“DI SELUBUNG MALAM”
Novel is a picture of real life and manners of the time in which it is written. Novel is a part of prose, where the prose is part of fiction.
To understand a novel, we must be able to know the element of prose, such as setting, plot, theme, characterization etc. and we need the ability to identifying the element of novel if we want to analyze a novel.
There are many theories, approaches or methods to analyze prose including novel. This is 13 fundamental theories of approaches to analyze literary works.
1. The objective approach
2. The structural approach
3. The mimetic approach
4. The expressive approach
5. The pragmatic approach
6. The sociological approach
7. The psychological approach
8. The feminist approach
9. The deconstruction approach
10. The semiotic approach
11. The Marxist approach
12. The oriented theories
13. Islamic literary criticism
As student of art and language department, of course we must be able to analyze novel by using those approaches.
In this occasion, to analyze the novel that was chosen “Di Selubung Malam” by Novia Syahidah, we use combination approaches between Marxist and objective approach, because these approaches are the most important and suitable to use.
1.2 Statement of Problem
In this paper, the writer set some research questions as follow:
1. What is approach that use?
2. Whey does the writer choose that approach?
3. What is the theme of the novel?
4. How are the elements of the novel?
1.3 The Scope of Study
In order to avoid misinterpreting and misunderstanding for the discussion because of broadness of the problem, the writer limits the scope of this investigation only on discussing the intrinsic element of novel “Di Selubung Malam” written by Novia Syahidah and Lombok Culture related to this novel.
1.4 Purpose of Study
The purposes of the writer to write this paper are:
1. To analyze the intrinsic elements of “Di Selubung Malam” by using objective approach.
2. To explore the idea, message of the author of the novel to be related to the values that are applicable useful in our daily life.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 A Short Biography of Author
Novia was born in Payakumbuh, 7 December 1973. Her first book was “Putri Kejawen” (Pustaka Annida, 2003). The other book that was written was “Titip Rindu Buat Ibu” (DAR Mizan, 2003). She always rises ethnic and culture as the theme in the majority of her writing.
According to Taylor (1981: 12), “Novel is the picture of the real life and manners of the time in which it was written. Novel is a prose narrative fiction”. While, Burhan (2005: 9) said that “Novel dan cerita pendek merupakan dua bentuk karya sastra yang sekaligus disebut fiksi. Bahkan dalam perkembangannya yang kemudian, novel dianggap bersinonim dengan fiksi.”
2.3 The Intrinsic Element of Literary Work
Element that build a novel –that format totality together– beside formal language element and many others. This statement similar with what Burhan (2005: 23) said that “Intrinsic element is elements that build the literary work its self. The element that rises the literary work as literary work, element that factually shown if we read literary work. Example: Plot, Theme, Character, etc.”
According to Stanton (1965: 20) and Kenny (1966: 88), “theme is makna yang dikandung oleh sebuah cerita”. Furthermore, Burhan (2005: 68) said that “To find out the theme of the fiction, it must concluding all of the story, did not base on the specific part of the story only. Although theme is hard to find, it is not as the meaning that ‘hid’ by the writer, and not rise up explicitly”.
Plot is translated in to “alur” or “alur cerita” in Indonesia language. Plot can be defined as the necessary chosen order of a fiction. This definition because the story in a novel consist of many events that should be arrange in such a way that the story becomes coherent, meaningful and interesting.
Stanton (1965: 14) said that Plot is “cerita yang berisi urutan kejadian namun tiap kejadian itu hanya dihubungkan secara sebab akibat, peristiwa yang satu disebabakan atau menyebabkan peristiwa yang lain”. But according to Kenny (1966: 14) “Plot is event that shown in a story that not simple because the writer pile up those event based on causality relationship”.
“Character in English literary work have two meaning, firstly as actor of the story that shown and secondly as action, willing and emotion that the actress have” (Stanton, 1965: 17). Based on the function of actress, there are two character, the yare: antagonist and protagonist.
2.7 Point of Views
“Point of view is a term which refers to the relationship between story teller and the reader” (Stone, et.al, 1983: 11). While, Abrams (1981: 142) said that “Point of view is how the story it’s a way that used by the writer to show character, action, setting, and other event that build the story to the readers”.
According to Hudson (1960: 158), “setting is a whole environment of the story, including the custom and tradition, habits and the characters way of life. But Abrams (1981: 175) said that “Setting is place, times relationship and social environment where the event happen”.
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
3.1 Synopsis of the Novel
Denda Saqnah was a noblewoman. She is a daughter of Rahadian Segeti, a perwangsa at kampu Bayan Timur. Rahadian Segeti thought that Kampu Bayan Timur was the highest level in Sasak castle. When Lalu Gerantang a noble boy from Narmada wants to marry his daughter, Rahadian Segeti refuses his application. Denda Apti (the older sister of Denda Saqnah) asked Saqnah to merry with Lalu Gerantang without their family permit.
One night Lalu Gerantang called for Denda Saqnah and they run away. Rahadian Segeti was angry. When Lalu Gerantang sent a pejati to kampu Bayan Timur to ask his permission and apply for his daughter, he asked Lalu Gerantang to gave high sajikrama, but Lalu Gerantang’ family unable to pay it and of course this case made Rahadian Segeti became rave mad.
After married, Lalu Gerantang and Denda Saqnah lived in Meninting. They got a son and a daughter, namely Lalu Jagat Wira and Baiq Mandalika. Then Lalu Jagat Wira went to Batam to work there. Lived in Meninting change Lalu Gerantang action, he became a gambler and has many debts but his wife –Denda Saqnah– always paid his debt.
One day, Munahar a land lord who gave him loan, asked him to pay his debt. However, Lalu Gerantang did not have money. Then he asked his wife to sell a land at the corner of the village. Saqnah refused it. She said that land was not theirs. That land was Tuan Guru Mutawalli’s, she just look after it. Lalu Gerantang was angry and beat his wife and his daughter.
Munahar have Lalu Gerantang choice, Lalu Gerantang will free from his debt if he let Munahar with his wife, if not Munahar will kill him. Lalu Gerantang chose the first choice.
In that night Saqnah was ill, she slept in the different room with her daughter, Baiq Mandalika, suddenly Munahar came in and rape Saqnah, she could not fight. After that Munahar tried to rape Baiq Mandalika but suddenly a man enter to Mandalika’s room and kill Munahar and his servant. After that tragedy, Mandalika changed into a calm girl.
After Munahar was killed, his son Jamanik changed his father’s position as the land lord. Jamanik and Munahar have different character. Jamanik is a human kind. After his father death, he asks his father servant to change their behavior.
Actually, Jamanik do love Baiq Mandalika but he was afraid if Mandalika hate him because of his father action.
Than a single day, Jamanik said, “I had been killing my father that night”, Mandalika was shocked. Then Jamanik go to police office to accept the responsibility of his action.
When Lalu Jagat Wira came to Meninting, Mandalika told him that bad story. Lalu Jagat Wira was angry, and then Mandalika asked to take revenge of Lalu Gerantang who was run away to Sumbawa after gave Munahar permit to rape his wife.
Lalu Jagat Wira went to Sumbawa to look after his father. When he found his father, his father was old and weak. Lalu Gerantang’s foot was fault because of motorcycle accident and his eye was blind, criminal at Pototano harbor beat him when he wants to back home to help his wife. Lalu Jagat Wira felt unsatisfied to take revenge if condition of his father like that.
Lalu Jagat Wira back home to Meninting and asked Mandalika to join him to Batam. Before went to Batam, Mandalika visited his grand father at Bayan, but Rahadian Segeti said that Mandalika was not part of his family.
Three days after Mandalika went to Batam, Lalu Gerantang has passed away and buried in Sumbawa.
3.2 The Analysis of Marxist Approach
In “understanding English poetry and prose” state that, the Marxist approach is basically derived from the teaching of Karl Mark, in practice the people whose the Marxist approach intend to perceive literary work in the light of Marxist. They want to sharp criticism to the writer and try to change the situation based on their belief. The focus is usually related to the dialectical tension between:
1. The capitalist and the worker.
2. The boss and the mad, servant or laborer.
3. The rich and the poor.
4. The aristocrat and landlord and the peasant.
5. The authority and the folk (rakyat).
6. The king and the slaves.
7. The established people and the marginal ones.
8. The religious leader and the pagan.
The novel that we chosen “Di Selubung Malam” raises about the social level in Sasak society. The life of Sasak ethnic before Islam come as influenced of Mataram Hinduism kingdom, had been arranged into social level called Triwangsa. That system divided society in three; they are Datu (the authority), Permenak – Perwangsa (aristrocrat), and Jajar karang (the folk or the ordinary). Each social level has equality value called Aji Krama…. In this novel, Rahadian Segeti (a perwangsa at Kampu Bayan Timur) has a daughter who had married to a lower level than him. In Rahadian Segeti’s opinion, perwangsa in Kampu Bayan Timur was the highest level. The writer show about it in page (60) “…Baginya nilai kebangsawanan orang di luar Kampu Bayan Timur tidak ada artinya…”. The problem that was appeared, that was the difficulty of marriage system. The noblewomen from higher-level might not married to the nobleman from the lower level, if it occurred, the lower level would be thrown, it means that they unaccepted and their Wali is Wali Hakim, they also were not considered as part of bride’s family.
The other way, when the higher level (man) married to the lower level (women), they were admitted even were honored as part of Bride’s family. This problem caused Merarik that was married by running off with prospective wife without permission of the women’s family, we can see this problem in page (50), “…Ayahnya mengajukan saji karma yang sangat tinggi pada keluarga Lalu Gerantang, berupa 30.000 kepeng bolong, 44 potong kain putih, 44 tombak bamboo, 11 ekor sapi, ajin turunan bangsa…”
3.3 The Analysis of Objective Approach
Theme in this novel is the title of nobility and marriage system of aristocratic in Lombok.
Di Selubung Malam, mencoba menguraikan kerumitan system kelas pada tingkatan-tingkatan gelar kebangsawanan Lombok dan biasanya pada system perkawinan, yang kemudian menghasilkan banyak penderitaan dari pada tokohnya (Joni Ariadinata, Di Selubung Malam, 2004: 21).
When the noble women want to marriage, she has to marriage to a boy who has same level with her. If not, that man must pay a highest Sajikrama, and that woman must lose her nobility’s title. In this case, Denda Saqnah was married to the lower level of noble. So, Rahadian Segeti (the father of Denda Saqnah) asked Lalu Gerantang to pay the highest sajikrama, see page (50). When Lalu Gerantang unable to pay it, Denda Saqnah was not part of Kampu Bayan Timur. Therefore, Denda Saqnah must lose her nobility title, and none of her children got title as Rahadian and Denda, but got title as Baiq and Lalu.
This story uses the combination of foreshadowing and flashback. Firstly, the writer told us about Baiq Mandalika’s anxiety (Di Selubung Malam, ceritakanlah dik: 27 – 43). In the middle of the story, the writer told us about the causes of Baiq Mandalika anxiety (Di Selubung Malam, Bangsat kau Munahar, 67 – 88, kak Jamanik: 89 – 120). Finally, the writer told us about the solution and the solving problem as the ending story.
· Step of Plot:
1. First step
In this step, the writer gives us information about protagonist that are Lalu Jagat Wira and Baiq Mandalika, but the writer did not give us specific description about introduction to Jagat Wira and Baiq Mandalika, she only describe them in generally description. “… Lalu Jagat Wira menatap Baiq mandalika dengan hati risau. Alangkah sulitnya melunakkan hati gadis itu. Kalau bukan karena Baiq Mandalika adik kandungnya, tak sudi ia berlama-lama berada di kampong Sasak ini…” page (28).
This novel not only give a general description but also show the protagonist with the conflict directly, (ceritakanlah, Dik: 28 – 43). Dewasa ini tak kurang novel yang menghadirkan tokoh cerita langsung dan sekaligus dengan konflik yang dihadapinya (Burhan, 2005: 144).
2. Middle Step, Conflict
Novia Syahidah raised up the conflict in the middle of the story. When Lalu Gerantang had leaved his family and Munahar rape Dende Saqnah. Lewat intrik-intrik yang licik dari tokoh antagonist (Munahar)
“…Seorang rentenir dari kalangan biasa yag ndiam-diam menyukai kecantikan Saqnah – akhirnya Gerantang nekat “menjual” Saqnah dengan imbalan pelunasan atas hutang-hutangnya. Lantas ia pergi secara pengecut menuju Sumbawa. Dari sinilah konflik mulai digarap oleh penulis, ketika pada suatu malam Munahar datang menagih hutang Gerantang dengan tubuh Saqna…” (Joni Ariadinata, Di Selubung Malam: 21).
3. Ending Step
This step show the special event, when Lalu Jagat Wira and Baiq Mandalika realize that they still love their father and forgive their father when their father was passed away “…Baiq Mandalika baru percaya, bahwa sebuah kematian kadang mampu membuka sekat-sekat yang selama hidup tak mampu terurai. Kematian seperti sebuah teka-teki yang membuat segalanya terlihat berbeda. Dan rasa kehilangan itu seolah-olah membuktikan kebenaran cinta yang sesungguhnya. Seperti saat ini, Baiq Mandalika merasakan sendiri betapa di lubuk hatinya yang terdalam, ia masih menyimpan sejumput cinta untuk ayahnya. Seburuk apapun lelaki itu, Lalu Gerantang tetaplah orang yang mengukir jiwa raganya, ia tetap berduka atas kematiannya…” (282 – 283).
Setting of place : 1. Lombok […Hingga tiga hari di pulau Lombok ini… page (33)]
2. Meninting […Kampung Meninting ini jadi ikut berseri…page (35)]
3. Bayan Timur […Aku tidak percaya kamu masih berani menginjakkan kaki di kampu ini…(235)]
4. Sumbawa […langkahnya semakin cepat menuju Otak Keris…(194), and …ombak pantai Maluk… page (148)]
Setting of time : In the night and morning
Setting of social : Social level in Sasakness
After we analyze, the lack of this novel was the writer did not optimally showing the power of novel, that is the setting of the place. The writer did not give the clear description about the place, where the protagonist live, she only mention the name of the place. The writer just told us that character live in Meninting without describe “How the Meninting was”. Setting of place in this novel just as a neutral setting.
Burhan stated that:
“Latar sebuah karya fiksi barangkali hanya berupa latar yang sekedar latar, berhubung sebuah cerita memang membutuhkan landas tumpu pijakan. Sebuah nama tempat, hanya sekedar sebagai tempat terjadinya peristiwa yang diceriakan, tak lebih dari itu. Latar yang bersifat demikian disebut latar netral (netural setting)”
However, in this novel, the writer was so careful to describe the characterization of each character based on their level. So that the weakness that occurs in the setting of place became little balance with the complete description about social level on each character. For example, she raised up Rahadian Segeti a perwangsa as an arrogant and Zealot man “…sesungguhnya ia sangat rapuh. Hanya kepongahan yang masih membuatnya bertahan…” (261).
d. Character and Characterization
a. Baiq Mandalika
Firstly, Baiq Mandalika was a cheerful girl [“…Baiq Mandalika yang cerita jika diajak…” page (30)], but after that rape happened, she was become calm and revenge girl [“…Sungguh adiknya kini bukan lagi gadis tegar dan ceria…” page (41), “…Adalah tugas kakak mencari mamiq dan membalas segala perbuatannya…” page (122)]. In the end of the story she back to her pure character [“…pada mulanya, Lika memang begitu ingin menuntut balas. Tapi ketika kaak sudah berangkat ke Sumbawa, hati Lika gelisah…” page (228)].
b. Lalu Jagat Wira
Lalu Jagat Wira was a strike and stubborn man, [“…kenapa Lika tidak paham juga?” Kalimatnya mulai meninggi…page (28)]. However, he was care to his family, [“…agar kakak tahu harus berapa lama lagi kakak tinggal di sini…” page (42), “…Sungguh mendengar suara Pipit yang riang dan manja itu, hatinya benar-benar rindu dan terasa lapang…” page (226)].
Therefore, when he heard that tragedy occurred in his mother, he wanted to take revenge to his father. However when he saw his father condition, he was angry, because his father became a weak man. In the end of this story he back to his pure character. [“…semoga kakak bias memandang semua kejadian ini dari sudut yang paling benar…” ujarnya nyaris berbisik…page (229)].
Based on those analyze, we make a conclusion that Lalu Jagat Wira and Baiq Mandalika have round character, because they were change in the characterization in some time like in the beginning of the story, they were human kind, but in the middle, they tried to take revenge and wanted to kill their father. In the end, they changed again to be human kind.
· Munahar and his servants
Munahar from the beginning until the end of the story as flat character. He was a bad person, creditor that always press someone who has borrowed some money from him. He also wanted to kill Lalu Gerantang and rape Denda Saqnah. “…Bagaimana kalau aku meminta Saqnah sebagai penebus hutang-hutangmu…” page (71)
Antagonist force: in this novel, the situation when Jamanik killed his father, when Lalu Jagat Wira and Baiq Mandalika want to take revenge to their father and the situation when Munahar rape Saqnah categorized as Antagonist force. “Penyebab konflik yang tak dilakukan oleh seorang tokoh disebut sebagai kekuatan antagonis, antagonistic force” (Altenbern and Lewis, 1966: 59).
· Convenient Character
a. Denda Saqnah
She was Mandalika’s mother, beautiful women although she was old and she was patient. Saqnah memang masih terlihat cantik meski sekarang usianya sudah mencapai angka 40 tahun. Sifatnya yang lembut, namun tegar sangat tergambar pada saat wajahnya yang tenang.
b. Denda Apti
She was Mandalika’s aunt. She was an aristocrat girl of Kampu Bayan Timur.
An obey, shalih and handsome man “… Jamanik, pemuda yang begitu baik, santun dan shaleh…” (page 105)
d. Lalu Gerantang
He was Mandalika’s father, a wicked gambler.
e. Maq Sudir
He was Munahar’s servant.
She was Munahar wife.
g. Rahadian Segeti
He was Saqnah’s and Apti’s father, a stubborn man and zealot to his nobility, “…dia tetap seorang perwangsa yang menjunjung tinggi tradisi leluhur di atas segalanya…”
e. Point of View
Third person narrator (…Lalu Jagat Wira menatap Baiq Mandalika…)
In this novel, the writer used name of the character or used “he” and “she”, so we can say that, this novel used the third person narrator. The unique thing in this novel is the writer told about Lombok by an unsasakness perspective. Novia Syahidah was born in Payakumbuh, so that she needs many references about Lombok and visited Lombok to look for the empiric experience; in order, the readers may felt the situation of Lombok when they read this novel.
After we analyze this novel, we make some conclusions:
1. The setting of place of this novel is Lombok and Sumbawa.
2. a. The protagonists of this novel are Baiq Mandalika and Lalu Jagat Wira and the convenient character are Denda Saqnah, Denda Apti, Jamanik, Lalu Gerantang, and Maq Sudir.
b. The antagonist characters are Munahar and his servants, Rahadian Segeti.
3. Theme of this novel is about the marriage system of aristocrat in Lombok and the title of nobility.
4. Plot that used in this novel are the combination of foreshadowing and flashback.
5. The writer here as the third person narrator.
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Syahidah, Novia, 2004, Di Selubung Malam, Bandung: DAR Mizan.