THE IMPLEMENTATION OF COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH IN TEACHING SPEAKING FOR EIGHT GRADE A CASE STUDY OF SMPN 2 LABUAPI IN ACADEMIC YEAR 2012/2013
1.1 Background of the Study
Language is system of sound symbol used by humans to communicate. Finnochiaro and Brumfit (in Richard and Rodger, 1995: 65) said that language as means as communication, there are many languages which can be used in doing interaction with others. English in Indonesia is has been taught as a foreign language in all school levels (from elementary up to the university level).
In English curriculum, students’ speaking ability is very hoped in teaching and learning process especially in teaching English because English is compulsory subject must be known for all of students to develop through four skills,( listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing. A language learner can not be able to convey or interpret messages in spoken or written form with others without mastering communicative aspect, such as: grammatical, discourse, sociolinguistics, pragmatics, etc. in other word, successful speaker/reader means someone who is able to convey, interpret, negotiate meaning.
The aspects of communicative competence have some categories. Brown (1994: 66) divides communicative competence into grammatical, discourse, sociolinguistics, pragmatics, and strategies. The components of communicative competence itself can be acquired by four skills namely listening, Speaking, Reading, and Writing, but in this case, the researcher emphasized those four skills on speaking ability, but it is not enough to provide students by speak opportunities in English. The teacher needs to help students to communicate actively facilitate when participating in class discussion or in conversation, because the students need time to plan and organize their message while speaking.
Many Indonesian students in all level find a lot of difficulties in mastering four language skills. In this study, the researcher focused on observing students’ problem in speaking ability. Because speaking seem to be the most difficult and also many students say that it is not used in their daily communication to speak. This is why, caused by the English teacher is not yet be able in using approach method.
The most important is the teachers ability in applying appropriate or techniques in teaching learning process . So, Many students were not interest in learning English. Therefore, English teacher suggested to be able mastering teaching methods, such as, Nababan (1991: 4) with notices that a qualified teacher is teacher who is able to suit best method or technique to the material that is being taught.
Language to a language teacher needs to acquire a set of skills to develop his attitudes towards peers, and must understand some theoretical knowledge about how human learns.
In language classroom, there were various important aspect like method, strategies, approaches and time allotment use by the educator as source of information (especially English teacher) to the students. This method used to get student achievement and more familiar to the target language as the objective of learning Ryan and Cooper in Brown (1993). This intended to modify teaching learning process to improve student achievement in order to be able to use target language effectively and approplitely method or strategies, approach, source material, which use by the teacher arouse students motivation approped teaching techniques can help the student to using teaching learning improve their performance by actively and effectively.
From the explanation above, we can concluded that teaching technique enable the English teacher can teach the students to communicate in target language as the objective learning. In the sense, the writer often hear beyond the drilling technique, grammar translation method, audio lingual method, and elect approach which were demand the students to focus of learning and also the teacher suggested in present the materials must suitable by what learner needed.
Beside the phenomenon above, this research will investigate the most effective teaching methods was communicative approach, this approach which help teacher motivate his students, automatically it can improve, increase achievement in the implementation of communicative approach in teaching speaking for eight Grade a case study of SMPN 2 Labuapi in Academic Year 2011/2012.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Based on the background of the problem presented previously, the statements of the problem were formulated as follow:
1. How effective communicative approach to improve student achievement especially in speaking ability for eight grade a case study of SMPN 2 Labuapi in academic year 2011-2012.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
Based on the research problem, the study was done through purposing to get explanation about the implementation in teaching students through communicative approach in teaching speaking ability, the objectives to find out:
1. The way of the teacher to increase students’ interest in communicative by using English.
2. How the teacher motivate the students in speaking English through communicative approach.
3. To find out the most effective teaching which suitable with learner needs for eight Grade a case study of SMPN 2 Labuapi in Academic Year 2011-2012.
4. To find out the students score in speaking English at eight Grade of SMPN 2 Labuapi in Academic Year 2011-2012
1.4 Significance of the Study
The result of this study had two aspects, theoretically and practically.
This study was used to clarify all problems related to foreign language. Teacher helped with current theory and provide them some empirical evidence about teaching, in this case “communicative approach” to predict other problem in speaking achievement.
This study was used to provide feedback for the English teacher that is, to describe students’ weakness in teaching English, especially in communication for speaking achievement, as positive feedback for English to improve their student in teaching learning process.
a. Scope and Limitation of the Study
The target of this study was investigating the implementation of teaching speaking ability through communicative approach in communication. Properly speaking in this case through communicative approach for eight grade students’ of SMPN 2 Labuapi. Furthermore, this study attempted to describe the students speaking ability in communication. Where the scope and limitation of the study to the population and sample. In this study, the population of the study includes all eight year students of the SMPN 2 Labuapi in the school year 2011/2012. There are as the population and for observation the samples are only 37 students consist of 2 classes in SMPN 2 Labuapi.
b. Definition of Key Terms
In order to have concept of the key terms used in this research and to avoid misinterpretation or misunderstanding, the writers should involved in this study were defined as follows:
Is the realization of an application , or execution of a plan, idea, model, design, specification, standard, algorithm, or policy. ( en.wikipedia.org/wiki/implementation )
2. CLT ( Communicative language teaching )
An approach to the teaching of second language that emphasizes interaction as both the means and the ultimate goal of learning a language ( www.math.com british wikipedi )
Given systematic information to ( person ) or about ( subject ) or skill ( Julia swine, 1986 ) while the Longman Dictionary defined that speaking skill is express think a loud ( Longman, 1978 ). Then in oxford ( 2000 ) says speaking is tall to somebody about something; use voice to say something or make use language in ordinary, not singing.
4. Teaching learning process
Is a process that include many variables. These variables interact as learners work toward their goals and incorporate new knowledge, behavior, and skill that add to their range of learning experiences. ( www.uwex.edu/ics/design/teach.htm )
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
In this chapter, the writer discusses about language learning theory, the teaching-learning process, the role of the teacher in teaching, meaning of speaking ability, communicative approach and communicative language teaching ( CLT ) .
2.1 Language learning theory
The discussion under subheading is directed to relate the theoretical concept the language -to – language and learning activity. Native speaker are able to understand and produce any number of sentences in their mother tongue, although they have never heard such sentences before. Language is also recursion. There are certain rule in it. Which enable the speaker to produce the sentences with other sentences inside them. For example, in a sentences as “the girl is linda”one can produce some other sentences inside it. So the sentences above can be read like “the girl who standing there in the corner is “linda”. The process recursion in done by applying relativisation. Another example is “ that is my pen” it can read like “ the pen that you hold in mine “. Finally, language is arbitrary. Language consists of subsystem of meaningful unit. The meaning it self is a matter of conversation among the people who use the language.
What we learn from discussion above is that the language is speech that has its own rules and it is used to transfer meaning between individuals. It seem that language gives impetus to come up of the behaviorist approach on language teaching. Based on this view, language teaching emphasized on linguistic system of the target language is a system as well as it is productive. So mastery on language learning was measured on how well the learners mastered the rules of the target language. The teaching activity was dominated by the activity of transmitting sentences into target language vice versa.
In 1998, F. Franke, a German in scholar Richard (1986 : 4) wrote that there was a direct association between form and meaning in the target language justification for monolingual approach to language teaching. A language could be best taught by using activity rather than taught by using through analytical procedures which focus on explanation of grammar in the classroom.
This threshold gives to the impetus for the changes of language teaching methodology. Hence, there is some current method in language teaching such as Direct Method, The Audio-Lingual Method, Total Physical Response. The communicative language teaching (CLT), ( suggestopedia ).
These method have their fundamental purpose that is to enable the learner to use target language communicatively . however , as they were expanded from different view on language. They have different characteristics. Grammar Translation Method or Audio-Lingual Method. For instance give more emphasized the linguistic system of the language as they are based on the structure view of language which seen language as system of structurally related elements for the coding of meaning. While community language learning based on the view that language is vehicle for realization of interpersonal relation and for performance of the social translation between individuals.
In Indonesia nowadays, the teaching English especially at junior high school is dominated by the application of the communicative language teaching ( CLT ) or the other term to communicative approach, which is based on the view of language communicative device, which refer to the function, nation, and situation. The main purpose of language teaching for this approach is to enable the learners to communicate in the target language.
Canele ( 1983 ) in flanigan, note four areas of knowledge and skills, which are required in order to have communicative competence. They are :
1. Grammatical competence ( it refer to the mastery of language code ).
2. Sociolinguistic competence (refer to appropriateness of utterances with respect both the meaning and form).
3. Discourse competence (refer to the mastery of how the combine grammatical forms and meaning to achieve units of spoken and written text).
4. Strategies competence (refer to mastery verbal and non verbal communication strategies used to compensate for breakdown in communication more effective).
Canele listed the areas of knowledge and skill based on nature of linguistic communication that :
1. It is form of social interaction and therefor normally acquired and used in social interaction.
2. It involves a high degree of unpredictability and creativity in form and message.
3. It takes place in this course and social cultures context, which provide constraints and appropriate language use and also clues to correct interpretation of utterances.
4. It is carry out under limiting physiological and other condition such as memory constrains fatigue and other distraction.
5. It always has a purpose, for example to establish social relation, to persuade, to promise or to offer.
6. It involves authentic, as apposed to textbook contrived language.
7. It judged as successful or not on the basis of actual out comes.
(Canele in Flannigan, 1983 )
The communicative competence with such as attributes is considered as the main goal of language teaching and is brought into practice in the classroom language teaching variably. In communicative activity, the learners are exposed to the real use, the measure of success is on how well the learners could transfer meaning in real ommunicative.
2.2 The teaching-learning process
There are two factors that support in teaching-learning process, namely the inside (students factor) and outside (the teacher factor).
1. The Students Factor
a. Size of class
In Indonesia, has big classes not only from the Elementary School but also until to the University. But as the sample of this studies is Junior High School that have at least fourthly students in number. This sometimes cause a great problem, especially in teaching a foreign language. For instance, when speaking ability is emphasized, the some of students undergoing the instruction which is given it must need special attention, otherwise the teacher get fail use in teaching and learning process.
The teacher does some steps when she/he wants to teach English, like speaking practice to her/his students. First of all, the class is divided into two groups. The first group gives exercises in dialogue, at the same time, the second group gives English patterns in written form. This second group must pay attention to the patterns which is the first group is communicated.
b. Composition of class
What the writer means by “composition of class is how the class is made up”. The students may be included of these categories; (1) those who learn a language easily. These students have a natural aptitude towards the language. They have talent for learning a language, (2) those of high intelligence who make efforts in speech but respond well to the intellectual sides of the language, (3) those who have little intuition and must be stimulated by using medias, (4) those who have a tendency of wrote mastery, (5) those who don’t respond to ordinary stimulate and need individual attention.
These levels intelligence are in influential on every subject, particularly foreign language learning. In relation to class composition, Morris (1978: 542) stated that, “in school teaching harmonious progress depends greatly on the composition of class. While this factor is applicable to every subject. It is particularly decisive in foreign language teaching, especially language speaking where speech is major aim.”
The students may have a bad attitude towards the teacher as well as the subjects. The students who is very weak, for instance, in English is very reluctant to learn subject.
The students may feel excited, happy, confident and adequate or he may feel bored, frustrated, angry and inadequate. For instance, when he gets confused in pattern drill, he may feel frustrated, after having repeated the same sentence a number of items, he may get bored, but when he can express his ideas correctly in English with his fellow students, he may feel excites. He may feel angry and inadequate his mind this way, “English is difficult because it is too difficult to me, I don’t like it, I’m tired of learning it”
On the contrary, the students who experienced excitement during a conversation class, for instance, may express his feeling this way. “I enjoy learning English, because it is easy for me…I can communicate with my pen palls in another country in English”. Then consequently, the students participates actively in every activity of his English class.
As defined by Hornby (1986: 77) in the learner’s dictionary of current English. Discipline is the exercise development and control of the main and character, intended to produce obedience and orderly behavior.
“Both teacher and class ought to make efforts to create a discipline atmosphere by trying to make his lesson so interesting that the students have no tendency to have any other activities. So the students are under the control of the initial condition for the promotion of good discipline. The most important thing in the teacher should will the ability to promote interest in the subjects. He must be able to create a favorable situation.
2. The Teacher Factor
The teacher in the language teaching plays very important role because he is one of the factors that may determine whether or not the teaching of language is successful.
A teacher who will a lot of practical training does not necessary have the ability to deal successfully with the theoretical side of the language. On the contrary, the teacher who has high academic qualifications may not necessarily succeed in the practical things.
Morris (1966: 32) suggested qualifications the teacher should have: (1) general pedagogical training for the purpose of inculcating good working habits, (2) special training in the theory and practice language habits, (3) the possession of a good speaking and reading voice, (4) good hand writing in the script and cursive lettering, (5) ability to sketch.
It is true that linguistic in general is of great help in teaching a foreign language or speaking since it can help the teacher to overcome difficulties a rising from linguistic sides.
A qualified teacher should be able to use any method and materials, adapting them to the need for teaching and learning. For instance, if the teacher sees that the dialogues in the textbook are too long to be memorized by the students he makes alternations concerning of the sentences of the dialogues. And if the dialogues are not in the line with the propose of his teaching he may have dialogues from other source of dialogues compose by himself.
The teacher must also understand the intimate relation the between a language and it’s cultural background. Besides, the writer of this proposal thinks that it is necessary for the teacher to know well the cultural background of the student’s native language as well as to make him capable of comparing the two cultures when need.
To prove that the teacher is the most important factor in teaching a foreign language or speaking, the writer would like to quite what Dr. Jan Carnel Tan (in Rahman, 2006: 17) asserted in his dissertation stated that;
To achieve any improvement it is essential to have better teachers. He cannot assume that pupil will learn what their teachers never master. One quality of a good teacher is the ability to teach from any good book or bad or even with no book at all. The teacher on other hand, can destroy or distort what even merits a good book may have”
Regarding to the teacher as one of the main factors determines the success of the teaching of a foreign language, Patteson (Rahman, 2006: 17) stated that: “in decided and my colleges have always been completely with on this, that was most necessary to improve the standard of English every where, was simply better teacher”. In addition to the qualifications of a good English teacher mentioned above, a teacher of English must have a good attitude toward his students owing to their attitudes, of course the learning atmosphere will affective. But, in whatever condition, a teacher of English must be able to overcome inferable situations, otherwise his teaching may result in a failure.
The teacher (accompanying technique and material) becomes a central determiner in whether students accomplish their goals or not. They can grow the students’ proficiency because it is apparent in a matter of few weeks.
Richard and Rodgers in Brown (1994) propose seven factors which will help to formulate an approach to teach beginners as adopted from a theoretical on each factor and will be able to design classroom technique that are:
a. Students’ cognitive learning process
Virtually all of the students’ processing with respect to the second language itself is in a focal, controlled mode for a review of cognitive process and some classroom application. Therefore, the teacher can expect to engage in plenty of repetition of a limited number of word, phrase, and sentences. However, a teacher can coax their students into some peripheral processing by getting them to use practiced language for genuinely meaningful purpose.
b. Students’ creativity
The ultimate goal of learning a language is to be able to comprehend and produce it in unrehearsed situation, which demands both receptive and productive creativity. Teacher talk
In the second language situation, especially multilingual classes, teacher use of a students native language is seldom an issue. In foreign language situation, it becomes an option. The rule of thumb here is usually to restrict classroom language to English unless some distinct advantage is gained by the use of their native language.
c. Authenticity of language
The language that students expose to should, according to principles of CLT be authentic language is not just because in this case the students are beginner in simple greeting and introduction. To make sure utterance are limited to short, simple phrases, at this stage, the students are repetition needed opportunity to practice their new language.
a. Fluency and accuracy
Fluency is a goal at this level but only within limited utterance lengths, fluency does not have to apply only to long utterance. Attention to accuracy should center on the particular grammatical, phonological, or discourse elements that are being practical. On the other hand, the teacher need to correct some selected grammatical and phonological errors so that students don’t fall into the trap of assuming that pronunciation work (on phonemes, phonemic patterns, intonation, rhythm, and stress) is very important at this stage.
Short, simple techniques must be used. Some mechanical techniques are appropriate and other drilling. Group and pair activities are excellent techniques as long as they are structured and clearly defined with specific objectives. So, in this case, techniques is very important because at this level, the students are limited language capacity.
Grammar in the classroom is another issue. A typical beginning level will deal at that outset with very simple verb forms, personal pronouns, definite and indefinite article, singular and plural noun, and simple sentence in a progression of grammatical topics from simple to complex. Therefore, an inductive approach to grammar with suitable examples and patterns will be more effective.
2.3 Learning Process
In this parts of types of learning and teaching activity, the teachers have significant roles to capture all the learners problem and then to solve it well. The teachers (counselor’s role) is to respond calmly and non judgmentally, in a supportive manner and help the client try to understand his or her problems better by applying order and analysis to them.
Concerning with the statement above, Curran (in Richard, at all, 1976: 26) stated that “one of the functions of the counseling response is to relate affect…..to cognition. Understanding the language of ‘feeling’, the counselor replies in the language of cognition”
The teacher’s role, teachers operate in supportive roles and providing target language translation and imitation on request of the clients. Later, interaction may be initiated by the students and the teacher monitors learners utterances, providing assistance when requested. So the student become increasingly capable to accept the criticism and the teacher may directly intervene to correct deviants utterances, supply idioms and advice on usage of words as well as fine usage of grammar.
One continuing role of the teacher is particularly notable in community language learning that is responsible for providing safe environment in which students (clients) can learn and grow. Here, the learners feels secure and free to direct their energies to the tasks of communication and learning rather than to building and maintaining their defensive positions. To support the statement, Curran (in Richard, 1976: 6) describes the importance of a secure environment as follows:
“As whole persons, we seem to learn best in an atmosphere of personal security, feeling secure, we are freed to approach the learning situation with the attitude of willing openness. Both the learner’s and knower’s level of security determine the psychological tone of the entire learning experience”.
Furthermore, teacher have responsibility for creating and maintaining a secure environment for learning in order that the learners can easier to capture knowledge and information given by the teacher during the learning and teaching process take place.
2.4 Speaking Ability
Speaking ability consists of two words ‘speaking’ and ‘ability’. Speaking is the capability to articulate the sound expressing, and delivering thought, opinion, and wish (Tarigan, 1985: 21). While, Djiwandono (1996: 68) says that speaking is the activity to express thought and feeling orally. And Nurgiantoro (1995: 168) says that speaking is the activity delivering language and communicating ideas, thought orally.
While, ability is a power in doing something, fitness for ability for being improved (Hornby, 1968: 78). According to Poerwadarminto (in Munir, 2005: 16) that ability is capability or skill, while other ideas says that ability is the capability or a power to do something physical or mentally. Furthermore, it is also stated that ability is potential capacity of power to something physically or mentally. Based on the ideas, it may be concluded that speaking is t outer the articulation of sound to express or state, also deliver the opinion and wish. Clark (1972) in Alwasiah (2002: 2 therefore, if both speaking and ability are combined, so, it is means capability to utter the articulation of sound to express or deliver thought, wish to other people to do communicative task.
Furthermore, speaking is more than just a message being transmitted from a speaker to a listener. In this case, the speaker is at the same time both subject and object of his own message.
The capability of human to speak well, and right are very needed in delivering a wishes, thought, and etc. in order that the partner can understand what the speaker talks about. Referring to the importance of speaking ability, Haryanto (1994: 26) says that “human delivers a message and it is accepted by the communicant, so it had been occurred a communication between communicator and communicant”. If the communicant does not understand what the message conveyed is about, it will be occurred misunderstanding. The above opinion indicated that speaking ability is very important to everyone, because speaking is an instrument of social interaction. Furthermore, the speaking is a work that constitutes a complex problem and it is so important. Also, it cannot be separated from practice everyday in daily life. Speaking ability is very important and need by everyone because it is multifunction. To speak well, right and fluently, it needs more courses practice. Actually, since a normal infant was born she or he had a potency of speaking skill, it can be seen when the infant started to make sound.
2.4.2 The Aspects
The process of speaking used in order to be able to speak well and right. Is what the scientist says that “A well speaking must be able to deliver right message and can be understood, familiar, by others or the listeners” Haryanto (1994: 26). Referring to the aspect of ability, Tarigan (1985: 42) states that speaking activity may viewed from appropriateness of utterance, placement of stress, appropriateness of word choice, appropriateness of speaking target. The other opinion says that the aspect of speaking consist of utterance, grammar, vocabulary, fluency, content, and comprehension (Nurhadi, 1987: 23).
Base on the opinion, it can be said that aspect of speaking ability is determined by utterance, grammar, vocabulary, content, fluency, comprehending, to appropriate of words choice, familiar, placement of stress and etc. However, not all of them well described below, but to focus on the problem will be limited in the aspect of utterance, aspect of grammar, aspect of vocabulary, and aspect of comprehension.
a. The Utterance Ability
The utterance ability is one of the important skill in order that the message is acceptable. So, the message must utter clearly. Referring to this statement, Tarigan (1985: 55) says that the speaking process such discussion, briefing, argumentation, chatting, interview, asking and answering, to utter clearly since the expression of thought which is delivered to audience can be understood. Furthermore, someone called as a good speaker should be able to choose and use words through appropriate sentence, a good intonation and as well as clearly voice.
Vocabulary can not separate with the words, it can be a message, an idea, and etc. this idea (message) must to convey through speaking. While, speaking is an expression of words orally and clearly. In this case, vocabulary should be mastered a lot in order that communication is developed. Also, the speaker does not merely interact without having a lot of vocabulary. Furthermore, vocabulary is a group of words to make sentence structure in conveying idea or message to the listener.
Every languages has difference grammar. Grammar is a group of paradigm of structure generally covers the segment of phonology, morphology, and sentence. (Keraf, 1991: 28). It also that grammar covers phonology, semantics, morphology, and syntax, by Nurhadi (1987: 34).
Keraf (1991: 30) states that, “the smallest unit which occurred from sounds, which distinguishing meaning is called grammar”. The expression of sound in appropriateness is almost determined to comprehend the speaking. It mean that, in speaking must have sentence structure which is called grammar, while, the grammar includes phonology, morphology, syntax and semantics.
The definition of some terms above will not stated because it belongs to linguistic area. Furthermore, well usage grammar will prevent to misunderstanding.
c. Content and Meaning
Content and meaning are important in speaking process. So the speaker should plan or prepare material before expressing his/her ideas. Dealing with this statement, Tarigan (1985: 45) states that; “the content and meaning in speaking ability can be seen from mistake, competence, clarification, and simplicity what the topic is about”.
Speaking ability is reflected frequently of speaking what is used to speak about. In this case, completeness of idea, thought or sense either it is talked simple or not. The content of speaking must be systematic, logical and attractive. So, it be said that speaking process in which speaker must be able to speak systematically, logically and attraction in order to the listener understand what the speaker is meant.
2.4.3 The Factor
Speaking ability constitutes one of language skills which is derived from learning result. In general, there are two factors of the effect in learning process and learning result namely; internal and external factor. Hasanah in Cahyono (1997: 2) expressed both internal and external factors are as the following:
1. Internal Factor
Internal factor is an element, that effect learning process. Where this element exists on the learner and it is called entering behavior. There are some components, consists of internal factor such as; (1) physical factor, (2) intelligence factor, (3) emotional factor, and (4) talent. (Purwanto, 1985: 35)
a. Physical factor
Someone’s physical condition may effect in most his/her activities, for example; someone who has a big body needs long movement, large space than he/she whose thin body. In physical factor; some aspects needs to be given attention such as; are body condition, physical effect, and health.
b. Body condition
The learner who has fitted body will help to assert knowledge when the teaching learning process take place. Constantly, the learners feels sleepy and tired, it certainly cause troubles in teaching learning process. Also, the student who are growing up also affect the learning process. Physical condition movement will affect their behavior, protruding muscle, etc. These problems feel that there is something different on them. These problems often invite negative reaction to his/her friends and may affect the result of teaching learning process.
c. Physical effect
A normal is not cause physic problem in most of activities. Constantly, if the learner get abnormal physic such as cripple, bent shape hand, x-leg shape, and etc. may have troubles for the learners his/herself. They feel shy to the others. Sometimes they have no self-confidence, and of course it can disturb the learning process.
Some serious illness can lost of concentration in the learning process. The learners can not focus on the material given by teacher cause unfit body such as influenza, cough, toothache, and etc. so in accepting knowledge and information must have good healthy in order that all the materials easiest to capture for the learners. In other words, healthy inside fresh outside.
e. Sense of body
If body organs has function normally, it will help the students to learn well, however, if there is interference on his/her body, particularly in eyes, ears, and etc. These may interrupt the students in teaching and learning process. Body organ has a good function to get knowledge and information either from a teacher or a book is read. It means that a part of body has role important particularly in capture knowledge and applied in daily life.
f. Intelligence factor
Intelligence constitutes an unique characteristics, possessed by people. It was already exist since the infant was born. However, in its development it cannot out from environment because it is one of factors to shape intelligent. For example, even though students has high potency, but if there is not any supports from his/her environment, so, the students development is not maximum. It is in line with the theory of convergence stated that; the development of person is determined by the characteristic factors to the person itself, so that this factors has importance roles in the development of their speaking ability for the ability.
g. Emotional factor
The happiness, safeness, afraid, and etc. are kinds of emotions, which can effect his/her activities included in learning process. The students can do everything enthusiastically as long as he/she feels happy and safe. So, the students who get happiness will be better than the learner who feel sad, afraid or stress in teaching and learning process.
2. External Factor
External factor constitutes a factor that comes from outside of the learner him/her self. Referring to this problem, Paiman (1997: 249) states that; the factors comes from outside of learner himself are non-social factor and social factor.
a. Non-social factor
Non-social factor consist of weather, times either it is morning, afternoon or night, condition of building and instruments used for learning. Those factors are very determined in learning and teaching process.
b. Social factor
Social factor is things the people accepted or acquired from the community particularly in family environment. It will be the basic for the next people’s development (Purwanto, 1987: 78). In this case, peoples’ development is very complex and related to each other. Most of students learn from out of the school, he/she can get many things in term of how behaviors is shaped, how relationship is build up and how to know each other between he/she to the others.
So, the social factor is the most importance factor which determined the development of the learners in term of behavior, relationship among other and etc.
2.4.4. Some Suggest Techniques In Teaching Speaking
Sometimes it is difficult to verbally express what you are thinking to other people. People may have trouble to put their thought into words or may even fear speaking to other or to a group. Even professional speakers occasionally come down with jitters before giving a speech.
Because of the fact that, before coming to further discussion on some techniques of teaching, as Harris ( 1969 ) stated that speaking is a complex skill requiring imultaneous use of number of different abilities which often develop at different rates. He also stated either five component are generally recognized in analysis of speech process.
1. Pronunciation ( including the segmental features-vowels and consonant and the stress and intonation patterns.
4. Fluency ( these ease and speed of the flow of speech )
Harmer (1991 ) defined that speaking in his view is almost an active exercise. In other words, using any and all language at command to perfume some kind of oral task. Widdowson in Fahrudin ( 1998 ) said that speaking happens when express a variety of essentially social nature by using sentences.
Dealing with the definition above the writer identify that speaking is used by language to utter our mind for communication to other. A major motivation. In speaking to a group or anyone to achieve speaking goals is to express ideas.
Harmer suggest some kinds techniques in teaching speaking, such as:
a. Information gap :
one type of speaking activity involves the so called “information gap” where two speakers have different parts of information making up a whole because they have different information, there is a gap between them.
b. Survey :
one way of provoking conversation and opinion exchange is to get students to conduct questionnaires themselves, the activity becomes even more useful.
c. Discussion :
most teacher hope that will be able to organize discussion session in their classroom, particularly if the exchange of opinion provokes spontaneous fluent language use. However, that discussion session is less successful than they had before.
d. Role- play : student are asked to imagine that they are in different situation and act accordingly.
Harmer also suggested that be times when teacher need to help an activity along through prompting ( and perhaps participation ) provided it is done sensitively.
Meanwhile, zhao ( 1998 ) suggested some techniques in teaching speaking as follows :
1. Free talk 9. description
2. Retelling 10. Acting and speaking
3. Role play 11. Speaking and acting
4. Debating 12. Speaking and drawing
5. Story telling 13. Watching and speaking
6. Talking according to the picture 14. Acting as and interpreter
7. Short play 15. Problem and solving
8. Speech contest 16. Games
By observing some text book, its recommended for secondary school nowadays, the writer found out that techniques of teaching speaking almost likely the techniques proposed by Babobin Zhao, it implies that the teaching of speaking is not oriented on the language form anymore but also skill to do communication independently.
Another techniques of teaching speaking proposed by Julia M. Dobson ( 1987 ) is improvisation. It is dramatic hypothetical situation in which two or more speakers interact without any special preparation. She said that improvisation is difficult to treat to the students because it is need skill and mental capacity to do it. But this techniques will be easy to handle if the and character chosen for improvisation are related to their experiences, the release of filing is just as satisfying and relaxing and no guilt for their action the dramatic is generated.
2.5. Communicative Approach
In this section the writer propose some approach in teaching English. In the English syllabus 1984, the approach of teaching which the communicative approach had adopted in the 1984 and it first discusses is concept, goal, characteristic of teaching and learning process, aspects, and the last communicative approach to foreign language teaching.
2.5.1 The Basic Concept of Communicative Approach
In this part, the writer discusses the concept of communicative as an approach in this study. The communicative approach in foreign language teaching has come out as a result of studies in language acquisition and in its implementation of teaching methods. So, the communication can say is a process, but it is insufficient for students to simply have knowledge of target language forms, meaning, and function. The students must be able to apply the knowledge in negotiating meaning through the interaction between speaker and listener where the teacher role as a facilitator who manages classroom activities and the students are the communicator who are actively engaged communication typically in small group. So, it is become clear, whether the listener gives the speaker feedback or not understands what the speaker said.
The communicative approach is labeled “pendekatan kebermaknaan” because basically a version of the communicative approach and it can be interpreted in two ways: (1) Meaning-based instruction, (2) Meaningful instruction. The meaning-based instruction that language is a means to express and understand meaning. Meaning is determined by language scope and defined by social contexts. The meaningfulness of instruction is concerned with the relevance of teaching to objective of education. So, both approach used to certain function of language and teaching.
When we used communicative, we used the language to accomplish some function such as arguing, persuading, or promising. Moreover, we carry out this function within a social context used in a language. The goal of the teacher used the communicative approach is the students become communicatively competence. In the communicative approach the nation of what takes to be communicatively competence is much expended. Brown in Huda (1999) states that communicative competence that enables us to convey and interpret messages and to negotiate meanings interpersonally within specific context. Nababan (1991) states that communicative competence should interpreted as linguistic ability which can adjust the form and meanings of language to the situation of language use.
Since the Mid 1970’s, the scope of the communicative language teaching was expended. As an approach, it aimed at two main points. First, it introduced the concept of communicative competence does not only include the mastery structure and vocabulary, but also the mastery on wide range of expression several function (i.e. conjunction, adverbs, prepositional phase, and expression), and also the comprehension on the use of verbal and non verbal communication strategies. The second, the approach places the interdependence of the four language skill (listening, speaking, reading, and writing). (Richard and Omagio in Huda, 1999)
2.5.2 The Features of Communicative Approach
Language teachers must look for what factors of language teaching will be the most effective for instruction and evaluation the achievement of the students after they have been taught.
According to Brown (1993: ) in conducting the language teaching, the students have very important part which influence the process of language teaching and learning. On the other hand, the writer describes two factors which support them, namely:
1. Internal factor
a. Physiological factor
It is a factor which is affected by the students’ condition, such as: health, condition of five sources, and condition of nerves.
b. Psychological factor
It is the student factor, such as: intelligence, attention, interest, and emotion. If the condition of intelligence, attention, interest, and emotion is less or reduced, it will be influenced too. To overcome the problems, the teachers and the parents can work together to create condition which is able to help the students.
2. External factor
It is the factor which come from outside of the students, namely:
a. Social factor
It is the factors of the students which come during teaching learning process in the classroom or which come during their learning activities outside of the classroom. For examples: doing useless conversation between friends in the classroom and there is a member of teaching learning process is also provided by the students’ economical background and also their environments.
b. Non social factor
It is like: air condition, humidity, and the like.
Relating to the factors influence above, communicative approach as one of many teaching English as a foreign language in Junior High School is successful. In this case, the writer also hopes that this method can be useful and effective in teaching speaking at Junior High School. So, the feature of communicative approach is almost everything that is done which communicative intend. The students used the language a great deal through communicative activities such as: games, role play, and problem solving task.
According to Nubbin in Larsen (1986) that the term “communicative approach taken to mean communicative competence” or simply “communicative language teaching”.
As an approach, communicative language teaching is based on the theory of language as means of communications. As in this indicated, the purpose of the language teaching is to develop what Dell Hyms called “communicative competence” this competence is a goal in this approach.
2.5.3 The Goal of Communicative Approach
The mention that the communicative competence is a goal in communicative approach because this competence was discussed through two perspective linguistic and psycholinguistic where linguistic was reviewed about definition and psycholinguistic was reviewed from the process acquisition of communicative competence itself. Chomsky in Brown (1979) defined “competence” is the speaker-hearer’s knowledge of his language as stated in modern linguistics. Chomsky in Brumfit (1979: P.3) linguistic theory is concerned with an ideal speaker-listener in a completely homogenous speech community who knows its language perfectly and is unaffected by such grammatically irrelevant condition as memory limitation, distraction, shifts of attention and interest and error (random or characteristic) in applying this knowledge of the language in actual performance.
Communicative competence involves the difficulties of the students and able to use the language appropriate to give social context to do this statements, the students need knowledge of the linguistic forms, meanings, and functions. The students need to know that many different forms can be used to perform a function and also a single form among the most appropriate form and also given the social context and the roles of the interlocutors.
The terms of communicative competence was first coined by Dell Hymes in Huda (1999) as a reaction gain the concept of language competence. Chomsky in Huda (1999) proposed the terms of communicative competence subsequently received various interpretations. Mostly based on sociolinguistic studies of all the interpretation. The one proposed by Halliday and Canale in Huda (1999) about the literature of language teaching.
Chomsky (in Huda, 1999) classified competence into two: competence and performance. Competence is the ideal ability of a speaker in a language. It is described a complete and perfect knowledge and then reflect in a dialog between speaker and hearer. Performance is the realization of the competence in the form and utterance which can be heard or read by other.
2.5.4 The component of Communicative Competence
According to Canale in Huda (1999) the component of communicative competence consists of four domains of knowledge and skills.
a. Grammatical competence is identical with linguistic competence. It can involve the mastery of language, such as vocabulary, sentence formation, pronunciation, spelling and semantics. This competence is required for the understand and expressing literal meaning of an utterance.
b. Sociolinguistic competence is related to the extent an utterance and functioned is to express and understood correctly in different sociolinguistic contexts. This statement can depend on certain factors.
c. Discourse competence is concerned with the mastery of ways to combine grammatical forms and meaning to produce either a spoken or written utterance. In this case, there are two forms: cohesion and coherence meaning where cohesion is the relationship between utterance and grammatical structure and the coherence is the relationship among several meaning in an utterance (text).
d. Strategic competence is the last component consist of the mastery of verbal and non-verbal communication and also on the other hand used to strengthen the effectiveness of communication.
2.5.5 The Acquisition of Communicative Competence
The second problem mentioned which can be used to develop the communicative competence, there are three theories proposed to develop communicative competence in the learners, i.e. the behaviorist, nativist, and interactionist approaches.
a. The Behaviorist Approach
This approach is based on the assumption developed by the stimulus-response theory. Language is a set of habits with two characteristics, that is observable and automatic. The automatically is obtained through drills and practice. The drill and practice are seen as the stimulus while the speaker’s utterance is seen as a response which is strengthened with reinforcement.
According to the behaviorists, practice is meant to transfer language skills, since skill can be transferred from one language to another, when on the other hand, they differ. Then difficulty or interference will occur which takes the form of languages errors. According to Lado in Huda (1999) techniques were developed to estimate errors made as a result of habit transfers. These techniques were called contrastive analysis.
b. The Nativist Approach
This approach argues that language competence is not developed by external factors, rather by factors found within the learner. Every individual is born with what is called a language acquisition device (LAD).
The concept of LAD developed by Chomsky in Huda (1999) several other theories then emerged, such as Krashens’ and Bialystok’s in Huda (1999) monitor theory one considerable contribution to the studies of the second language acquisition is the distinction between implicit and explicit linguistic knowledge also termed acquisition is the knowledge of language systems obtained in a formal ways through formal learning. the implicit knowledge is the main source of the communicative competence.
c. The Interactionist Approach
The interactionist approach sees language acquisition as the result of the combined works of the internal factors (inherent within the learner) and input. According to Ellis in Huda (1999) the development of communicative competence is the combined result of the learner’s effort and his speaking partner in the form of an interaction between the two parties.
Acquisition only occurs when the input received by the learners is comprehensible. According Krashen in Huda (1999) the meaning can be made comprehensible with the help of context, world knowledge, and linguistic competence the learners.
2.5.6 The Characteristic of the Communicative Approach
The most obvious characteristic of the communication approach is that almost everything that is done with a communicative intents. Students use the language a great deal through communicative activities such as game, role-play, and problem solving tasks where activities that is truly communicative, according to Morrow in Zamzam (2005/2006) have three features: information gap, choice, and feedback.
An information gap exists when one person exchange knows something that the other person doesn’t. It is include of functional communicative activities according two main uses of language: (a) using language to share information, and (b) using language to process information (e.g. to discuss it or evaluate it) and there are many way to gap or sharing information who can be learning by the learners to cooperate fully in exchanging information. Such as:
a. Sharing information restricted cooperation.
b. Sharing information with unrestricted cooperation.
c. Sharing and process information.
d. Processing information.
In communication, the speaker will choice of what to teach and what she will say and how to say it, many ways can be sued by the speaker or teacher to make the linguistic content, but must suitable for what learners’ need.
True communication is purposeful. A speaker can evaluates whether or not purpose has been achieved based upon the information. She receives from listener, this reaction called feedback. If the listener does not have an opportunity to provide the speaker with such feedback, then the exchange is not really communication.
Another characteristic of the communicative approach is the use of authentic material. It is considered desirable to give students an opportunity to develop strategy for understanding language as actually used by native speaker. Finally, we noted that activities in the communication approach are often carried out by the students in small group.
2.5.7 Aspect of Communicative Approach
There are many aspect of the communicative approach. In this section we found and discussed by using any technique or material associated with the communicative approach.
a. Authentic Materials
Adherents of the communicative approach advocate the use of authentic materials. In this lesson, we see that the teacher uses a copy of a genuine newspaper article and also assigns the students homework, requiring they listen to the radio or a life television broadcast. Another possibility to use of authentic material with a lower level class is to use realia that do not contain a lot of language, but a lot of discussion could be generated.
b. Scrambled Sentences
The students are given a passage which the sentences are in a scrambled order. This type of exercises teaches students about the cohesion and coherent properties of language. The learn how sentences are bound together at he suprasentential level through formal linguistic devise.
c. Language Games
Game are used frequently in the communicative approach. The students valuable communicative practice. According to Morro in Zamzam (2005/2006) games that are truly communicative.
d. Picture Strip Story
Many activities can be done with picture strip stories. We suggested one of our discussion of scrambled sentences. In this activities, we observed one students in small group was given a strip story. One student showed the picture of the story to another member. So, the students in the groups did not know what the picture contained. They will a choice as to what their prediction and how they will word it and then able to view the picture and compare it with their prediction just now. It is called a communication technique in using a problem-solving task can work well in the communicative approach because they include the three features of communication.
Role-play are very important in the communicative approach because they give students an opportunity to practice communicating in different social context and different social roles. Role-play can be set up there are many structure, for example: the teacher tells the students who they are and what they will say and then the students determine what they will say. The later is more in keeping with the communicative approach.
2.5.8 Communicative Approach as Foreign Language Teaching
From this perspective is discussed the communicative approach as a several pint in foreign language teaching. In this case, we can to defined the goal of foreign language teaching in the following terms: to extend the range of communication situation which the learner can perform with focus on meaning without must attention to the linguistic form. In relation to this goal, the role of the two main category of activity can be summarized as follows:
a. Pre-communicative activities as aim to give the learner fluent control over linguistic forms. So that the lower-level process will be able to respond the higher level decisions based on meaning. The main criterion for success is whether the learner able to producing language.
b. In communicative activities, the production of linguistic forms becomes subordinates to higher-level decisions, related to the communication of meanings. The criterion for success is whether the meaning is conveyed effectively.
An essential concern of a communicative approach to language teaching is a concern which this statement is cannot be satisfied through methodology alone rather another aspect. It is can involves for personality factor and interpersonal skills. However, the teacher is helped by a number of important aspect of these activities for example:
c. The teachers’ role in the learning process is recognized as less dominant, more emphasis is the learners’ contribution through independent learning.
d. Communicative interactive gives learners more opportunities to express their own individuality in the classroom.
e. The teacher’s as ‘co-communicator’ him on an equal basis with the learner.
f. Learner are not being constantly corrected. Error are regarded with greater tolerance as a completely normal phenomenon in the development of communicative skills.
2.6. Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)
CLT is a recognized theoretical model in English language teaching today. Many applied linguists regard it as one of the most effective approaches to ELT. Since its inception in Europe in early 1970s, CLT has served as a major source of influence on language teaching practice round the world. As Li (1998) comments, CLT has extended in scope and has been used by different educators in different ways.
It is most likely that when asked to name the methodology they make use of in their classrooms, the majority of language teachers today assert “communicative” as the methodology of choice. However, when pushed to give a detailed account of what they mean by “communicative,” their explanations diverge broadly. What is involved in CLT? Does CLT mean teaching conversation, an absence of grammar in a course, or an emphasis on open-ended discussion activities as the main features of a course? The answers to these questions can be best understood by examining CLT in terms of its historical development, of a set of principles about the goals of language teaching, the kinds of classroom activities that best facilitate learning, and the roles of teachers and learners in the language classroom.
2.6.1 History of CLT
There have been many changes in ideas about syllabus design and methodology over the last 50 years or so. CLT as a promising approach has encouraged a re-evaluation of approaches to syllabus design and methodology. Richards (2006) classifies trends in language teaching in the last 50 years into three phases:
Phase 1: traditional approaches (up to the late 1960s)
Phase 2: classic communicative language teaching (1970s to 1990s)
Phase 3: current communicative language teaching (late 1990s to the present).
According to the traditional approaches, grammatical competence was the foundation of language proficiency. Thus, grammar was given a central place in language teaching methodology. A deductive approach to teaching grammar was adopted by language teachers. Students were provided with detailed grammar rules and then given opportunities for practice. Language learning was essentially understood as constructing a strong knowledge of grammatical patterns and sentence structures. The four skills of language, i.e. speaking, listening, reading, and writing were introduced after a basic grasp of language was constructed through controlled practice and oral drills. Accuracy was given emphasis at the expense of fluency. From the earliest stages of language teaching, teachers highlighted the magnitude of accurate knowledge of grammar, as well as an accurate pronunciation. Learners were discouraged to make errors since it was thought that errors could become a permanent part of student’s speech. Audiolingualism, initiated in North America, and the Situational Language Teaching, initiated in the United Kingdom, are the two methodologies that were based on these assumptions. Syllabuses during this period mainly consisted of word lists and grammar lists that were graded across levels.
Richards and Rodgers (2001) portrays a typical audio-lingual lesson as involving the following procedures:
1. Students first hear a model dialog (either read by the teacher or on tape) containing key structures that are the focus of the lesson. They repeat each line of the dialog, individually and in chorus. The teacher pays attention to pronunciation, intonation, and fluency. Correction of mistakes of pronunciation or grammar is direct and immediate. The dialog is memorized gradually, line by line. A line may be broken down into several phrases if necessary. The dialog is read aloud in chorus, one half saying one speaker’s part and the other half responding. The students do not consult their book throughout this phase.
2. The dialog is adapted to the students’ interest or situation, through changing certain key words or phrases. This is acted out by the students.
3. Certain key structures from the dialog are selected and used as the basis for pattern drills of different kinds. These are first practiced in chorus and then individually. Some grammatical explanation may be offered at this point, but this is kept to an absolute minimum.
4. The students may refer to their textbook, and follow-up reading, writing, or vocabulary activities based on the dialog may be introduced.
5. Follow-up activities may take place in the language laboratory, where further dialog and drill work is carried out.
Situational language teaching proposes that a typical language lesson involve a three-phase sequence, known as the P-P-P cycle: Presentation, Practice, and Production.
Presentation: The new grammar structure is presented, often by means of a conversation or short text. The teacher explains the new structure and checks students’ comprehension of it.
Practice: Students practice using the new structure in a controlled context, through drills or substitution exercises.
Production: Students practice using the new structure in different contexts, often using their own content or information, in order to develop fluency with the new pattern (Richards, 2006, p. 8).
This lesson structure (PPP) proposed by situational language teaching has been extensively used in language teaching materials and still continues to be used in customized forms. However, the view of language learning that underlies this approach to language teaching has been criticized on a number of grounds. As Rutherford (1987) notes, PPP views language as a series of products that can be acquired sequentially as accumulated entities. Yet, second language acquisition (SLA) research has shown that L2 acquisition is a process that is incompatible with teaching seen as the presentation and practice of a series of products. In the same vein, Skehan (1996) questions the theoretical assumptions of situational language teaching:
The underlying theory for a P-P-P approach has now been discredited. The belief that a precise focus on a particular form leads to learning and automatization (that learners will learn what is taught in the order in which it is taught) no longer carries much credibility in linguistics or psychology. (p. 18)
As far as the linguistic theory is concerned, the eminent American linguist Noam Chomsky criticized the narrow behaviorist stimulus-response view of language and language learning espoused by Skinner (Savignon, 1987). Chomsky argued that structural linguistic theory was insufficient in explaining the principal characteristic of languages – the creativity and uniqueness of individual sentences. His view of language and language learning moved the focus of American linguistic studies from surface structural features toward a concern with deep semantic structures. Thus, this paradigm shift led the way for the development of more communicative approaches to second language learning (Savignon, 1987). Yet, Chomsky’s focus was on the interpretation of sentences.
2.6.2. Definition and Principles of CLT
There is considerable debate as to appropriate ways of defining CLT, and no single model of CLT is universally accepted as authoritative (McGroarty, 1984; Markee, 1997). Yet, according to Richards and Rodgers (2001), CLT starts with a theory of language as communication, and its goal is to develop learners’ communicative competence. Despite being a simplistic account of CLT, this idea of communicative competence is considered to be the main conception of CLT. Communicative competence included knowing what to say and how to say it appropriately based on the situation, the participants, and their roles and intentions. Traditional grammatical and vocabulary syllabuses and teaching methods did not include information of this kind. It was assumed that this kind of knowledge would be picked up informally.
In fact, CLT is not a monolithic and uniform approach to language teaching (Ellis, 2003). In accordance with a classification proposed by Howatt (1984), CLT consists of a ‘weak’ and a ‘strong’ version. The weak version of CLT is based on the assumption that the components of communicative competence can be identified, and thus systematically taught (Ellis, 2003). From this perspective, CLT can be thought to be an interventionist and analytic approach to language teaching, which means that CLT does not display a fundamental difference from the earlier traditional approaches. This weak version of CLT highlights the significance of providing learners with opportunities to use their English for communicative purposes and, characteristically, attempts to integrate such activities into a wider program of language teaching (Howatt, 1984). Such a version of CLT proposes that instead of teaching the structural properties of language, teachers pay attention to particular notions such as ‘possibility’, ‘possession’, as well as language functions such as ‘making requests’ and ‘giving advice.’ Howatt (1984) describes the weak version of CLT as “learning to use English”.
On the contrary, a strong version of CLT is based on the claim that “language is acquired through communication” (Howatt, 1984, p. 279). In other words, learners do not go through a learning experience in which they acquire the structural properties of a language and then learn to use this structural system in communication. As a matter of fact, they discover the system itself as they learn how to communicate in a language. This version proposes that teachers provide learners with ample opportunities to familiarize themselves with how language is used in actual communication. As Howatt (1984) puts it, the strong version of CLT entails “using English to learn it” (p. 279).
Other authors in the field have defined and characterized CLT in various ways (Brown, 2001; Larsen-Freeman, 1986; Littlewood, 1981; Richards, 2006; Savignon, 1991). According to Larsen-Freeman (1986), the most obvious attribute of CLT is that ‘‘almost everything that is done is done with a communicative intent’’ (p. 132). In CLT, meaning is given prime importance, which is achieved through interaction between reader and writer, and through negotiation between speaker and listener. There are a variety of communicative activities (e.g. games, role plays, simulations, and problem-solving tasks), which offer learners an opportunity to practice their communication skills meaningfully in different contexts and by taking on different roles. In the process of utilizing these kinds of performance activities, learners avoid using their native language and teachers occasionally, if ever, correct students’ mistakes.
Another typical feature of communicative language teaching is that “it gives planned emphasis on functional as well as structural features of language, combining these into a more completely communicative view” (Littlewood, 1981, p. 1). Teachers who espouse CLT move 29
beyond teaching structural rules of the target language, and create opportunities for learners to use the target language in a meaningful way. In doing so, they help their learners build up communicative competence.
Brown (2001), in describing the key principles of CLT, offers the following six characteristics:
1. Classroom goals are focused on all of the components (grammatical, discourse, functional, sociolinguistic, and strategic) of communicative competence. Goals therefore must intertwine the organizational aspects of language with the pragmatic.
2. Language techniques are designed to engage learners in the pragmatic, authentic, functional use of language for meaningful purposes. Organizational language forms are not the central focus, but rather aspects of language that enable learner to accomplish those purposes.
3. Fluency and accuracy are seen as complementary principles underlying communicative techniques. At times fluency may have to take on more importance than accuracy in order to keep learners meaningfully engaged in language use.
4. Students in a communicative class ultimately have to use language, productively and receptively, in unrehearsed contexts outside the classroom. Classroom tasks must therefore equip students with the skills necessary for communication in those contexts.
5. Students are given opportunities to focus on their own learning process through an understanding of their own styles of learning and through the development of appropriate strategies for autonomous learning.
6. The role of the teacher is that of facilitator and guide, not an all-knowing bestower of knowledge. Students are therefore encouraged to construct meaning through genuine linguistic interaction with others.
2.6.3. Classroom Activities in CLT
Communicative intent is always given a prime position in every CLT activity. In a communicative class, students are provided with opportunities to use the language a great deal through communicative activities. There are various classifications of activities that are typically found in a communicative language classroom. Paulston and Bruder (1976), for example, in their book Teaching English as a Second Language: Techniques and Procedures classified the activity types that they thought were of maximum benefit in enabling students to attain communicative competence into the four categories below:
1. Social Formulas and Dialogs: These cover such speech encounters as greetings, partings, introductions, excuses, compliments, complaints, hiding feelings, etc. It is actually very difficult to lie, to complain and to turn someone down for a date in another language, and the learners of a foreign language need to be taught how to get along with those situations in an appropriate manner (Paulston & Bruder, 1976).
2. Community Oriented Tasks: Those are sets of exercises which compel the student to interact with native speakers outside the classroom.
3. Problem-Solving Activities: The students are presented with a problem and some alternative solutions, from among which they have to choose one or create their own
4. Role Plays: In role plays, students are assigned a fictitious role. The students may even act out the role of themselves. The simplicity of role plays and the improvisation is a matter of student proficiency. Paulston and Bruder (1976) maintain that the teacher should attach importance to the format of the role play which consists of three basic components, whether or not it is a complex one. In the situation, the teacher clearly explains the scene and the plot of the role play, which is followed by the description of the task and the action to be accomplished. Then, the teacher assigns the roles, the list of characters, making sure that the roles are not too elaborate for the students to carry out. Useful expressions part contains the linguistic information, primarily expressions and phrases that will facilitate the acting out of the roles.
Celce-Murcia (1991) also examined the classroom activities that help learners develop their communication skills and grouped them under four basic headings for the ease of discussion:
1. Linguistically Structured Activities: These activities generally revolve around the presentation or the practice of certain linguistic structures. What she suggests is that although these activities are not inhibitive, they may pretty well turn out to be so unless they are contextualized and made meaningful. The structured interview, where the students question each other for factual information, thus exchanging real information; and language game can best exemplify useful linguistically structured activities.
2. Performance Activities: These are activities in which students prepare something beforehand and deliver their message to the class, which is or can be followed by a classroom discussion.
3. Participation Activities: In participation activities, students take part in some communicative activities in natural settings. Guided discussions, interviews, and oral dialogs best exemplify these types of activities. Here, the factor of authenticity arouses interest and motivation on the part of the learners, calling for a natural need to carry out what is expected by the activity.
4. Observation Activities: In observation activities, learners are expected to observe and/or record verbal and nonverbal interactions between two or more native speakers of the target language, which is of extreme benefit in that the students appreciate and become aware of the target language as it is actually used in real life.
Another possible distinction can be made between fluency and accuracy activities. It is mostly agreed that one of the goals of CLT is to develop fluency in language use. In Richard’s (2006) terms, “fluency is the natural language use occurring when a speaker engages in meaningful interaction and maintains comprehensible and ongoing communication despite limitations in his or her communicative competence”(p.14). He further suggests that in order to build up fluency, teachers should develop classroom activities in which students need to negotiate meaning, use communication strategies to avoid potential breakdowns in communication.
Richards (2006) highlights that activities focusing on fluency have the following features:
• They reflect natural use of language,
• They focus on achieving communication,
• They require meaningful use of language,
• They require the use of communication strategies,
• They produce language that may not be predictable,
• They seek to link language use to context
Finally, other activity types that are typically implemented in a CLT classroom can be listed as follow:
1. Information-gap activities: The concept of information gap is an important aspect of communication in a CLT classroom. This essentially is based on the fact that in their everyday lives people generally communicate in order to get information they do not possess. This is referred to as an information gap. If students can be involved in information gap activities in order to exchange unknown information in language classrooms, more authentic communication is likely to occur in the classroom. By doing so, they will draw available vocabulary, grammar, and communication strategies to complete a task.
2. Jigsaw activities: These activities are also based on the information-gap principle. The class is divided into groups and each group has part of the information needed to complete an activity. The class is supposed to fit the pieces together to complete the whole. In that way, they need to use their language resources to communicate meaningfully and so take part in meaningful communication practice.
3. Communication games: These games primarily involve information-gap activities which are intended to provoke communication in the classroom. The games are generally in the form of puzzles, drawing pictures and putting things given in the correct order.
4. Discussion and debates: Discussion and debates are of widely utilized activity types due to their low effort demanding nature of the teacher. Every now and then, an intimate atmosphere of discussion occurs in the classroom, however, when appropriately exploited, these discussions will undoubtedly end up in speaking opportunities of extreme worth, both in terms of language presentation and practice. Either encouraging competition or cooperation, which one to choose is a matter of familiarity with the students; the teacher may foster discussion over debate.
5. Prepared talks and oral presentations: These are the talks which are prepared by students about a specific topic and given in the class with the aim of persuading, informing students about a topic or just to entertain them.
2.6.4. Teachers and Students’ Roles in CLT Classroom
The learner-centered characteristic of CLT and the new type of classroom activities imply different roles in the language classroom for teachers and learners than from those found in more traditional second language classrooms. Learners in CLT classrooms are supposed to participate in classroom activities that are based on a collaborative rather than individualistic approach to learning. They are portrayed as active participants in the language learning process. Therefore, CLT alters the role of the teacher. Also, CLT as a methodology has much to do with interaction. It uses communication as a means to reach the goal, which is also communication. Accordingly, it would be wise to claim that teacher’s and students’ roles in CLT classroom have a dynamic feature, and thus they tend to vary all the time.
Breen and Candlin (1980), in defining the role of the teacher in CLT classroom, notes the following central roles:
The first role is to facilitate the communication process between all participants in the classroom, and between these participants and the various activities and texts. The second role is to act as an independent participant within the learning-teaching group. A third role of the teacher is that of a researcher and learner, with much to contribute in terms of appropriate knowledge and abilities, actual and observed experience of the nature of learning and organizational capacities.
This draws attention to a distinctive feature of CLT – that of a “learner-centered and experience-based view of second language teaching” (Richards & Rodgers, 1986, p. 69). It is thus advisable for teachers adopting a communicative approach to produce and use authentic teaching materials that meet the needs of their particular learners. Moreover, teachers need to motivate their students, as well as provide them with a comfortable classroom atmosphere for language learning. Littlewood (1981) states that the roles of teacher in CLT consist of, but are not limited to, coordinator and manager of activities, language instructor, source of new language, consultant when needed, as well as participant.
In addition, it is typical in a CLT classroom that it is not merely the teacher, but everyone present who manages the classroom performance. Allwright (1984) maintains that teachers can no longer be regarded simply as teachers and learners just as learners, since they both are managers of learning. The traditional image of the teacher as the dominating authority figure in the classroom is dissolved into such a role that necessitates facilitating the communicative process in the classroom where students feel safe, unthreatened and non-defensive.
Finally, Deckert (2004), referring to the student centered characteristic of CLT, emphasizes that “CLT approach features low profile teacher roles, frequent pair work or small group problem solving, students responding to authentic samples of English, extended exchanges on high interest topics, and the integration of the four basic skills, namely speaking, listening, reading, and writing” (p.13). He further states that CLT discourages pervasive teacher-controlled drills, quizzing of memorized material, and extensive explanation on forms of English.
3.1 Research Design
This study conducted a qualitative method. Qualitative research is concerned with has it’s roots in social science and more concerned with understanding why people behave as they do their knowledge, attitude, fears, beliefs, etc.
3.2 Population and sample
Population is represent entire/all subject research. Nawawi ( 2003) in Iskandar ( 2009 : 118) population is grand total of subject research which can be consisted of by the human being, object, animal, flora, symptom, assess the test or event as data source owning certain characteristic in a research. While according to Sudjana ( 2005 : 74) population is totality of all value which possible, result of counting/calculating or measurement, quantitative and also qualitative hit the certain characteristic from all clear and complete corps member is which wish learned by the nature
Population is the number of people or individual that has at least the same characteristics (Hadi, 1984). In this study, the population of the study includes all eight Grade of the SMPN 2 Labuapi in Academic Year 2011/2012. There are as the population and for observation the samples are 37 students consist of 2 classes in SMPN 2 Labuapi.
Sample is shares or proxy from accurate population ( Arikunto, 2006 : 87). While in big dictionary of Indonesian, sampel is an used by example of from the lion's share. While according to Sugiyono ( 2003 : 56) sampel is " some of amount and characteristic owned by population, As for becoming sampel of at this research is all eight Grade of SMPN 2 Labuapi, where there are 37 students consist of 2 classes.
The technique of collecting the data the writer use two type of collecting the data ,which area :
Arikunto (1998) defines interview as dialogue acted by interviewer in order to gain information from interviewer. Moleong in hafizoh (2004) argue the interview is conversation with current point. Interview aims to know the students’ interest in oral reason to learn speaking English and know how the teacher motivates their students in the class to learn speaking English .
In research, the writer used interview as one of the technique for collecting data in oral form to get information directly and also the writer used speaking English test.
In research, the writer used interview as one of the technique for collecting data in oral form to get information directly.
The technique of data analysis used in research is the descriptive qualitative method where data are collected from result of students’ test of speaking and interview to the English teacher. The result of test speaking can be decision for the writer to make speaking text in the form of short conversation. The speaking test based on students among on the question about the kind of speaking ability they are interested then the writer make a percentage degree as the result of students’ answer. (arikunto,1998)
Table 3.1. classification scores.
The above table means:
High : those students who are able to answer the test items between 75-100
Medium : those students who are able to answer the test items between 50-74
Low : those students who are able to answer the test items between 0-49
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