STUDENTS’ ABILITY IN CONSTRUCTING
PASSIVE SENTENCES ON THE SECOND YEAR STUDENTS OF
SMA MUHAMMADIYAH MASBAGIK IN THE SCHOOL YEAR
MOTTO AND DEDICATION
· Your words say your mind
· Try to say good word for everyone, so it can’t make some one disappointed.
It is dedicated to:
My beloved parent (H. Hamdan & Rabiah), brothers (Mukhtar & Mukhsan) and sisters (Romiyati & Yuliani)
and all beloved friends.
Suhayani. 2006. Students’ Ability in Constructing Passive Sentence for the Second Year Students of SMA Muhammadiyah Masbagik.
Thesis. English Language Program, Departments of Language and Art in Education, STKIP HAMZANWADI of Selong.
Advisors: (1) M. Zulpiani Hamdi, M.Pd.
(2) Syaiful Bahri, S.Pd.
Key Words: Students’ ability, Constructing passive sentence
English is much different from Indonesian, for example in functional skills, especially in passive sentence. Students should master some elements of language, like tenses. In constructing passive sentences, students should know the tenses, because passive sentences depend on each of the tenses. On this matter, students often get confused and make mistakes in constructing passive sentences. They often confuse in using Simple Present Tense in the sentences and also often do not put to be.
In this study, there were two problems stated: To what extent is students’ ability in constructing passive sentence for the second year students of SMA Muhammadiyah Masbagik in the school year 2005/2006? And to what extent is the percentage of successful in constructing passive sentence for the second year of SMA Muhammadiyah Masbagik in the school year 2005/2006?
The writer took 28 students of the second year students of SMA Muhammadiyah Masbagik as the sample. In collecting data, the writer used a subjective test which consisted of 15 items. The students asked to change active sentence into passive sentence.
This study is descriptive quantitative research, it’s consisted of one variable. Based on the data analysis, the highest score obtained by the students was 12 and the lowest was 1. The standard deviation of score was 2.9 and the mean score was 7.39.
Referring to the statistic categories, the measure of students’ ability in constructing passive sentences was on average level, it can be seen from the mean score of the students’ ability. The mean score was on 5 - 10 and the percentage of successful is 49%. It is concluded that the ability of the second year students of SMA Muhammadiyah Masbagik in constructing passive sentence belong to Average.
Suhayani. 2006. Kemampuan Siswa Dalam Menyusun Kalimat Passive Siswa Kelas II SMA Muhammadiyah Masbagik Tahun Pembelajaran 2005/2006.
Skripsi. Sekolah Tinggi Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan (STKIP) Hamzanwadi Selong. Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa dan Seni. Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris.
Pembimbing : (1) M. Zulpiani Hamdi, M.pd.
(2) Syaiful Bahri, S.Pd.
Kata Kunci : Kemampuan siswa, menyusun kalimat passive.
Bahasa Inggris sangat berbeda dengan bahasa Indonesia, contohnya pada keterampilan fungsional, khususnya kalimat pasif. Dalam membuat kalimat pasif, siswa harus menguasai beberapa unsur tata bahasa seperti tenses. Dalam membuat kalimat pasif, siswa harus menguasai tenses karena kalimat pasif tergantung pada masing-masing tenses. Dalam hal ini, siswa seringkali bingung dan membuat kekeliruan di dalam menyusun kalimat pasif. Mereka sering bingung di dalam menggunakan bentuk Simple Present Tense dari kata kerja dalam sebuah kalimat dan terkadang mereka tidak menggunakan to be.
Adapun permasalahan yang dikemukakan yaitu : sejauh mana kemampuan siswa kelas II SMA Muhammadiyah Masbagik dalam menyusun kalimat pasif? Dan Sejauh mana prosentase tingkat kesuksesannya dalam membuat kalimat pasif?
Penelitian ini termasuk deskriptif kuantitatif yang terdiri dari satu variabel. Peneliti mengambil 28 sampel siswa kelas II SMA Muhammadiyah Masbagik. Dalam mengumpulkan data, peneliti menggunakan sebuah tes yang terdiri dari 15 butir soal. Dalam hal ini, siswa diminta mengubah kalimat aktif menjadi kalimat pasif. Adapun skor masing-masing soal adalah 1. Jadi skor tertinggi yang diperoleh 12 dan yang terendah 1,9. standar deviasinya 2,9 dan nilai meannya adalah 7,39.
Berdasarkan rumus pengkategorian, kemampuan siswa dalam membuat kalimat pasif berada pada tingkatan rata-rata, karena nilai meannya berkisar antara 5 - 10 dan prosentase kemampuannya adalah 49%. Dengan demikian, dapat disimpulkan bahwa siswa kelas II SMA Muhammadiyah Masbagik termasuk dalam kategori sedang dalam menyusun kalimat pasif.
Assalamu’alaikum Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuh
Firstly, the writer praises be to Allah SWT for giving health and also patience to the writer in completing this thesis, and the writer says thank to prophet Muhammad SAW who has guided us from blackness to lightness, and the writer says thank to instructor staffs of English program at STKIP HAMZANWADI Selong for their guidance, so that the writer is able to finish this thesis.
Special thank goes to M. Zulpiani Hamdi, M.Pd. as first consultant and Mr. Saiful Bahri, S.Pd. as second consultant which have a lot of giving and giving a lot of motivation in completing this thesis, writer says thank you which profusely.
Than, the writer says thank to headmaster of SMA Muhammadiyah Masbagik and teacher of English during the coming research process to obtain completeness in compilation of research report (thesis).
Finally, the writer thanks goes to beloved parents for love and prayer, dearest brother and sister, and all friends who help her improving this thesis, providing literatures and completeness. May God bless them all.
Wassalamu’alaikum Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuh.
Pancor, August 14 2006
This chapter presents the discussion about background of the problem, statement of the problems, objective of the study, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, and definition of key terms.
1.1. Background of the Problem
People need language to communicate their thought to the others. Language is used to convey opinion, feeling or idea. It is also used to get information or share information. Language is needed whether it is written or spoken. Language is very necessary for people as a mean of communication.
It is known that English is an international language and it is the first foreign language in Indonesia used to communicate throughout the country. Nevertheless, as an international language, English is necessary to be mastered by generation of a nation, especially for students in order to be able to adapt and compete in the international world, because by studying English they can get many advantages such as science and technology development.
Like other developing nations, Indonesia has also included the teaching of English as a first foreign language learned at school. English also has been one of the compulsory subjects studied from secondary schools up to the university level. Even more interestingly, the government of Indonesian Republic is now promoting English to be taught at the fourth grade of primary school.
However, many students get difficult in learning English because English is considered as foreign language in Indonesia and also it is known that most part of English grammatical systems are different from Indonesia, then, the writer believes that their knowledge on the first or second language interferes in their English. Hence, students get great difficulties in learning English. Moreover, the linguistic system of English is very complicated.
In addition, English is much different from Indonesian, for example in functional skills, especially in passive sentence. Students should master some elements of language, like tenses. In constructing passive sentence, students should know the tenses, because passive sentences depend on each of the tenses. On this matter, students often get confused and make mistakes in constructing passive sentences. They often confuse in using simple present tense in the sentences and also often do not put To Be.
Learning these phenomena, the writer makes up her mind to investigate the ability of the students in constructing passive voice by the second year of SMA Muhammadiyah Masbagik in the school year 2005/2006. In this case, she would like to find out the kinds of difficulties and the factors that may promote the difficulties. Hopefully, she would discover the best solutions concerning with the teaching and learning activities.
1.2. Statement of the Problems
Based on the above background, statement of the problems can be formulated as follows:
1. To what extent is the ability in constructing passive sentence for the second year of SMA Muhammadiyah Masbagik in the school year 2005/2006?
2. To what extent is the percentage of students’ successful in constructing passive sentence for the second year of SMA Muhammadiyah Masbagik in the school year 2005/2006?
1.3. Objective of the Study
This research is aimed at finding out:
1. The ability in constructing passive sentences for the second year students of SMA Muhammadiyah Masbagik in the school year 2005/2006.
2. The percentage of students’ successful in constructing passive sentence for the second year of SMA Muhammadiyah Masbagik in the school year 2005/2006.
1.4. Significance of the Study
a. The result of this study is expected to give motivation and encourage the other researcher to do the advanced research as well as efforts to express the factors so that the research result may be more comprehensive.
b. The result of this study is expected to contribute on the development of English language teaching’s language techniques.
The result of this study is expected to be able to enrich the teachers and students knowledge to improve their understanding of English structure and to be aware of grammatical differences between Indonesian and English.
1.5. Scope and Limitation of the Study
The subject of this study is the second year students of SMA Muhammadiyah Masbagik in the school year 2004/2005.
The object of the study is the student ability in constructing the passive form of simple present tense.
1.6. Definition of Key Terms
1. Passive sentence is a sentence that the subject of the active verb becomes the agent of the passive verb.
2. Students’ ability is skills or capability possess by students to do something.
3. Constructing is a process of writing or building sentences.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter presents the discussion about sentence, the sentence types, aspect of sentence, clause, active sentence, passive sentence, relevant study and theoretical framework.
According to Alice and Hogue (1983: 121) a sentence is a group of words that we use to communicate our ideas in writing or in speech, which has complete, independent unit of thought and consists of two main parts: a subject and a predicate.
Furthermore, Cook (in Tarigan, 1971: 2) states that a sentence is the unity of language that can stand alone relatively where it has the final intonation as well consists of clauses.
According to Gere (430: 1985) a sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought. In addition Frank (1972: 220) defines sentences as follows: “Traditional grammar defines a sentence in one of two ways”
BY MEANING. According to this definition a sentence is a “complete thought” such a definition is inadequate, however, because of the vagueness of the term “complete thought”. By seeing or hearing a statement, how do we know it is “thought”, and what makes it “complete”?
BY FUNCTION. According to this definition a sentence consists of a subject and a predicate. This definition is more satisfactory because it is actually possible to identify the structural functions of subject and predicate in a sentence.”
From the above statement, it can be said that a sentence is a part of speech that expresses whole thinking and it has rules in writing, which it is ended by final intonation that can be period, question mark or exclamation point.
Basically, there are four kinds of sentence in English, that is, simple, compound, complex, and compound complex.
According to Alice and Hogue (1983: 123) there are four kinds of sentences.
1. A simple sentence is an independent clause.
- I enjoyed playing tennis with my friend every weekend.
- My friends and I play tennis at noon every weekend.
- I write and read a letter.
- I give him a magazine.
- Mrs. Ena is a teacher.
2. A compound sentence is two or more independent clauses joined together in any one of the three ways.
a. By coordinating conjunction.
Example: I enjoy playing tennis, but I hate playing golf.
b. By a sentence connector.
Example: I enjoy playing tennis, however I hate playing golf.
3. A complex sentence is the combination of an independent clause and a dependent clause.
- Although I enjoy playing tennis, I hate golf.
- I hate golf, although I enjoy playing tennis.
4. A compound complex sentence is a combination of two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clause.
- I hate playing golf but I enjoy playing tennis even though I am not very good at it.
Frank (1972: 220) classifies sentences by types as follows:
1. Declarative sentences (statements)
In a declarative sentence the subject and predicate have normal word order. The sentence ends with a period in writing and a drop in pitch in speech.
Example: The child ate his dinner.
2. Interrogative sentence (question)
In an interrogative sentence the subject and auxiliary are often reversed. The sentence ends with a question mark (or, interrogation point) in writing. In the spoken language, most yes-no questions and with a rise in pitch; most interrogative word questions end with a fall in pitch.
Example: Did the child eat his dinner?
3. Imperative sentence (commands, requests)
In an imperative sentence, only the predicate is expressed. The simple form of the verb is used, regardless of person or tense. The imperative sentence ends with a period in writing and a drop in pitch in speech.
Example: Eat your dinner.
4. Exclamatory sentences (exclamations)
Such sentences begin with an exclamatory phrase consisting of what or how plus a part of the predicate. The exclamatory phrase is followed by the subject and the balance of the predicate.
Example: What a good dinner that was!
Aspect of Sentence
In constructing sentence, there are some aspects that should be noticed namely word and structure.
The word term is often heard and used in our conversation even the word term is almost used in all changes and needs because without word we cannot speak well and fluently.
According to traditional expert, word is the unity of language that has one understanding, Bloomfield (in Nurjannah, 2002: 10) states that word is a minimal free form.
From the above definition, it can be concluded that a word is the unity of language having one meaning that can be in the form of verbal, nominal, adjective, etc.
Every word has the rule of letter arrangements in which it has remaining order and it cannot be changed as well, as it cannot be separated by other letter. For example: the word “table”, its letter order is /t/, /a/, /b/, /l/, /e/. This order cannot be changed to become /a/, /l/, /e/, /t/, /b/, or it cannot be separated by other to become letter /t/, /a/, /b/, /r/, /l/, /e/.
The main grammatical division of a sentence is the subject and predicate. The sentence is divided according to the function of each word has in the subject and predicate relationship. Each of these functions is classified as a different part of speech. The word that form the central core of the sentence around which all the other words cluster are the part of speech called as noun or pronouns and verb. The words that modify the central core of words are the parts of speech called adjective and adverb. The words that show the particular kind of connecting relationship between the parts of speech are called preposition and conjunctions.
The term structure in language field refers to language aspect that is signed by its role in using language. In this case, Wiyanto (in Sahinun 1996: 31) further states that In spite of ones knows the meaning of words, it doesn’t mean he can use it in sentences. Knowing the word and the meaning of word is important, but one word can not stand alone and can’t be used in sentence in our own way. Language user should be able to construct words into a grammatical sentence.
From the above statement, it can be concluded that is by mastering the sentence structure, the language users are able to understand the ideas expressed through sentences. Besides the speaker can express his idea, he will be able to exactly understand the language use.
In English, structure mastery is very important because the different form of sentences is determined by the different tense.
According to Alice and Hogue (1983: 121) a clause is a group of word that has a subject and a verb. A clause, on the other hand, is a group of words that has a subject and a verb, which is used as a part of a sentence.
Meanwhile, Swan (1996: 1) says that clause is a part of a sentence, which contains a subject and a verb, usually joined to the rest of the sentence by a conjunction. In addition, Frank (1972: 221) says a clause may be defined in the same ways as a sentence: it is a full predication that contains a subject and a predicate with a finite verb.
According to Frank (1972: 223) there are two kinds of clause, independent (main) and dependent (subordinate):
- The independent (main) clause is a full predication that may stand alone as a sentence;
- The dependent (sub) clause has a special introductory word that makes the predication “depend” on an independent clause.
See the following example of independent clauses.
1. I may declare my major now, but I can still change it later.
2. Many students are having financial problems because the cost of education has been rising rapidly.
Note that the italic sentences are independent clauses.
2. Before my wife comes, I have fried some eggs.
3. When the semester was over, we felt so free.
4. He is my close friend who has been accepted by the university.
Note that the italic parts of the clauses are dependent clauses.
A passive verb form, is made by verb past participle, the subject of a passive verb is usually the person or thing that is affected by the action the verb (Swan: 1996).
Furthermore, in passive sentences the subject receives the action of verb. The direct object of active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence. Because every sentence in English must have a subject, passive sentences can be formed only from transitive verbs, which can take direct object. (Alice and Hogue, 1986: 189).
22.214.171.124. Uses of Passive
According to Thomson and Martinet (1996: 266), it is usually better to write sentences with active verbs because active verbs are more direct, but there are two circumstances in which the passive voice is preferred. They also define the uses of passive sentence as follows.
1. When you want to give your writing an objective and impersonal tone, use the passive. Because the “doer” of an action may be omitted in passive in passive sentences, the tone is more objective. For this reason, passive is often used in scientific and business writing, as well in newspaper reports.
2. When you focus attention on the “receiver” of an action, use the passive.
3. When it is not necessary to mention the doer of the action as it is obvious who he is/was/will be:
- The rubbish hasn’t been collected.
- Your hand will be x-rayed.
- The streets are swept everyday
4. When we don’t know, or don’t know exactly, or have forgotten who did the action:
- The minister was murdered.
- You’ll be met at the station.
- My car has been moved.
5. When the subject of the active verb would be “people”
- He is suspected of receiving stolen goods.
- They are supposed to be living in New York.
6. When the subject of the active sentence would be the infinite pronoun one
- This sort of advertisement is seen everywhere.
7. When we are more interested in the action than the person who does it
- A new public library is being built.
- The house next door has been bought.
8. The passive may be used to avoid an awkward or ungrammatical sentence. This is usually done by avoiding a change of subject.
- When he arrived home he was arrested.
- When their mother was ill the children were looked after by neighbors.
According to Caldernello and Edward (1986: 431) some uses of passive as follows:
1. Use the passive when the person or thing that performed a particular action is not known.
Someone made my dress in Italy.
Passive + Deletion:
My dress was made in Italy.
2. Use the passive in business or professional correspondence to be tactful in business or professional correspondence, the passive may be indispensable when the writer wishes, tactfully, to avoid mentioning who was careless or who made an error.
Here is another copy of the report that you misplaces.
PASSIVE + DELETION
Here is another copy of the report that was misplaced (by you).
3. Use the passive to avoid unnecessary repetition. Sometimes using the passive enables a writer to delete the subjects of sentence and this avoid undue repetition of the same word or phrase.
Next, the experimenters obtained samples of water and infused these samples with asbestos. Following that, the experimenters diluted the samples until the amount of asbestos was one million fibers per gallon of water.
REVISED WITH PASSIVE + DELETION
Next, the experimenters obtained samples of water and infused these samples with asbestos. Following that, the samples were diluted until the amount of asbestos was one million fibers per gallon of water.
4. Use the passive to change the focus or emphasis within a sentence.
EMPHASIS ON THE SUBJECT:
Roman Klinski wrote the scrip for Gang War in 1965.
EMPHASIS ON THE OBJECT:
The script for Gang War was written by Roman Klinski in 1965.
126.96.36.199. Simple Present Tense
In this case, the researcher studies about the passive form of simple present tense. Before coming to the passive form of simple present tense, it is necessary to know the use of simple present tense.
According to Swan (1996: 444) some uses of simple present tense as follows:
1. Use: general time
We often use the simple present to talk about permanent situations, or about things that happen regularly, repeatedly or all the time.
Ex: What do frog cat?
Water boils at 100° Celsius.
I play tennis every Wednesday.
Alice works for an insurance company.
2. Present time: series of events
When we talk about completed action and events that happen as we speak or write, we usually use the simple present. This happens, for example, in demonstrations and commentaries.
Ex: First I take a bowl and break two eggs into it. Next…
Lidyard passes to Taylor. Taylor to Marrison, Marrison back to Taylor…. And Taylor shoots and it’s a goal!
3. Here come….. etc
Note: the structure here comes…..and there goes……
Here comes your husband
There goes our bus we’ll have to wait for the next one.
4. Promises etc
Sometimes we do things by saying special words. We usually use the simple present in these case.
Ex: I promise never to smoke again.
I swear that will tell the truth…
5. Formal Correspondence
Some fixed phrases that are used in letter-writing can be expressed either in the simple present (more formal) or in the present progressive (less formal).
Ex: We write to advise you …. (Less formal: We are writing to let you know…).
I enclose my cheque for $200 (less formal: I am enclosing…)
The simple present is often used when we ask for and give directions and instructions.
Ex: How do I get to the station? You go straight on the traffic lights, then you turn left…
The simple present is common in informal narrative and in summaries of plays, stories etc.
Ex: In act I, Hamlet meets the ghost of his father.
8. I hear etc
The simple present is used with a perfect or past meaning in introductory expressions like I hear, I see, I gather, I understand.
Ex: I hear you’re getting married
I see there’s been trouble down at the factory.
I gather Peter’s looking for a job.
Quotation are often introduced with…says
Ex: No doubt you all remember what Hamlet says about suicide.
It says in the paper that Petrol’s going up again.
188.8.131.52. Passive Form of Simple Present Tense
We normally make passive form of a verb by using tense of the auxiliary which be followed by the past participle (PP) of the verb. (Swan, 06: 408).
Passive verb form of simple present tense:
To be (am / are /is) + past participle
- English is spoken here.
- That book is bought in the book store.
- The song is sung beautifully
- The letter is sent twice a month.
- We are invited to his party.
184.108.40.206. Passive Verb With Two Objects
Many verbs, such as give, send, show lend, can be followed by two objects, an indirect and direct object. These usually refer to a person (indirect object) and a thing (direct object). (Swan, 96: 411).
A. Verb + indirect object + direct object
- She gave her sister the car.
- I had already shown the policewoman Sam’s photo
B. Verb + direct object + preposition + indirect object
- She gave the car to her sister.
- I had already shown Sam’s photo to the policewoman.
Both of these structures can be made passive
A. Indirect object becomes subject of passive verb.
- Her sister was given the car.
- The policewoman had already been shown Sam’s photo.
B. Direct object becomes subject of passive verb.
- The car was given to her sister.
- Sam’s photo had already been shown to the policewoman.
220.127.116.11. Passive Sentences With Infinitive and Clause Object
Some sentences have infinitive of clauses as their object. These cannot normally become the subjects of passive sentences.
(Swan, 96: 412).
- John hoped to meet her
- They all thought that she was spy
18.104.22.168. Passive Verb With Object + Infinitive
Passive structures are with following infinitive.
Many verbs can be followed by object + infinitive
- He asked me to send a stamped addressed envelope.
- They believe him to be dangerous.
- We choose Felicity to be the carnival queen.
In most cases, there structures can be made passive.
- I was asked to send a stamped addressed envelope.
- He is believed to be dangerous.
- Felicity was chosen to be the carnival queen.
Note that: with “say” the infinitive structure is only possible in the passive.
- His company is said to be in trouble.
In some other case, the infinitive structure is more common in the passive than in the active.
2.2. Relevant Study
The study which is related to this study is Sahinun which his study entitled; “Pengaruh menyusun kalimat aktif dan kalimat pasif Bahasa Indonesia terhadap keammpuan mengarang siswa kelas II SLTP Negeri 3 Pringgabaya tahun pembelajaran 1995/1996, concluded that there was an effect of arranging Indonesian active sentence and Indonesian passive sentence toward students ability in writing.
Jannah had conducted a study about the ability of students in constructing present continuous sentences for the second year students of MTs. Mu’allimat NW Pancor in the school year 2002/2003. The study was aimed at finding out the ability of students in constructing present continuous tense sentences. She used descriptive research. The population number of her study consisted of 242 students. The main instrument used to collect data of her study was a test. After computing the data, she found that the result of study indicated mean score from the student was 6,3.
In this case, the relevancy of this study is at the object of study that is passive sentence, while in Nurjannah is about the sentences, and the research design where the research design of this study is descriptive quantitative research.
2.3. Theoretical Framework
English is much different from Indonesian, for example in functional skill, especially in passive sentence. Student should master some element of language, like tenses. In constructing passive sentence we should know the tenses, because passive sentences depend on each of the tenses.
According to Alice (1986: 121) a sentence is a group of words that we use to communicate our ideas in writing of in speech, which has complete, independent unit of thought and consist of two main parts: a subject and a predicate. While a passive verb form is made by verb past participle. The subject of a passive verb is usually the person or thing that is attached by the action the verb (Swan: 1996)
Furthermore, in passive sentences the subject receives the action of verb. The direct object of active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence. Because every sentence in English must have subject, passive sentences can be formed only form transitive verbs, which can take direct object. (Alice, 1986: 189).
This chapter consists of: (1) Research Design, (2) Population and Sample, (3) Research Instrument, (4) Technique of Data Collecting, and (5) Technique of Data Analysis.
3.1. Research Design
This study was descriptive research, as Arikunto (1997: 245) states that if a researcher wants to investigate what, how, how many, level of thing are descriptive research. Furthermore, Gay (in Safii, 2005: 18) states that the study which aimed at answering the question concerning with the current status of the subject of the study is categorized as descriptive study. A research that only has one variable is usually descriptive research of non-hypothesis.
Concerning with the above statements, this research was categorized as descriptive quantitative research because it consisted of one variable, namely the ability in constructing passive sentence.
The data was collected by administering test, where the second year students of SMA Muhammadiyah Masbagik was asked to change active sentences into passive sentences.
3.2. Population and Sample
According to Arikunto (1997: 108) population is the whole subject of research. Furthermore, in encyclopedia of educational (in Arikunto, 1997: 108) states that a population is a set (or collection) of all elements possessing one or more attributes of interest.
Based on the opinion above, the population of this study was all of the second year students of SMA Muhammadiyah Masbagik in the school year 2005/2006.
Table 3.2.1. Population of the Study
Sum of Population
If the researcher intends to investigate part of population, the research so-called sample research (Arikunto, 1997: 109). She adds that a sample is a part of population that will be investigated.
In this case, the researcher used random sampling in taking sample. The researcher took 8 students from class II1, 10 students from II2 and 10 students from II3. So, the sample was 28 students. Each student was taken by making lottery for all the classes. The lottery was shook till the researcher got the sample.
Table 3.2.2. Sample of the Study
3.3. Research Instrument
As stated previously, this study is intended to find out the students’ ability in constructing passive sentence, therefore, the researcher will use test as instrument for collecting data. Arikunto (1985: 29) states that “instruments are set of questions or exercises or other tools which are used to measure skill, knowledge, intelligence, achievement, and attitude of someone or group of people”. Based on this opinion, the test is absolutely needed to measure the student achievement after teaching and learning process (See appendix 01).
In this case, the instrument used to collect the data in this study was an achievement test. It was aimed at knowing the ability of the second year students of SMA Muhammadiyah Masbagik in the school year 2005/2006 in constructing passive sentences.
The instrument was essay test. It consisted 15 items where the students were asked to change active sentences into passive sentences. The scores of each item was 1. So, the maximal score was 15.
3.3.1. Validity of Instrument
Test validity refers to the degree to which a test measures what is supposed to measure. An instrument is called valid if it can measure what it is hoped to measure (Arikunto, 1997: 160). Various methods can be used to assess the validity of a test; one of them is content validity. Content validity is most frequently used in the evaluation of achievement test with this type of examination. A valid language test measures the language element or skill what it purposes to measure.
Djiwandono (1996: 91) states, the content validity of a test result with ability element to be assessed where construct validity of a test based on the conformity between an instrument used with the concept or theory as a basis for employing an ability of a test. Then, the test employed in this study was valid based on the content validity. Hence the test was taken from two books that are Living English Grammar and Writing Academic English.
3.3.2. Reliability of Instrument
Besides validity instrument, reliability is one of instruments used in languages testing. Test reliability is defined as the degree to which a test consistently measures whatever it measures (Gay, 88: 1987). The reliability of the scores can be estimated by administering a single form of test once. The formula is presented, KR-21 formula as follows:
r11 = reliability of instrument
K = the number of items in test
M = the mean of the test scores
Vt = total variant (Arikunto, 1998: 302)
To know weather the reliability of the test is very high, high, average, low, and very low, the researcher used the following standard:
0.80 – 1.00 : very high
0.60 – 0.79 : high
0.40 – 0.59 : average
0.20 – 0.39 : low
0.00 – 0.19 : very low (Nurgiantoro, 1995: 205)
After calculating the reliability of the test, the researcher found that the reliability of the test was 0.59 (see appendix 06). Based on the above standard, the reliability of the test was average.
3.4. Technique of Data Collection
Some steps were used in collecting the data such as:
1. Students were shared to the research sample.
2. The researcher gave clarification how to do the test.
3. The students were asked to write their identity on the given answer sheet.
4. The students did the test in allotted time.
5. The students were asked to check their identity and answer before collecting.
6. The researcher checked and corrected all answer sheets then continued to analyze the data.
3.5. Technique of Data Analysis
After gathering the data, the researcher continued to the next step of analyzing the data. The data was described by using descriptive statistic. Descriptive statistic is used to determine the ideal maximum score (SMi), ideal mean score (Mi) and ideal deviation standard score (SDi).
The ability in constructing passive sentence was analyzed by Mean = ½ (ideal maximum score + ideal minimum score). While, the ideal standard deviation (SDi) = 1/6 (ideal maximum score – ideal minimum score). It can be described into three categories as follows:
MI + 1 SDi - Mi + 3 SDi à High
Mi – 1 SDi - < Mi + 1 SDi à Sufficient
Mi – 3 SDi - < Mi – 1 SDi à Low
(Nurkencana, 2005: 25).
The percentage of students’ successful was analyzed by applying the following formula, the mean score of the students was found:
M : Mean
Sx : Total of students’ score
N : Number of students
(Nurgiantoro, 1995: 355)
Percentage technique was used to see the students’ ability in constructing passive sentence by using the following formula:
P : Percentage
M : Mean
SMi : Ideal maximum score (Nurgiantoro, 1995: 108)
To obtain the information concerns to the students’ attainment, the researcher will determine a table of percentage scale and qualification as follows:
Table 3.5. The Percentage Qualification of the Study
85% – 100%
75% - 84%
60% - 74%
40% - 59%
0% - 39%
(Nurgiantoro, 1995: 393)
RESEARCH RESULT AND DISCUSSION
This chapter presents the result of the study, which consists of two sub-heading, data description and discussion.
There were two problems that had been stated in chapter I. The problems are to what extent is the ability of the second year students of SMA Muhammadiyah Masbagik in constructing passive sentences? And to what extent is the percentage of success of the second year students of SMA Muhammadiyah Masbagik in constructing passive sentences? Then, in this sub-heading the researcher described the answer of those problems. However, before answering the problems, the writer limited the problem into two aspects, i.e. the ability and percentage of the students in constructing passive sentences. Then, the criteria that had been stated in chapter III were the criteria of both aspects as well. Furthermore, limitation of the problem into the two aspects was aimed at facilitating the writer in scoring and analyzing the data.
Based on the description above, after gathering the data, the writer gave three criteria for the ability of the students in constructing passive sentence. Criteria were high, average and low. While, for the percentage of success of the second year students of SMA Muhammadiyah Masbagik in constructing passive sentences, the writer gave four criteria. The criteria were high, sufficient, low and very low (see appendix 08).
After the scores were classified, for the ability of the students in constructing passive sentence the writer found seven students who got high score. It meant that there were 25% of them had the high level.
Furthermore, there were sixteen students who got average criteria. It meant that there were 57.14% of them had the average level. Moreover, there were five students who got low criteria. It meant that there were 17.86% of them had the low level.
However, for the percentage of success of the students in constructing passive sentence, the writer found three students who got high criteria. The score was about 12 and the percentage was 80%. It meant that there were 10.7% of them got high qualification.
Furthermore, there were six students who got sufficient criteria. The score was 9-11 and the percentage was about 60%-73%. It meant that there were 21.4% of them had the sufficient qualification. Thirteen students who got low criteria, the score was about 6-8, and the percentage was about 40-53%. It meant that there were 46.4% of the students had low qualification. Then, six students who got very low criteria, the score was about 2-5 and the percentage was about 7%-33%. It meant that there were 25% of the students had very low qualification.
After the score was classified, the researcher calculated the mean score of the entire students. The value of mean score of the students was 7.39 by using the following formula:
Sx: Total of students’ score
N: The number of students
(Hadi, 1974: 37)
Sx = 207
N = 28
Based on the description of the mean score above, the mean score of the students was 7.39. It meant that the ability of the students of SMA Muhammadiyah Masbagik in constructing passive sentences was average (it is based on the criteria which was used). It was supported by the case that the number of the students who got high criteria was 7 students, 16 students got average, and 5 students got low.
In this sub heading, the writer presents about the answer of the problems, which had been stated on the statement of the problem in this study. The problems are to what extent is the ability of the second year students of SMA Muhammadiyah Masbagik in constructing passive sentence? And to what extents is the percentage of success of the students in constructing passive sentence?
The Ability of the Student in Constructing Passive Sentences
The ability of the second year students of SMA Muhammadiyah Masbagik in constructing passive sentences was calculated by the following formula.
Mi + SDi up to Mi + 3 SDi = High
Mi – 1 SDi up to < Mi + 1 SDi = Average
Mi – 3 SDi up to < Mi – 1 SDi = Low
The ideal maximum score is 15 and the ideal minimum score is 0. So based on description, the ideal mean score (Mi) = ½ x (15+0) = 7,5 and the ideal standard deviation (SDi) = 1/6 x (15-0) = 2,5.
Mi + SDi up to Mi + 3 SDi = High
7.5 + 2.5 up to 7.5 + 3 (2.5)
7.5 + 2.5 up to 7.5 + 7.5
10 up to 15
Mi – 1 SDi up to < Mi + 1 SDi = Average
7.5 – 1 (2.5) up to < 7.5 + 1 (2.5)
7.5 – 2.5 up to < 7.5 + 2.5
5 up to <10
Mi – 3 SDi up to < Mi – 1 SDi = Low
7.5 – 3(2.5) up to < 7.5 – 1 (2.5)
7.5 – 7.5 up to < 7.5 – 2.5
0 up to < 5
Based on the data analysis, for the ability of the whole students in constructing passive sentence there were 25% of the students (7 students) got high level, 57.2% of the whole students (16 students) got average, and 17.8% of the whole students (5 students) got low. (see appendix 07)
The Percentage of Successful of the Students in Constructing Passive Sentence
The percentage of success of the second year student of SMA Muhammadiyah Masbagik in constructing passive sentences was calculated by the following formula.
Where: P: Percentage
SMi: Ideal maximum score
(Nurgiantoro, 1995: 395)
M = 7.39
SMi = 15
From the calculation above, it was found that the percentage of success of students in constructing passive sentence was 49%. Based on the percentage of qualification of study (see table 3.5. The Percentage qualification of the study), could be concluded that the students were low in constructing passive sentence. It was proved by the fact that there were 10.71% (3 students) got high score, 21.42% (6 students) got sufficient, 46.43% (13 students) got low, and 21.42% (6 students) got very low qualification. (See appendix 08)
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
This chapter presents the conclusion and suggestion of the study. The conclusion was drawn on the discussion presented in the previous chapter, while suggestion was put forwarded from the conclusion.
Based on the discussion on the previous chapter, this study can be concluded as follows:
1. The ability of the second year students of SMA Muhammadiyah in the school year 2005/2006 in constructing passive sentence were on the average level. It could be seen from the mean score of the students which 7.39 in which this score was belonging to the average level.
2. The percentage of success of the second year students of SMA Muhammadiyah in the school year 2005/2006 in constructing passive sentences was 49 %. It meant that the second year student of SMA Muhammadiyah Masbagik were in low qualification. It was proved by the case that the number of the students who got high criteria were 10.71% of them (3 students), 6 students who got sufficient criteria (21.42%), 13 students who got low criteria (46.43%), 6 students who got very low criteria (21.42%).
Based on the conclusion above, it was clear that the ability of the second year students of SMA Muhammadiyah in the school year 2005/2006 in constructing passive sentence were average, but in percentages of success of the students were low qualification. Therefore, it is suggested:
1. The second year students of Senior High School especially SMA Muhammadiah Mabagik have to learn and practice much about passive sentence.
2. The teacher of SMA Muhammadiyah Masbagik should teach English grammar intensively especially in teaching passive voice and give much practice to the students.
3. The next researcher investigates further what is another difficulty of students in learning English grammar, especially passive voice.
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