THE EFFECT OF COMMUNITY LANGUAGE LEARNING METHOD TOWARD STUDENTS SPEAKING ABILITY AN EXPERIMENTAL FOR EIGHT GRADE OF SMP DARUL HIKMAH MATARAM IN ACADEMIC YEARS 2011/1012
Presented to :
muhammadiyah university of mataram
faculty of teacher training and education
language and art department english education program mataram
Requirement for the Strata-1 in English Education
MUHAMMADIYAH UNIVERSITY OF MATARAM
FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION
LANGUAGE AND ART DEPARTMENT ENGLISH EDUCATION PROGRAM MATARAM
“Don’t pull a long face although you have a stack problem.
You have to try to put a good face on something.
Having bravery in facing a phase of life will make you elder”
This thesis is dedicated to:
My beloved parents (Ansoruddin, H. Khaerul Ahyar, and Tisahyah),
My brothers (M. Zahid Al-Kausari, Fatahillah, and
Abdul Malik Jaya Putra)
By saying Alhamdulillahirrobil Alamin, the writer says thank to Allah SWT for His blessing and Merciful so that she can finish this thesis. And shalawat and salam to The Great Messenger Muhammad SAW, who has succeed to bring us out of the darkness.
The writer would like to express thanks to :
1. The Dean of muhammadiyah College of Teacher Training and Education at Mataram, the Head of English Department, the all Lectures of PBS (English Department) and Staff for their guidances, motivation, advice, so that the writer can finish her study.
2. Her first advisor Bq. Rismarini Nursaly, SS,M.Hum and Drs. H. Gufranuddin, DIP.TESOL and her second advisor, Sri Wahyuni, S.Pd for their help, guidances and suggestions in writing this thesis.
3. The head master of SMP Darul Hikmah and the English teacher for their assistance in collecting the data, and all Eight Year Students of SMPN 1 Suralaga as their participation as the respondents of this research.
4. Her beloved parents, beloved brother and sisters and all her relatives for their endless love, sacrifice, prayers and financial support.
5. Her last gratitude goes to her close friends; Diana Rahayu, Zuhratul Aini, Nurul Aini, Rusniati, and many others whose names can not be mentioned
As there is no such thing quite perfect in the world, the writer honestly appreciates of this writing. Hopefully, this thesis can be a valuable useful contribution for further research especially in English.
May Allah SWT, the Almighty always be with us. Amin.
SAHRIL. 2011. The Effect of Community Language Learning (CLL) Toward Students’ Speaking Ability for the Eight Year Students of SMPN 1 Suralaga in the School Year 2007/2008. S-1 Thesis. Hamzanwadi College of Teacher Training and Education at Selong (STKIP). Advisors: (1). Bq. Rismarini Nursaly, SS. M.Hum, (2) Sri Wahyuni, S.Pd
Key word : Community Language Learning Method (CLLM), Speaking Ability An Experimental
English speaking ability an experimental is one of the language skill which become the main purpose for the English language learner at the school. The purpose of CLLM is to help the students to communicate in their daily life, but the achievement of the CLLM is felt difficult practically, because in fact, many students are still passive in the classroom. When the students communicate in the target language, students might encounter a situation in which they cannot find words to convey meaning. When the flow of communication in this situation of communication breakdown, they used Community Language Learning Method (CLLM) method to prevent the stagnation in conveying that messages and make the students find it enjoyable to learn. Therefore, this study concerns with students’ ability in learning English by using CLLM.
This study is attempt to discover students’ speaking ability for the eight year students’ of SMP Darul Hikmah Mataram in the school year 2011/2012. Two research questions formulated: (1) to what extent is the achievement of the speaking ability for the eight year students of SMP Darul Hikmah Mataram in the school year 2011/2012? (2) to what extent is the effect of CLL toward students’ speaking ability for the eight year students of SMP Darul Hikmah Mataram in the school year 2011/2012?
This study was experimental research. So there were two groups of sample, they were experimental and control groups. The population of this study was 160 students. The researcher took 40 students as the sample. As the research instruments which was developed to collect data, the researcher provided some pictures, the students were asked to describe the pictures. While the students were describing the pictures, the researcher recorded it.
After collecting and calculating the data, the researcher found that the mean score of pre-test and post-test for experiment group were 46.45 and 51.85, while for control group were 41.2 and 45.3. And in testing the hypothesis, the researcher used t-test formula. The researcher found that t-test was 2.280 and t-table in significant rank 0.05 (5%) was 2.021. It proved that t-test was higher than t-table (2.280 > 2.021). So the alternative hypothesis was accepted. It indicates that Community Language Learning Method (CLLM) was effective in speaking teaching for the eight year students of SMP Darul Hikmah Mataram in the school year 2011/2012.
Jannati, Nur Atikah. 2008. Pengaruh Pembelajaran Bahasa Masyarakat terhadap Kemampuan Berbicara Siswa Kelas VIII SMPN 1 Suralaga Tahun Pembelajaran 2007/2008 . Skripsi S-1. Sekolah Tinggi Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan (STKIP) Hamzanwadi Selong. Pembimbing: (1) Bq. Rismarini Nursaly, SS. M.Hum, (2) Sri Wahyuni, S.Pd.
Kata Kunci : Pembelajaran Bahasa Masyarakat, Kemampuan Berbicara Siswa
Kemampuan berbicara menggunakan bahasa Inggris merupakan salah satu keterampilan berbahasa yang menjadi tujuan pokok bagi pembelajar bahasa Inggris di sekolah. Tujuan pengajaran CLL adalah untuk membantu siswa berkomunikasi dalam kehidupan mereka. Tapi pencapaian dari tujuan tersebut masih dirasakan sulit, karena kenyataannya, masih banyak siswa yang pasif di dalam kelas. Ketika mereka berkomunikasi memakai bahasa sasaran, mereka bisa saja menemui situasi dimana mereka tidak menemukan kata yang dikehendaki untuk menyampaikan pesan yang dipikirkannya. Pada saat itulah mereka perlu menggunakan metode pembelajaran bahasa masayrakat untuk mencegah kemacetan dalam menyampaikan pesan itu dan membuat siswa senang/santai dalam belajar. Dengan demikian, penelitian ini mencoba untuk fokus pada kemampuan siswa belajar bahasa Inggris khususnya berbicara.
Penelitian ini bermaksud untuk menemukan kemampuan berbicara siswa kelas 8 SMPN 1 Suralaga tahun pembelajaran 2007/2008. Ada dua rumusan masalah yang diajukan: (1) sejauhmana kemampuan berbicara dengan menggunakan bahasa Inggris siswa kelas delapan SMPN 1 Suralaga tahun pembelajaran 2007/2008? (2) sejauhmana pengaruh metode pembelajaran bahasa masyarakat terhadap kemampuan berbicara siswa kelas delapan SMPN 1 Suralaga tahun pembelajaran 2007/2008?
Penelitian ini termasuk penelitian yang berbentuk experiment dengan 2 kelompok penelitian yaitu kelompok eksperimen dan kelompok kontrol. Jumlah populasinya adalah 160 siswa. peneliti hanya mengambil 40 siswa sebagai sampel. Sebagai instrumen penelitian yang digunakan untuk mengumpulkan data, peneliti menggunakan beberapa gambar, siswa akan menjelaskan isi gambar tersebut dan peneliti merekam penjelasan siswa.
Setelah mengumpulkan dan menghitung data, peneliti menemukan nilai rata-rata pre dan post test untuk kelompok eksperimen adalah 46,45 dan 51,85, sedangkan untuk kelompok kontrol diperoleh nilai rata-rata adalah 41,2 dan 45,3. Untuk menguji hipotesis, peneliti menggunakan rumus t-test, ditemukan nilai t-test nya adalah 2,280 dan t-tabel pada taraf signifikan 0,05 (5%) adalah 2,021. Ini terbukti bahwa t-test lebih besar daripada t-tabel. Itu artinya pembelajaran bahasa masyarakat bisa dikatakan efektif digunakan dalam pengajaran berbicara untuk siswa kelas 8 SMPN 1 Suralaga tahun pembelajaran 2007/2008.
This chapter presents the discussion on the background of the study, statement of the problems, objective of the study, scope and limitation of the study, significance of the study, assumption of the study, hypothesis of the study, and definition of key terms.
1.1 Background of the Problem
There are many languages used as a means of communication by people all over the world. One of them is English, which has a role as an international language. It is known as the first foreign language taught in Indonesia. It is started from Elementary School up to University, because it is important for developing the science.
Many students in Indonesia do not like English. They get difficulties, boredom and confusing in learning it, because it is not their mother tongue. English teacher should be able to motivate the learners in learning this foreign language. Harmer (1993: 3) states motivation means a kind of drive that encourages somebody to pursue a course action. It should be done by every English teacher in order that the students are interested to learn this language. English teacher must be able to manage the teaching by using certain method in the teaching-learning process, so that the students will like it without boring and despair.
Community Language Learning Method (CLLM) as one kind of method in language learning, “where the learners become members of a community – their fellow learners and the teacher to learn through interaction with members of the community. Learning is not viewed as an individual accomplishment but as something that is achieved collaboratively. Learners are expected to listen attentively to the knower, to feely provide meanings they wish to express, to repeat target utterance without hesitation, to support fellow members of the community, to report deep inner feelings and frustrations as well as joy and pleasure, and to become counselors to other learners” ( Curan in Richard, at. all, 1986: 120)
In learning English there are four skills which are necessary to be mastered by the learners. Those skills are listening, speaking, reading and writing. Referring to the title, the writer limits the explanation to the speaking only. Speaking skill is very important skill that must be mastered by every language learners, because one is called mastering a language when he/she is able to demonstrate the speaking skill. In order to master this skill, a teacher as an educator have to use good method in teaching learning process. In this case, the researcher concerns with the effectiveness of CLLM toward students’ speaking ability an experimental for eight grade students of SMP Darul Hikmah because so far CLLM has not been practiced in the field by most English teachers.
1.2 Statement of Problem
Based on the background of the study, the research problem can be formulated as follows:
- To what extent is the achievement of the speaking ability an experimental for the eight grade students of SMP Darul Hikmahn Mataram in academic years 2011/2012?
- To what extent is the effect of CLLM towards students’ speaking ability an experimental for the eight year students of SMP Darul Hikmah Mataram in academic years 2011-2012?
1.3 Objective of the Study
Based on the research statement, this particular study aimed at finding out:
- The achievement of the speaking ability an experimental for the eight year students.
- The effectiveness of CLLM toward students speaking ability an experimental for the eight years students of SMP Darul Hikmah Mataram in Academic years 2011/2012.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The result of the study is expected to be used theoretically and practically:
a. The result of this study is expected to be able to widen the skill of teachers in using CLLM in order to improve student’s speaking ability an experimental.
b. As a reference to other researchers who want to study CLLM more intensively in teaching speaking.
a. The result of this study is suggested to apply the Community Language Learning Method (CLLM) to increase the students competence in English speaking ability.
b. The use of CLLM in speaking can make the students are more enjoyable in doing their tasks associated with the speaking materials.
1.5 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The scope of the study are limited to the subject and object investigated.
The subject of this study is the eight year students of SMP Darul Hikmah Mataram in academic years 2011/2012.
The object of this study is the effect of Community Language Learning Method (CLLM) towards students speaking ability an experimental.
1.6 Assumption of the Study
- Students have the same background of learning English.
- In teaching speaking, there are many various efforts have been used by the teacher to increase the students’ motivation.
1.7 Hypothesis of the Study
A hypothesis is a statement of the research assumption about the relationship between two variables that the researcher plans to test within the framework of the researcher study (Kumar, 1993: 9).
From the above opinion, the researcher hypothesize that CLLM is effective toward students’ speaking ability an experimental at eight grade students of SMP Darul Hikmah Mataram.
1.8 Definition of Key Terms
In order to clarify the key terms used in this study, some definitions are put forward.
A change produced by an action or a course.
- Community Language Learning Method
Community Language Learning Method (CLLM) is the name of method that represents the use of counseling-learning theory to teach language.
- Speaking Ability an experimental
Speaking ability an experimental refers to the skill of the students to communicate or say anything orally in transferring their ideas by using English and which is emphasized on the students’ skill to use the target language effectively and appropriately in communication.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter presents about some related information topic of the recent study. It is intended to provide some theoretical concepts which could support this investigation. The discussion is presented under the following sub headings:
1) theory of language, 2) theory of learning, 3) community language learning metod, 4) speaking ability an experimental, 5) relevant of the study, and 6) theoretical framework.
2.1.Theory of Language
In presenting this sub heading, the writer necessary need to elaborate the theory of language as follows:
Language is a systematic means of communicating ideas or feeling by the use of conventionalized sign, sounds, gestures or marks having understood meanings Webster in Munawar (2002: 1). All people over the worlds used language as means of communication. It is one of the ways how to express the ideas, feelings other languages like sound, sign, and gestures where it can be categorized as features of language. It can representatives our ideas or feeling to have meaningful understanding. Furthermore, language can be expressed not only by words but also by sign and gesture. To be more clear, language through speaking (sign and gesture) are make someone understanding what expressed is.
Meanwhile, the features of language according to Boey (in Ellis, 1975: 2-3) stated that language is a system consisting of two sub-system that are the system of meaningful units and sub-system of sounds. The sub-system of sound has no meaning but it form the meaningful unit. This system is clear when we notice how word is built up. The word consists of sound and if it is separated it will have no meaning. For example, the sentence like “the boy is Ali” one can produce some other sentence inside it, so the above sentence can be read like “the boy who was standing at the door of a shop where I bough my shoes yesterday is Ali”. Finally, language is arbitrary, it is stated previously that language consists of sub-system of meaningful units. The meaning itself is a matter of convention among the people who used the language.
There are three theoretical views of language and the nature of language proficiency explicitly or implicitly such as:
- The Structural View
According to this view, the language is a system of structurally related elements for the coding of meaning. From the above description, it can be concluded that the target language learning is seen from the mastery of element of system, namely terms of phonological unit, grammatical unit, and etc.
- The Functional View
This view stated that language is a vehicle for the expression of functional meaning. This theory emphasize on the semantic and communicative dimension rather than merely the grammatical characteristics of language.
- The Interactional View
It sees language as vehicle for the realization of interpersonal relations and for the performance of social transactions between individuals itself. From this description, language is seen as a tool for the creation and maintenance of social relations, which is referred to the language as social process. La Forge in Richard, et al (1995: 115-116) says that language as social process is different from language as communication.
“Communication is more than just a message being transmitted from a speaker to listener. The speaker is at the same time both subject of his own message….communication involves not just the unidirectional transfer of information to the other, but they very constitutions of the speaking subject in relation to its other….communication is an exchange, which is incomplete without a feedback reaction from the distance of the message”
2.2.Theory of Learning
According to Munawar (2002: 2) learning is acquiring or getting of knowledge of subject or skill by studying, experience or instruction. It mean that people can get knowledge from many sources not only at school as the formal situation but also from experiences since they can interact with others, like an aphorism states “experience is the best teacher”
Meanwhile, the CLLM view of learning is contracted with two other types of learning. The first is a putative learning. In this view the intellectual and factual process alone are regarded as the main intent of learning, to the neglect of engagement and involvement of the self” Curran in Richards, et al (1986: 117). The second of learning is behavioral view or animal learning “in which learners are ‘passive’ and their involvement limited” Curran in Richards, et al (1986: 117). Within this views, the development of the learner’s relationship with the teacher is the central.
The successful in language learning follows from a successful relationship between learner to teacher, and learner to learner. So that, the teacher divides the learning into five stages and compared to the ontogenetic development of the child.
The first is “birth” stage, feeling, of security and belonging are established. The second is the learner’s abilities improve, the learner as child begins to achieve a measure of independence from the parent. The third, the learner “speak independently” and may need to assert his own identity, often rejecting unasked advice. The fourth stage sees the learner merely works upon improving style and knowledge of linguistic appropriateness. By the end of the stage, the child has become adult. The learner knows everything like the teacher does and be a knower for a new learner.
2.3.Community Language Learning Method (CLLM)
This section discusses two aspects of community language learning Method consisting of concept of CLLM and design of CLLM.
2.3.1. Concept of CLLM
Since community language learning is the name of a method which is oriented on humanistic approach. One terms to community language learning Method is counseling learning where it is a non-direct therapies approach which is designed to easing the learners in acquiring the target language.
In accordance with the statement above, the writer particularly needs to formulate the example of community language learning takes place in the classroom. A group of learners sit in a circle with the teacher standing outside of the circle, and a students whispers a message in the native language (L1): next, the teacher translates the message of the learners into the foreign language (L2), while, the students repeats the messages in the foreign language into a cassette; students compose further messages in the foreign language with teacher’s help; so students reflect about their feelings and wishes. It means that the client-counselor in psychological counseling have relationship between the learner-knower in community language learning method.
Furthermore, community language learning method represents the use of counseling-learning theory to teach languages.
2.3.2. Design of CLLM
This design of CLLM discusses about activities of teaching learning using CLLM technique such as : objective, the syllabus, type learning and teaching activities, learner roles, and teacher roles.
126.96.36.199. Types of Learning and Teaching Activity
In accordance with types of learning and teaching activity, here community language learning involves learning task and activities take place in learning and teaching process as follows:
1. Translation. Learners from a small circle. A learner whisper a message or meaning he or she want to express, the teacher translates it into the target language, and the learner repeats the teacher’s translation.
2. Group work. Learners may engage in various group tasks, such as small group discussion of a topic, preparing a conversation, preparing a summary of a topic for presentation to other group. Preparing a story that will be presented to the teacher and the rest of the class.
3. Recording. Students record conversations in the target language.
4. Transcription. Students transcribe utterances and conversation they have recorded for practice and analysis of linguistic forms.
5. Analysis. Students analyze and study transcriptions of target language sentence in order to focus on particular lexical usage or on the application of particular grammar rules.
6. Reflection and observation. Learners reflect and report on their experience of the class, as a class or in groups.
7. Listening. Students listen to a monologue by the teacher involving elements they might have elicited or over hear in class interactions.
8. Free conversation. Students engage in free conversation with the teacher or with other learners.
188.8.131.52. Learner Roles
In community language learning method, here the learners roles as the part of community, their fellow learners and the teacher and learn through interacting each other with the member of the community. Learners are expected to listen attentively what the counselor advised, provide them a chances freely whatever the meanings they wish to expressed, to repeat target utterance without hesitation, to report deep inner feelings and frustrations and to become counselors to other languages.
Meanwhile, Laforge (in Richard, 1986: 121) stated that there are five stages of communicative language learning Method as follows:
1. The learners is like an infant that completely dependent on the counselor for linguistic content. Here the learner repeats utterances made by the teachers in target language and overhears the interchanges between other learners and knower.
2. The child achieves a measure of independence from the parent. In this stages, the learners begins to establish their own self affirmation and dependence by using simple expressions and phrases they have previously heard.
3. The separate existence stage. In this stage, the learners begin to understand others directly in the target language.
4. A kind of adolescence. In this stage, the learners function independently although his or her knowledge of the foreign language is still rudimentary.
5. The independent stage. This last stage explained the learners refine their understanding of register of the vocabulary as well as grammatically correct language use.
Furthermore, learning is a whole person process and the learner at each stage is involved not only in the accomplishment of cognitive (language learning) but also in the solution of affective conflicts and respect for the enactment of values.
184.108.40.206. Teacher Roles
In this parts of types of learning and teaching activity, the teachers have significant roles to capture all the learners problem and then to solve it well. The teachers (counselor’s role) is to respond calmly and non judgmentally, in a supportive manner and help the client try to understand his or her problems better by applying order and analysis to them.
Concerning with the statement above, Curran (in Richard, at all, 1976: 26) stated that “one of the functions of the counseling response is to relate affect…..to cognition. Understanding the language of ‘feeling’, the counselor replies in the language of cognition”
The teacher’s role, teachers operate in supportive roles and providing target language translation and imitation on request of the clients. Later, interaction may be initiated by the students and the teacher monitors learners utterances, providing assistance when requested. So the student become increasingly capable to accept the criticism and the teacher may directly intervene to correct deviants utterances, supply idioms and advice on usage of words as well as fine usage of grammar.
One continuing role of the teacher is particularly notable in community language learning method that is responsible for providing safe environment in which students (clients) can learn and grow. Here, the learners feels secure and free to direct their energies to the tasks of communication and learning rather than to building and maintaining their defensive positions. To support the statement, Curran (in Richard, 1976: 6) describes the importance of a secure environment as follows:
“As whole persons, we seem to learn best in an atmosphere of personal security, feeling secure, we are freed to approach the learning situation with the attitude of willing openness. Both the learner’s and knower’s level of security determine the psychological tone of the entire learning experience”.
Furthermore, teacher have responsibility for creating and maintaining a secure environment for learning in order that the learners can easier to capture knowledge and information given by the teacher during the learning and teaching process take place.
There are four language skills; listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Speaking is commonly make someone understand, also speaking is the second skills that need to comprehend by the people chronologically in their life. In fact, for the first time someone comes to the new world, he just proud of his ear to listen to his mother, subbing and surrounding. Then, try to utter the guidance to the adult like his mother. This process comes true and it continually occurred every day, every night, and every times in his life. For the reason, speaking is one of the language skill takes place effectively in orally form. As what Nasin (in Munir, 2005: 10) says that “Speaking skill is needed by learner in real communication to express any message and information”.
Base on the above statement, it can be concluded that speaking is as the fundamental media used to convey messages, knowledge, emotions, feelings, ideas and opinions directly in interacting to others.
2.4.1. The Meaning of Speaking Ability
Speaking ability consists of two words ‘speaking’ and ‘ability’. Speaking is the capability to articulate the sound expressing, and delivering thought, opinion, and wish (Tarigan, 1985: 21). While, Djiwandono (1996: 68) says that speaking is the activity to express thought and feeling orally. And Nurgiantoro (1995: 168) says that speaking is the activity delivering language and communicating ideas, thought orally.
While, ability is a power in doing something, fitness for ability for being improved (Hornby, 1968: 78). According to Poerwadarminto (in Munir, 2005: 16) that ability is capability or skill, while other ideas says that ability is the capability or a power to do something physical or mentally. Furthermore, it is also stated that ability is potential capacity of power to something physically or mentally. Based on the ideas, it may be concluded that speaking is t outer the articulation of sound to express or state, also deliver the opinion and wish. Clark (1972) in Alwasiah (2002: 2) therefore, if both speaking and ability are combined, so, it is means capability to utter the articulation of sound to express or deliver thought, wish to other people to do communicative task.
Furthermore, speaking is more than just a message being transmitted from a speaker to a listener. In this case, the speaker is at the same time both subject and object of his own message.
2.4.2. The Important of Speaking Ability an Experimental
The capability of human to speak well, and right are very needed in delivering a wishes, thought, and etc. in order that the partner can understand what the speaker talks about. Referring to the importance of speaking ability, Haryanto (1994: 26) says that “human delivers a message and it is accepted by the communicant, so it had been occurred a communication between communicator and communicant”. If the communicant does not understand what the message conveyed is about, it will be occurred misunderstanding. The above opinion indicated that speaking ability is very important to everyone, because speaking is an instrument of social interaction. Furthermore, the speaking is a work that constitutes a complex problem and it is so important. Also, it cannot be separated from practice everyday in daily life. Speaking ability is very important and need by everyone because it is multifunction. To speak well, right and fluently, it needs more courses practice. Actually, since a normal infant was born she or he had a potency of speaking skill, it can be seen when the infant started to make sound.
2.4.3. The Aspect of Speaking Ability an Experimental
The process of speaking used in order to be able to speak well and right. Is what the scientist says that “A well speaking must be able to deliver right message and can be understood, familiar, by others or the listeners” Haryanto (1994: 26). Referring to the aspect of ability, Tarigan (1985: 42) states that speaking activity may viewed from appropriateness of utterance, placement of stress, appropriateness of word choice, appropriateness of speaking target. The other opinion says that the aspect of speaking consist of utterance, grammar, vocabulary, fluency, content, and comprehension (Nurhadi, 1987: 23).
Base on the opinion, it can be said that aspect of speaking ability an experimental is determined by utterance, grammar, vocabulary, content, fluency, comprehending, to appropriate of words choice, familiar, placement of stress and etc. However, not all of them well described below, but to focus on the problem will be limited in the aspect of utterance, aspect of grammar, aspect of vocabulary, and aspect of comprehension.
a. The Utterance Ability
The utterance ability is one of the important skill in order that the message is acceptable. So, the message must utter clearly. Referring to this statement, Tarigan (1985: 55) says that the speaking process such discussion, briefing, argumentation, chatting, interview, asking and answering, to utter clearly since the expression of thought which is delivered to audience can be understood. Furthermore, someone called as a good speaker should be able to choose and use words through appropriate sentence, a good intonation and as well as clearly voice.
Vocabulary can not separate with the words, it can be a message, an idea, and etc. this idea (message) must to convey through speaking. While, speaking is an expression of words orally and clearly. In this case, vocabulary should be mastered a lot in order that communication is developed. Also, the speaker does not merely interact without having a lot of vocabulary. Furthermore, vocabulary is a group of words to make sentence structure in conveying idea or message to the listener.
Every languages has difference grammar. Grammar is a group of paradigm of structure generally covers the segment of phonology, morphology, and sentence. (Keraf, 1991: 28). It also that grammar covers phonology, semantics, morphology, and syntax, by Nurhadi (1987: 34).
Keraf (1991: 30) states that, “the smallest unit which occurred from sounds, which distinguishing meaning is called grammar”. The expression of sound in appropriateness is almost determined to comprehend the speaking. It mean that, in speaking must have sentence structure which is called grammar, while, the grammar includes phonology, morphology, syntax and semantics.
The definition of some terms above will not stated because it belongs to linguistic area. Furthermore, well usage grammar will prevent to misunderstanding.
d. Content and Meaning
Content and meaning are important in speaking process. So the speaker should plan or prepare material before expressing his/her ideas. Dealing with this statement, Tarigan (1985: 45) states that; “the content and meaning in speaking ability can be seen from mistake, competence, clarification, and simplicity what the topic is about”.
Speaking ability is reflected frequently of speaking what is used to speak about. In this case, completeness of idea, thought or sense either it is talked simple or not. The content of speaking must be systematic, logical and attractive. So, it be said that speaking process in which speaker must be able to speak systematically, logically and attraction in order to the listener understand what the speaker is meant.
2.4.4. The Factor of Speaking Ability an Experimental
Speaking ability constitutes one of language skills which is derived from learning result. In general, there are two factors of the effect in learning process and learning result namely; internal and external factor. Hasanah in Cahyono (1997: 2) expressed both internal and external factors are as the following:
a. Internal Factor
Internal factor is an element, that effect learning process. Where this element exists on the learner and it is called entering behavior. There are some components, consists of internal factor such as; (1) physical factor, (2) intelligence factor, (3) emotional factor, and (4) talent. (Purwanto, 1985: 35)
1. Physical factor
Someone’s physical condition may effect in most his/her activities, for example; someone who has a big body needs long movement, large space than he/she whose thin body. In physical factor; some aspects needs to be given attention such as; are body condition, physical effect, and health.
a. Body condition
The learner who has fitted body will help to assert knowledge when the teaching learning process take place. Constantly, the learners feels sleepy and tired, it certainly cause troubles in teaching learning process. Also, the student who are growing up also affect the learning process. Physical condition movement will affect their behavior, protruding muscle, etc. These problems feel that there is something different on them. These problems often invite negative reaction to his/her friends and may affect the result of teaching learning process.
b. Physical effect
A normal is not cause physic problem in most of activities. Constantly, if the learner get abnormal physic such as cripple, bent shape hand, x-leg shape, and etc. may have troubles for the learners his/herself. They feel shy to the others. Sometimes they have no self-confidence, and of course it can disturb the learning process.
Some serious illness can lost of concentration in the learning process. The learners can not focus on the material given by teacher cause unfit body such as influenza, cough, toothache, and etc. so in accepting knowledge and information must have good healthy in order that all the materials easiest to capture for the learners. In other words, healthy inside fresh outside.
d. Sense of body
If body organs has function normally, it will help the students to learn well, however, if there is interference on his/her body, particularly in eyes, ears, and etc. These may interrupt the students in teaching and learning process. Body organ has a good function to get knowledge and information either from a teacher or a book is read. It means that a part of body has role important particularly in capture knowledge and applied in daily life.
2. Intelligence factor
Intelligence constitutes an unique characteristics, possessed by people. It was already exist since the infant was born. However, in its development it cannot out from environment because it is one of factors to shape intelligent. For example, even though students has high potency, but if there is not any supports from his/her environment, so, the students development is not maximum. It is in line with the theory of convergence stated that; the development of person is determined by the characteristic factors to the person itself, so that this factors has importance roles in the development of their speaking ability for the ability.
3. Emotional factor
The happiness, safeness, afraid, and etc. are kinds of emotions, which can effect his/her activities included in learning process. The students can do everything enthusiastically as long as he/she feels happy and safe. So, the students who get happiness will be better than the learner who feel sad, afraid or stress in teaching and learning process.
b. External Factor
External factor constitutes a factor that comes from outside of the learner him/her self. Referring to this problem, Paiman (1997: 249) states that; the factors comes from outside of learner himself are non-social factor and social factor.
1. Non-social factor
Non-social factor consist of weather, times either it is morning, afternoon or night, condition of building and instruments used for learning. Those factors are very determined in learning and teaching process.
2. Social factor
Social factor is things the people accepted or acquired from the community particularly in family environment. It will be the basic for the next people’s development (Purwanto, 1987: 78). In this case, peoples’ development is very complex and related to each other. Most of students learn from out of the school, he/she can get many things in term of how behaviors is shaped, how relationship is build up and how to know each other between he/she to the others.
So, the social factor is the most importance factor which determined the development of the learners in term of behavior, relationship among other and etc.
2.4.5. CLLM in the teaching of Speaking Ability an Experimental
There are two factors that support CLLM in teaching-learning process, namely the inside (students factor) and outside (the teacher factor).
a. The Students Factor
1. Size of class
In Indonesia, has big classes not only from the Elementary School but also until to the University. But as the sample of this studies is Junior High School that have at least fourthly students in number. This sometimes cause a great problem, especially in teaching a foreign language. For instance, when speaking ability an experimental is emphasized, the some of students undergoing the instruction which is given it must need special attention, otherwise the teacher get fail use in teaching and learning process.
The teacher does some steps when she/he wants to teach English, like speaking practice to her/his students. First of all, the class is divided into two groups. The first group gives exercises in dialogue, at the same time, the second group gives English patterns in written form. This second group must pay attention to the patterns which is the first group is communicated.
2. Composition of class
What the writer means by “composition of class is how the class is made up”. The students may be included of these categories; (1) those who learn a language easily. These students have a natural aptitude towards the language. They have talent for learning a language, (2) those of high intelligence who make efforts in speech but respond well to the intellectual sides of the language, (3) those who have little intuition and must be stimulated by using medias, (4) those who have a tendency of wrote mastery, (5) those who don’t respond to ordinary stimulate and need individual attention.
These levels intelligence are in influential on every subject, particularly foreign language learning. In relation to class composition, Morris (1978: 542) stated that, “in school teaching harmonious progress depends greatly on the composition of class. While this factor is applicable to every subject. It is particularly decisive in foreign language teaching, especially language speaking where speech is major aim.”
The students may have a bad attitude towards the teacher as well as the subjects. The students who is very weak, for instance, in English is very reluctant to learn subject.
The students may feel excited, happy, confident and adequate or he may feel bored, frustrated, angry and inadequate. For instance, when he gets confused in pattern drill, he may feel frustrated, after having repeated the same sentence a number of items, he may get bored, but when he can express his ideas correctly in English with his fellow students, he may feel excites. He may feel angry and inadequate his mind this way, “English is difficult because it is too difficult to me, I don’t like it, I’m tired of learning it”
On the contrary, the students who experienced excitement during a conversation class, for instance, may express his feeling this way. “I enjoy learning English, because it is easy for me…I can communicate with my pen palls in another country in English”. Then consequently, the students participates actively in every activity of his English class.
As defined by Hornby (1986: 77) in the learner’s dictionary of current English. Discipline is the exercise development and control of the main and character, intended to produce obedience and orderly behavior.
“Both teacher and class ought to make efforts to create a discipline atmosphere by trying to make his lesson so interesting that the students have no tendency to have any other activities. So the students are under the control of the initial condition for the promotion of good discipline. The most important thing in the teacher should will the ability to promote interest in the subjects. He must be able to create a favorable situation.
b. The Teacher Factor
The teacher in the language teaching plays very important role because he is one of the factors that may determine whether or not the teaching of language is successful.
A teacher who will a lot of practical training does not necessary have the ability to deal successfully with the theoretical side of the language. On the contrary, the teacher who has high academic qualifications may not necessarily succeed in the practical things.
Morris (1966: 32) suggested qualifications the teacher should have: (1) general pedagogical training for the purpose of inculcating good working habits, (2) special training in the theory and practice language habits, (3) the possession of a good speaking and reading voice, (4) good hand writing in the script and cursive lettering, (5) ability to sketch.
It is true that linguistic in general is of great help in teaching a foreign language or speaking since it can help the teacher to overcome difficulties a rising from linguistic sides.
A qualified teacher should be able to use any method and materials, adapting them to the need for teaching and learning. For instance, if the teacher sees that the dialogues in the textbook are too long to be memorized by the students he makes alternations concerning of the sentences of the dialogues. And if the dialogues are not in the line with the propose of his teaching he may have dialogues from other source of dialogues compose by himself.
The teacher must also understand the intimate relation the between a language and it’s cultural background. Besides, the writer of this proposal thinks that it is necessary for the teacher to know well the cultural background of the student’s native language as well as to make him capable of comparing the two cultures when need.
To prove that the teacher is the most important factor in teaching a foreign language or speaking, the writer would like to quite what Dr. Jan Carnel Tan (in Rahman, 2006: 17) asserted in his dissertation stated that;
To achieve any improvement it is essential to have better teachers. He cannot assume that pupil will learn what their teachers never master. One quality of a good teacher is the ability to teach from any good book or bad or even with no book at all. The teacher on other hand, can destroy or distort what even merits a good book may have”
Regarding to the teacher as one of the main factors determines the success of the teaching of a foreign language, Patteson (Rahman, 2006: 17) stated that: “in decided and my colleges have always been completely with on this, that was most necessary to improve the standard of English every where, was simply better teacher”. In addition to the qualifications of a good English teacher mentioned above, a teacher of English must have a good attitude toward his students owing to their attitudes, of course the learning atmosphere will affective. But, in whatever condition, a teacher of English must be able to overcome inferable situations, otherwise his teaching may result in a failure.
2.5.Relevant of the Study
In this part, the writer states the relevant research which possible to add the readers view on the effect of using Community Language Learning Method (CLL) towards speaking ability an experimental. In the following statements, actually the writer does not find out yet the same study therefore, there are several studies that have relevance on this study as follows:
First, the study was done by Ahmad Munir (2005). In his study was “communication strategies toward students’ speaking ability an experimental for the fourth semester. In the research, he wanted to find the effect communication strategies in speaking ability an experimental. For the purpose, he took all of the fourth semester (103 students) as the population. So he had taken 39 students as the sample of study. He has used the experimental research for his design research. From the research, he found good result. It means that using the series pictures in speaking ability has the better result. The data obtained from the experimental group rather active and attained good mark than other group. His study has the same aim with the writer, that is to find out the effect of Community Language Learning Method (CLLM) technique in teaching speaking and using pictures.
The second study was done by Rahman (2006). It was the effectiveness of Community Language Learning Method (CLLM) through group work. He had taken 235 students as the population and only 20 students as the sample of the study. The result he is found the effectiveness of community language learning method through group work in teaching speaking of second year students of Senior High School (SMA) Muhammadiyah Mataram in academic year 2005-2006. He correlated of the two variables. He has used the experimental research for his design research. From the research, he found out the good result too. It means using group work technique, has the better result. The data obtained is the experimental group.
In determining theoretical framework, the writer start to think base on the problem of the students in studying the English. In teaching and learning process, especially in English, many problems and activities face by the students and also the teachers. But, mostly the success of the students in learning the English should be determined by themselves. Beside the students study the English at the school, they should hard at home, that is by repeating again what they are getting at the school from the teacher to recognize or memorize the materials.
In other instance, the students often get failed in their learning cause of many factor, such as feels strange to the materials, confuse and uninterested situation in teaching learning process in the classroom. So the teacher’s duty is how to develop the student’s potential in studying English especially in speaking. Speaking is one of the components of language that has function to express feeling, opinion, ideas, and emotions. And through CLLM as one of the methods can facilitated the teaching speaking, and it can be able to overcome the failure of students in learning.
Therefore, the writer thinks by investigating community language learning method in teaching and learning process will carry out the teaching and learning better, and the achievement of students will be increased especially speaking ability an experimental.
This chapter describes; the research design, population and sample, instrument, technique of data collection, data analysis, and hypothesis testing.
This study is an experimental research, since it describes the quantitative degree in which variable are related. It is also reasonable that the writer intend to examine the cause and effect between two variables, Community Language Learning Method (CLLM) and Speaking Ability an Experimental. According to Hadi (1988: 56) that an experimental study is one of the precise methods to examine the cause and effect. In this study, the writer prepares or set up community language learning method toward speaking ability an experimental, for the students who will be examined to answer speaking test. The idea is concerned with the statement of Arikunto (1998: 67) that by using an experimental design, the examiner intentionally revised appearance of the difference and then it is examined how the result is.
This study tries to describe the effect of treatment of two distinction, Community Language Learning Method (CLLM) and Speaking Ability an experimental thus, the research design is pre-test and post-test. Therefore, the design is called a pre-test and post-test control group design. The study design is adopted from Ary, et.al (2002: 308) as follows:
E = experimental group
C = control group
Y1 = pre-test
X = treatment on the experiment group
Y2 = post-test
This research design will present several characteristics; (1) it has two groups of experimental subjects or treatment group and control group; (2) the two groups compared with respect two measurements of observation on the dependent variable; (3) both groups will be measured twice, the first measurement serve as the pre-test and the second as the post-test; (4) measurement on the dependent variable for both groups will be done at the same time with the same test; and (5) the experimental group manipulated with particular treatment.
3.2.Population and Sample
3.2.1. Population of the Study
Population is the number of people or individual that has at least the same characteristics (Hadi, 1984). In this study, the population of the study includes all eight year students of the SMPN 1 Suralaga in the school year 2007/2008. They are four classes and consist of 160 students. The students are still actively learning English as one of the compulsory subject.
3.2.2. Sample of the Study
Suharsimi (1987) stated that if the subject is less than one hundred it is better to take the entire subject. Furthermore, if the subject is more than one hundred it can be taken between 10-15% or 20-25% or more that it.
The number of accessible population of the study is 160 students. The writer will take 25%, will only take 40 as the sample of the study. The sample will take randomly from the population. First, each of the four classes will be taken by using lottery and than from the result of the calculation of the four classes sample is drown. This means that IIA consist of 10 students, IIB consists of 10 students, IIC consist of 10 students, IID consist of 10 students and all of the students are the subject of the study, that is 40 students will be taken as the sample of study. To be clearer, population and sample is listed in the following table.
Table 3.1. The population and sample of the study
In any scientific research, instrument for collecting data is absolutely important. The accuracy of the result of research mostly depends on how accurate the use instrument is. Before research is carried out the instrument for the data collection should be prepared well.
In line with the research problem, the writer use speaking test as an instrument. In this case, interviewing the students and retelling series of picture. The test will be given to the sample and the results are gathered as the data of this study.
3.3.1. Validity of Instrument
The validity of a test is the extent to which is measured what it is supposed to measure (Heaton, 1989: 159). The aim of it will measure the skill, knowledge, ability, etc. The series of pictures use to stimulate the subject to build their opinion. According to Heaton (1989: 89) the test used must be appropriate in term of our subject, the dependable in the evidence provides, and applicable to our particular situation. The picture comprehension test in which (1) the picture out; (2) after subject were read. The writer did oral interview to the subject for 10 minutes, the oral interview always refers to the picture. In scoring value to each subject, the writer using weighting table (Oller, 1979), as follows:
This study aims at knowing the students’ achievement in speaking, where oral interview is one of the interview more appropriately used to make the students’ achievement in speaking and achievement in a language. (Nugiantoro, 1995: 229)
The researcher use orally test in this study. The form of the oral test employed with verbal essay. Based on the topic, the writer will teach in oral test or speaking, the respondents will ask to speak at last five minutes. We grad that the grammar scales receives that heaviest weighting followed by vocabulary comprehension, fluency, accent, which receives the lowest weighting.
The whole of the kind above test will evaluate by researcher as the following comprehension of FSI
Conversation Table of Weighting table
(From Weighting Table)
The writer use test as instrument for collecting data. Instrument is a tool uses to collect the data. Arikunto (1998: 137) states that an instrument is important element to find out the result of research, so the writer has to prepare the instrument.
Test is a set of question or exercise or another test which will use to measure skill, knowledge, intelligence, achievement, aptitude of someone or group of people. In this research, the writer use oral test for experimental group and control group.
The above table in horizontal line number 1 to 4 at the top raw was the ability level scale or description of fluency. The speaking skill test consist of three question where the subject will be asked to explain the three answers orally, if they will be able to give correct answer, they get mark as mention in the weighting table of FSI procedure.
3.3.2. Instrument Reliability
Reliability is very important of a test to get reliable product of measurement. Reliability is stability of test it is used, a test will reliable if it is obtains the stable data or consistent if used to measure a same test in other time or place.
To know the test reliability, in this case will use the KR-21 formula as follow:
r11 = the reliability of instrument
K = the number of the item test
Vt = variance total
M = mean score
(Arikunto, 1998: 130)
3.4.Technique of Data Collection
The data of the study will be obtained by using a type of test, which will speaking test. In order to get data, the writer administrate the way to collect data as follows: (1) the writer spread out the picture comprehension test to each subject, (2) asking each students about the picture on the test to know their speaking achievement, (3) while the students are answering the test, their answer is recorded.
The writer interrupt or ask the subject if their answer will not relate to the test given. Before answering the question, the subjects will give 15 minutes to study the picture and answering in 10 minutes.
The technique of data analysis, will be used here is statistical analysis that is descriptive analysis. Descriptive statistic will used to determine the data in high, average, and low categories. For the purpose, the following is used:
Mi – 1 SDi – Mi + 3SDi = High
Mi – 3 SDi – <Mi + 1 SDi = Average
Mi – 3 SDi – <Mi – 1 SDi = Low
Even though not all of the investigation require hypothesis, but at least the hypothesis is needed in the investigation. Therefore, hypothesis should be formulated before starting investigation. Ary (2002: 78) process some requirements in formulating hypothesis, such as: (1) hypothesis must be formulated clearly and briefly, (2) hypothesis must indicate obviously about the relationship between two or more variables, and (2) hypothesis must be supported by the theories which are proposed by the experts or based on the relevant investigation.
Hypothesis constitutes a temporal answer or a weak answer where the truth remains to be proved, therefore, the hypothesis proposed in this research remains to be proved. However, the alternative hypothesis (Ha) should be change into null hypothesis first. Arikunto (1998: 68) states that in testing hypothesis Ha must be changed into Ho.
To test the hypothesis, will used T-test with the level of significance 0,05 (5%). The formula will used:
N = the sum of the subject
M = the mean score of each group
x = the deviation of each value x2 and x1
y = the deviation of each value y2 and y1
(Arikunto, 1998: 306)
And then, the criteria will used as follows:
1. If t-test (tt) > t-table (to) in significant rank of 0,05, Ho (null hypothesis) is accepted. It means that the rates of mean score of the experimental group are higher than the control group.
2. If t-test (tt) < t-table (to) in significant rank of 0,05, Ho (the null hypothesis) is rejectted. It means that the rates of the means score of the experimental group are lower than the control group.
RESEARCH RESULT AND DISCUSSION
This chapter presents the result of the investigation, which were based on the data analysis. The writer presents the statistics of the obtained data, which was intended to lead her to come to the findings of this study. Latest on, the discussion is continued to the analysis and interpretation of the finding. The statistical computation covers the calculation of the mean score and the t-test to compare with the significance of the two mean scores.
Before concluding the finding of this study, the writer firstly describes about: (1) description of data analysis, (2) the result of hypothesis testing, (3) discussion; (3.1) students’ speaking ability facilitated by using CLLM, (3.2) the effect of Community Language Learning Method (CLLM) toward students’ speaking ability an experimental.
4.1 Description of Data Analysis
Based on the data obtained, for experimental group in pre-test the lowest score was 31, and the highest was 60, while in post-test, the lowest score of the students was 33, and the highest was 70. For the control group in the pre-test, the lowest score was 27 and the highest was 55, while in the post-test the lowest and the highest were gained 29 and 61 (appendix 06).
After gaining the lowest and highest scores of the two groups either in pre and post-test, the researcher then calculated the mean scores of the experimental group, that in the pre-test and post test were gained 46.45 and 51.85 while for control group, the mean score was gained in pre-test was 41.2 and in post-test was 45.3 (appendix 09).
Further, it was also found out the calculation of Standard Deviation (SD) of each group (appendix 09).
Table 4.1. The calculation result of mean score, standard deviation (SD) and the lowest-highest score
In analyzing result of CLLM toward students’ speaking ability an experimental, the writer used statistic descriptive for the categories in which it consists of the ideal maximum score (SMi) was 99, while the minimum scores was 16. So, the ideal mean score (Mi) gained was 57.7 and ideal standard deviation (SDi) was 13.83.
The categories gained after the calculation into the standard categories are as follows:
Mi + 1 SDi to Mi + 3 SDi = High
57.5 + 1 (13.83) to 57.5 + 3 (13.83)
57.5 + 13.83 to 57.5 + 41.49
71.33 to 98.99
Mi – 1 SDi to < Mi + 1 SDi = Average
57.5 – 1 (13.83) to < 57.5 + 1 (13.83)
57.5 – 13.83 to < 57.5 + 13.83
43.67 to < 71.33
Mi – 3 SDi to < Mi – 1 SDi = Low
57.4 – 3 (13.83) to < 57.5 – 1 (13.83)
57.5 – 41.49 to < 57.5 – 13.83
16.01 to < 43.67
Furthermore, the mean score, which obtained in this investigation for experimental group in pre-test was 46.45 and post test was 51.85, while for control group in pre-test and post test were 41.2 and 45.3. It indicates the mean score of students in experimental group was higher than control group, although the category of both of groups were in average category.
4.2 The Result of Hypothesis Testing
The t-test was used to know the differences between two means the alternative hypothesis of this there was an effect of Community Language Learning Method (CLLM) toward students’ speaking ability an experimental. The null hypothesis there was no an effect of Community Language Learning Method (CLLM) toward students’ speaking ability an experimental.
The obtained t-test was 2.280 whereas the t-table was 2.021 at the degree freedom (df) = 38 at significance level was 0.05. The obtained of t-test (2.280) higher than t-table (2.021) could be marked significant (see appendix 11). So the null hypothesis (Ho) was rejected and the alternative hypothesis (Ha) could be accepted. As formulated on chapter I, it means that there as an effect of Community Language Learning Method (CLLM) toward students’ speaking ability an experimental.
In this point, the researcher presents the discussion about: the achievement of the students’ speaking ability and the effect of Community Language Learning Method (CLLM) toward students’ speaking ability an experimental of the eight year students of SMP Darul Hikmah Mataram in the school year 2011-2012, as follows:
4.3.1 Speaking Ability Facilitated by Using CLLM
After calculating the data, the students’ speaking ability that facilitated by using Community Language Learning Method (CLLM), there was differences gain between experimental and control groups, and it can be seen on the means score gained of the two groups. The mean scores of experimental group was 51.85 and the standard deviation was 8.96 (see appendix 09). And the mean score of control groups were 45.3, and the standard deviation were 8.17 (see appendix 09). After consulting to the conversion of weighting table, the means score of experimental group was in the level 2. It mean that, the students are able to satisfy routine social demands and limited work requirements. While, means score of control group total score was in the level 2. It means that, the students are able to satisfy routine social demands and limited work requirements.
4.3.2 The Effect of Community Language Learning Method (CLLM) Toward Students’ Speaking Ability an Experimental
Related to the statements above, the means scores of experimental group were 51.85 and control group were 45.3. So the results indicates that means scores of experimental group was higher than the control group. It means that, Community Language Learning method (CLLM) had positive effect toward students’ speaking ability an experimental for the eight year students of SMP Darul Hikmah Mataram in the school year 2011-2012.
CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
This chapter deals with the result of research and discussion based on the data analysis to the effect of CLLM toward students’ speaking ability an experimental for the eight year students of SMP Darul Hikmah in the school year 2011/2012.
Based on the data analysis and the discussion in the previous chapter, the writer finally comes toward the conclusion.
1. From the statistical analysis it is found that the mean score and the standard deviation of experimental groups were higher than control groups. Mean score and the standard deviation of experimental group were 51.85 and 8.96, while the mean score of control group was 45.3 and the standard deviation was 8.17. However, the speaking ability of the students for both groups were included in the average category.
2. All of the above data indicates the experimental group is more successful than the control group. The figure of t-test is also higher than t-table. It means that the deviation of the two mean score is significant.
3. The effect of CLL toward students’ speaking ability in this research has positive effect. It is proved from the t-critical was higher than t-table (2.280 > 2.021). In briefly, the hypothesis stated previously is accepted.
Based on the conclusion above, the writer puts forward the following suggestions:
- The English teacher should pay much attention to the appropriate technique and media that will be applied in presenting the speaking material.
- The English speaking teacher should develop the ability of the students in speaking by giving the students more chance to practice English and to speak their opinion freely, so that their ability will be improved. Its suggested that the English teacher should use CLLM as the teaching method especially for teaching speaking.
- The head master should motivate and support the teacher of English to apply this method in teaching speaking at their each school.
- Finally, the researcher hopes other researcher to be more motivated in conducting further investigation to find the main factors which can effect the positive instructional activity.
Alwasilah, Chaedar, Furqanul Azies. 2002. Pengajaran Bahasa Komunikatif: Teori dan Praktik. Bandung: PT. Remaja Rosdakarya.
Arikunto, Suharsimi. 1998. Prosedur Penelitian: Suatu Pendekatan Praktek. Edisi Revisi IV. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.
Ary, Donald, 2002. Introduction to Research in Education. Sixth edition. USA: Wordsworth Thomson Learning.
Cahyono, Bambang Yudi. 1997. Pengajaran Bahasa Inggris: Tekhnik, Strategi dan Hasil Penelitian. Malang: IKIP Malang.
Djiwandono, M. Soenardi. 1996. Tes Bahasa Dalam Pengajaran. Bandung: Penerbit ITB.
Hadi, Sutrisno. 1998. Methodology Research. Yogyakarta: Andi Yogyakarta.
Haryanto, Yan. 1994. Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris. Jakarta: Universitas Terbuka.
Harmer, Jeremy. 1993. The Practice of English Language Teaching. London: Longman.
Heaton, J. B. 1989. Writing English Language Test. New York: Longman Group UK Limited.
Hornby, AS. 1995. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English. London: Oxford University Press.
Keraf, Gorries. 1991. Tata Bahasa Indonesia. Jakarta: Nusa Indah.
Kumar, Ranjit. 1993. Writing A Research Proposal. Western Australia: Curtin University of Technology.
Mcllrath. D, and Hiutt, W. (1995). The Teaching-Learning Process: A Discussion of Models. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University.
Munir, Ahmad. 2005. Communication Strategies Toward Students’ Speaking Ability. Selong STKIP Hamzanwdi. Thesis S-1. Unpublished.
Morries, W. 1966. The Grollier Interantional Dictionary. Danbur:. The Gloiler Inc.
Nurgiantoro, Burhan. 1995. Penilaian Dalam Pengajaran Bahasa dan Sastra. Edisi II. Yogyakarta: BPFE.
Nurhadi. 1987. Bahasa dan Sastra. Malang: Kapita Selekta. YA-3
Oller, John W. 1979. Language Testing at School. London: Longman Group Ltd.
Paiman. 1997. Psikologi Perkembangan. Jakarta: Universitas Terbuka.
Purwanto, Ngalim. 1985. Psikologi Pendidikan. Bandung: CV. Remaja Karya.
Richard, Jack C. and Theodore S. Rodgers. 1986. Approach and Method in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rahman. 2006. The Effectiveness of Community Language Learning (CLL) Through Group Work. Mataram IKIP. Thesis S-1. Unpublsihed.
Suryabrata, Sumadi. 2002. Psikologi Pendidikan. Jakarta: PT. Raja Grapindo Persada.
Tarigan, Henry Guntur. 1985. Prinsip-Prinsip Dasar Sastra. Bandung: PT. Aksara.
Tarigan, Henry Guntur. 1991. Metodologi Pengajaran Bahasa. Edisi I. Bandung: Penerbit Angkasa.
Ur. Pehny. 1999. A Course in Language Learning. Cambridge: Cup.