THE USE OF ENGLISH MOVIE TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’ VOCABULARY MASTERY: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AT THE FIRST YEAR STUDENTS OF MTS AL-INTISHOR TANJUNG KARANG IN ACADEMIC YEAR 2012/2013
A. Background of the Study
Communication is a social event that can occur anywhere without knowing the place and time (Darwanto, 2007:1). Language as the tool of communication has an important role to reveal an intention of someone else. people will be able to express their thought and feeling through communication. English is an important means of communication, which used by many countries in this world. It plays an important role as an international language. This why the indonesian government chooses English as the first foreign language to be taught in schools (Ramelan, 1992:3).
Jumariati (2010) said that vocabulary learning is the important aspect in learning a foreign language. Students will improve much if they learn more words and expressions. According to Richard (1997) it's vital to know a lot of words if you want to make progress in a foreign language. Even if your grammar is excellent, you just won't be able to communicate your meaning without a wide vocabulary. Since English is not our national language, it is not easy to learn it. Many student or learners find problem in mastering it. One of the basic problems is lack of vocabularies. Vocabulary is really important element of the language to be concerned with in order to master the four language skills.
In teaching a language, English particularly is very complicated. In the classroom, we will face dozens of technique applied to the students’ under the expectation that they are able to or easy to understand the lesson. As a teacher, it is necessary to find new teaching media to overcome the problems and not to forget to motivate the students. Some teachers have used games, pictures, songs, real object, cartoon and movie as their teaching media to grow the student creativity in learning process.
There are many media can be used to improve students’ vocabulary like audio aid, audio-visual aid and etc. Example for audio aid is radio, music, and so on while example of audio-visual aid is video, film/movie, and television, etc.
In this study, movie is chosen as a media for teaching vocabulary. Movie is one of the audio-visual aid. Film, also called a movie, is a series of still or moving images. It is produced by recording photographic images with cameras, or by creating images using animation techniques or visual effects. The process of filmmaking has developed into an art form and industry (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Film). Using English movie can be very pleasing and interesting for the students. Movie can be an excellent media to use because from the writer view that there are many students interested in movies because they watch movies as an entertainment. They can learn about language style, culture, and also the native speaker’s expression. So they can improve their English vocabulary more easily.
Media such as a movie has a very significant roles to motivate the student to learn vocabulary and to make the atmosphere of teaching and learning more interesting. They will feel something new and different from what they usually get in their class. The writer hopes that with the use of English movie they will become more active as participant and more confident in express their feeling.
B. Statement of the Problem
This study is to answer the question: is the use of English movie can improve students’ vocabulary mastery?
C. Purpose of Study
The purpose of the study is to find out the effectiveness of using English movie in improving students’ vocabulary mastery.
D. Scope and Limitation of the Study
The writer limits this study by the following limitation:
1. The subject of researcher in this research is the first year student of SMK ABHARIYAH in academic year 2011/2012.
2. The implementation of english movie technique to improve the student’s vocabulary mastery.
E. Significance of Study
The result of this study can be contribute some benefits to students and teachers. Here are the benefits:
It may motivate students to improve their interest in learning English since they will find out that learning English is not always difficult to learn. Their improvement of interest in learning English will help them master English well.
It would give them a description about how to teach and to motivate the students to learn about English especially in vocabulary learning, they would not be stuck only in some particular teaching strategies. The use of media, in this context “Movie” could be a good alternative or variation in teaching vocabulary, where it would make the students enjoyed following the lesson.
F. Assumption of the Study
The basic assumption of this study are stated below:
1. English movie can be used to stimulate the student to increase vocabulary
2. This simple technique is applicable for teaching at the Senior High School.
G. The Definition of Key Term
In order to clarify what variables are involves in the study some definition are put forwards:
A series of moving pictures with sound that you can watch at the cinema or at home (MacMillan Dictionary)
Vocabulary in Cambridge dictionary is all the words known and used by a particular person and all the words which exist in a particular language or subject.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
One of the most important things to help learners to communicate successfully is knowledge of vocabulary. The richer vocabulary we have, the better we can communicate. Hence, in order not to fail on the way of teaching and learning vocabulary, teachers and students must try their best to find out an appropriate method for themselves. Using visual aids, especially movies or film, is a good way to teach vocabulary and really important, necessary for the new method of teaching and learning. This chapter aims at providing some theoretical background of the study.
1. Definition of Vocabulary
Learning language cannot be separated from learning vocabulary. Vocabulary supports the speaker to express their opinions, ideas, and feelings in communication.
To know what vocabulary is, the following are definitions about vocabulary:
Oxford Advanced Learner‟s Dictionary Online has applied a meaning of vocabulary as follow:
1. all the words that a person knows or uses.
2. all the words in a particular language.
3. the words that people use when they are talking about a particular subject.
4. a list of words with their meanings, especially in a book for learning a foreign language.
According to Kamil & Hiebert (2007) in their article accessed from internet, they broadly define; vocabulary is knowledge of words and word meanings. Richards (2001:4) says that vocabulary is one of the components of language and one of the first things applied linguists turned their attention to. Meanwhile, Hornby (1974:959) defines vocabulary is a total number of words which make up a language with definition or translations.
According to the definitions above I concluded that vocabulary is a word that a person know in a particular language and one of componets of language that has a meaning and definition.
2. Why Study Vocabulary
It is undeniable that vocabulary, like grammar and phonetics, plays an important role in mastering a foreign language. Teaching vocabulary plays important role in language acquisition because the mastery of vocabulary will help students in mastery all the language skills; listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Vocabulary will make the students practice the structure more easily; it is useful for the students in order to communicate in daily life and will strengthen belief that English can be used to express some ideas or feeling they express in their native language (Finocchiaro, 1974: 38)
The other reason is that a large vocabulary helps the English learners in studying other English subjects such as Sociolinguistics, Psycholinguistics, Business Correspondence, etc. It will help them to understand and define many concepts, ideas, expressions that they get in such subjects. It is stated by Bella Fiore (1968: 1) “The larger the vocabulary you build up, the better able you are to define and refine the expression of the images and ideas”. Moreover, she said “The more words you master richer become you thought process and the better you distinguish between shades of word meanings, the subtler grows your expression of ideas”. In conclusion, vocabulary learning is an unseparate thing from language learning because whenever people think of it, they usually think of vocabulary learning and vocabulary mastery. It is a key for the English learners to get a success in their learning process.
3. Kinds of Vocabulary
Teaching vocabulary is important in language acquisition. Vocabulary is one element that links the four skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing all together. One of the requirements to communicate well in a foreign language, students should have an adequate number of words. According Celca-Murcia (2000:76) there are two kinds of vocabulary, as follows:
a. Productive versus Receptive Vocabulary
Productive vocabulary is the lexical terms which the students can remember and use appropriately in speaking and writing. Receptive vocabulary in the lexical items which the students familiar and understand when they meet them in the context of reading and listening materials.
Productive vocabulary is used to speaking and writing, the stage of teaching and learning must end with vocabulary practice, where the students get an opportunity to try to use the vocabulary in context. Different from productive vocabulary, receptive vocabulary is only presented until the students’ know the meaning to understand the context of reading or listening.
b. Content Words versus Function Words
Content words and function words are a useful one in analyzing vocabulary. Content words are those vocabulary items that must to the large and open words classes. Content words that are the words that are easy accept new words and not use old ones but are not longer useful. For example: nouns, verbs, adjectives, and some adverbs.
Function words are those vocabulary items that must to closed words classes. Function words that are the words do not easy new items or lose old ones. For example: pronouns, auxiliary verbs, prepositions, determiners, and many adverbs. Function words should be taught as part of grammar and content words as part of vocabulary
B. General Concepts of Media
Media in a process of teaching is not a new thing for the teacher. Most of the teachers use media to help them giving particular information to the students. Media itself according to Azhar (2011:4) is a tool that to convey or deliver the message of learning. He also said that media is a component of learning resource or physical vehicle that contain instructional material on students’ environment that can stimulate student to learn.
There are a lot of media in teaching and learning processes. Nasution (2005:102) classify media into 5 type:
This teaching tool is very populer, used by traditional or modern school and can be combined with other teaching tools such as radio, TV. Tool is used in every method of teaching. Blackboard can be used for writing that makes pictures, graphs, diagrams, maps and so on with white or colored chalk.
Picture can be collected from various sources such as calendars, magazines, newspapers, pamphlets from travel agents, and etc.
Models can be an imitation of real objects such as model cars, trains, houses, animals, etc.
Various collections can be organized as a variety of textiles, stones, dry leaves, currency, stamps, etc.
5. Map and Globe
Geography and history lessons will be crippled without a map. kinds of maps shall be provided on each part of the world, also our economy, population, and so forth.
While Azhar (2011:33) divide a media into two categori:
1. Traditional media
a. A visual silence that projected.
- Opaque projection (invisibility)
- Overhead projection
b. A visual that not projected
- Picture, poster
- Charts, graphs, diagrams
- Exhibition, information boards
- Recording disc
- Cassette tape, reel, cartridge
d. Multimedia presentation
- Slide plus noise (tape)
e. A dynamic visual which is projected
- Module, Programmed texts
- Scientific magazines, period
- Board game
- Specimen (sample)
- Manipulative (maps, dolls)
2. The latest media technology
a. Media based on technology
- Distance schools
b. Media based on microprocessor
- Computer-assisted instruction
- Computer game
- Intelligence tutor system
- Compact (video) disc
C. General Concept of Movie
1. Definition of Movie
In this study, I use movie as media of teaching Englsh vocabulary. A movie is one of the visual aids that can be used in a class, it makes lessons more fun.
But movies or film can also teach people about history, science, human behavior and any other subjects. Some films combine entertainment with instruction, makes the learning process more enjoyable. In all its forms, cinema is an art as well as a business, and those who make motion pictures take great pride in their creation ( Mery:2011).
An opinion movie given by Summer (1992: 476), film is:
a. A roll of material which is sensitive to light and which is used in camera for taking photographs or moving pictures for the cinema,
b. A story, play, etc. recorded on film to be shown in the cinema, on television, etc.
Meanwhile, Azhar (2011:49) define movie as picture in a frame where frame by frame is projected through the projector lens mechanically so that the pictures in the screen looks alive. Jesse (2007) states that movie is a photographic record of an artistic performance, but not an artform in it’s own right.
Based on the definition of movie I can conclude that movie is a photographic record of history, science, and human behaviour that projected through the projecter lens and shown in the cinema or television.
2. Advantages and Disadvantages Using English Movie
a. Advantages using English movie
Nasution (2005:104) states that the advantages of using movie in teaching and learning process are:
1) Movie is very good in describing a process, if necessary by using a “slow motion”.
2) Each student can learn something from the movie, from the clever one or less intelligent.
3) Movies can take a child from one country to another country and from one period to another period.
4) Movie can be repeated if necessary to add clarity.
b. Disadvantages using English movie
According to Azhar (2011:50), he states that the disadvantages of using movie in teaching and learning process are:
1) Procument of English movie generally is expensive and cost a lot of time.
2) When the movie showed, the pictures will keep changing making all students are not able follow the information given through the movie.
3) Movies not always approriate with the needs and desired learning objective.
This is the reason why the writer is interested in taking up the title of the research, because movie gives a new enjoyable atmosphere when they are learning in class. Altough this procument movie has disadvantages, the writer has some planning to overcome the problem by doing strategic stopping and rewind giving student a chance to receive the information given from the movie and remove some approriate scene shown in the movie so the students’ concetration will not wane if they watch for too long.
3. Learning Through Movie
classrooms that use movie as a medium of education, usually hold a number of 40-50 students. With that number of students, it is still possible to observe the movie properly. This means it will not disturb the learning process. To help students study through English movie, message content, format, and technical presentation, in planning an educational program, seriously considered. in addition, the teacher factor in the media also plays a very important role, because it is very influential in communicating with children and success or failure of the program depends entirely on the person who brought the show (darwanto 2007:135-136).
This chapter has dealt with the theoretical background of the study with the basic but necessary knowledge of English vocabulary and using movies for teaching vocabulary. In order to find out the current situation of teaching vocabulary as well as the application of movies for teaching vocabulary at high schools in Abhariyah, which would be reported in the chapter 3.
The methodology of the research is very important in every research as a guideline to attain the objective of the study. Chapter three provides information about methodology of the research that the writer applies in this study. They are method of research, population and sample, instrument of the research, method of data collection and data analysis.
- Method of Research
Research design in this study is to seek and to answer the question of the study “is the use of English movie can improve students’ vocabulary mastery?”
In doing so, I intend to use quantitative research to complete this study. Wikipedia (2012) in its article said that Quantitative methods were research methods dealing with numbers and anything that was measurable.
Wikipedia (2012) in its article also said, the objective of quantitative research was to develop and employ mathematical models, theories and hypotheses pertaining to natural phenomena. The process of measurement was central to quantitative research because it provided the fundamental connection between empirical observation and mathematical expression of quantitative relationships.
- Population and Sample
Population is total member of research subject.” (Arikunto, 2010:173). In addition, http://www.thefreedictionary.com/population mention that population is the entire aggregation of items from which samples can be drawn; "it is an estimate of the mean of the population.
In this case, the population is the entire of the first grade students of SMK Abhariyah in the academic year 2011/2012. The number of population is 39 students.
After determining the population, I obtain a sample, which is obviously important step in conducting a research. Arikunto (2010:174) says that a sample is a part of population, which is investigated. The number of population that is used in this study is 39 students. Because of the limitation number of population which is only 39 students, I use population research and take the whole population as the sample of the research. Arikunto (2010:174) said that population research only done for a limited population and the subject are not many.
- Instrument of Research
According to Arikunto (2010:192), research instrument is a device used by the research while collecting the data to make his work become easier and to get better result, complete and systematic in order to make the data easy to process.
I use two kinds of instruments in doing it, they are test, and questionnaire in order to identify whether or not it is an effective way to teach vocabulary to students.
Referring to en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Test_(student_assessment) (2007) in its article it said that In education, certification, counseling, and many other fields, a test or exam (short for examination) was a tool or technique intended to measure students' expression of knowledge, skills and/or abilities. A test had more questions of greater difficulty and requires more time for completion than a quiz. It was usually divided into two or more sections, each covering a different area of the domain or taking a different approach to assessing the same aspects.
In completing this study the test should be based on an achievement test which is the result later use as data. In order to get an enough data I divide the test into two: they are pre test and post-test. The purpose of giving the classroom tests is to measuring the skills, knowledge of intelligence, ability or talent possessed by individuals or groups (Arikunto 2010:193). This is the reason why the role of pre and post-test are important toward this study which it would determine whether the use of movie is effective or not to apply to students.
Oxford university press (2007) in its article said that a questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents. Although they are often designe for statistical analysis of the responses, this not always the case.
Arikunto (2010:195 ), questionnaire could be in the form of multiple choice, essay, check-list and rating-scale so respondents would only select one of the provided answers in it. In conducting this study, I use a multiple-choice questionnaire, in which, the respondents only select one of the provided answers (by crossing (A, B, C or D) in each question).
- Method of data collection
The technique use in this research is questionnaire and tests. The aim of using questionnaire in this research is to know how the students’ respond about the teaching strategy applied and the tests method is use to know whether students are successful or not in teaching vocabulary using movie.
This study is undertaken through three activities. At first is a pre-test, second is the post-test which to measure students’ achievement, and third applying the questionnaire to know students’ respond on strategy use by researcher. To give a clear understanding, the three steps of the activities will be explain as follows:
Pre-test consists of 10 items in the form of multiple choices. In pre test researcher take the question from a narrative story of mr.bean.
Post-Test is done after pre-test are conducted. The aim is to measure the students’ achievement and to compare the result between pre and post-test that would be processed into data. The test consist of 10 items same with pre test but the question take from movie of mr.bean.
The questionaire will be conducted after the two activities above are completely done. The purpose only to gain data from the students’ response about the teaching strategy applied. The questionnaire consist of five questions and it is in the form of multiple choices.
The students’ success and failure in doing the activities plan above will be assessed by referring to the criterion issued by department of education and culture. The criterion said that a student could be said to pass the test if he/she could solve 65% of the whole problems.
- Data analysis
The data analysis is use to draw the conclusion of the research data. This study consists of three activities in which it use a method of quantitative to process the data. Then I would compare them, in order to know the result of this study, whether or not, the increase in the students’ results happen in this study. Below is the formula to get valid result, I use to process the data gained:
P = R X 100 %
P = Percentage
R = Score Achieved
N = Number
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