, Linguistics: An Introduction to Language and Communication, London, The MIT Press.
Aridawati, Ida Ayu et al, 1995, Struktur Kebudayaan Bahasa Sasak Umum, Jakarta, Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.
Bloomfield, Leonard, 1956, Language, New York: Holt, Richard and Winson Inc.
Djaja, Lalu, Kesusastraan dan Bahasa Sasak, Kepala Inspeksi Pendidikan Jasmani di Mataram (LOMBOK), Denpasar, Pustaka Balimas.
Djajasudarma, T. Fatimah, 1993, Metode Linguistik Rancangan Metode, Gelacco, H. A. 1961, Introduction to Descriptive Linguistics, Rev. ed, New York, Holt, Renehart, and Winson Inc.
Keraf, Gorys, 1980, Tata Bahasa Indonesia, Ende Flores, Nusa Tenggara Timur.
Kridalaksana, Harimurti, 1990, Kelas Kata Dalam Bahasa Indonesia, Jakarta, Gramedia.
________________ 1992, Pembentukan Kata Dalam Bahasa Indonesia, Jakarta, Gramedia.
________________ 1993, Kamus Linguistik, edisi ketiga, Jakarta, PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama.
Nida, Eugene A., 1982, Morphology: The Descriptive Analysis of Word, second edition. United States: An Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.
Ramlan, M., 1987, Morphology: Suatu Tinjauan Deskriptif, Yogyakarta, CV. Karyono.
Staff, Nell F., 1995, Kamus Sasak-Indonesia-Inggris, Mataram, Mataram University Press.
Samsuri, 1983, Analisis Bahasa: Memahami Bahasa Secara Ilmiah, Jakarta, Thoi., Nasir et al, 1984, Sistem Perulangan Bahasa Sasak, Jakarta, Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengetahuan Bahasa Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.
David Cristal, Udel. Edu/eli/r4/language, 23 December 2002.
Daniel Nettle and Suzzane Romaine, OUP-USA. Org, 23 December 2002.
Suparman, Lalu, 1987, Lembaga Penyebaran Adat Sasak, The Department of Education and Culture Mataram.
Ferdinand de Saussure, 1916, Course de Linguistique Generale.
Wardhough, 1977, Pengantar Lingusitic, Yogyakarta, Gajah Mada University Press.
Dic and Kooij, 1994, Pengnatar Penelitian Ilmiah, Bandung, PT. Tarsito.
Yohanes, 1991, Morphology: The Descriptive Analysis of Word.
Hockett F. Charles, 1958, Teaching and Learning English as a Foreign Language, University of Michigan.
Jos Daniel Parera, 1990, Morphology: A Set of Postulate.
Nazir, Mohammad et al, 1993, Methode Penelitian Ilmiah, Jakarta, Ghalia Indonesia.
Hadi Sutrisno, 1980, Metode Penelitian, Yogyakarta, UGM Fakultas Psikologi.
Subroto, 1992, Penelitian Ilmiah, Jakarta, Balai Pustaka.